Q: What are the three thoracic outlet spaces? show answer
Female patient, she noticed oedema and numbness of left arm while combing her hair (elevation of the arm).
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Bilateral thoracic outlet syndrome with thrombosis of the left subclavian vein
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Bilatetal compression of the subclavian veins when the patient hyperabducts her arms, compression at the costoclavicular space, conditioned by the clavicle and the first rib.
On the left side an echogenic image is visualized with partial flow when seen with color Doppler, consistent with thrombus
Effort thrombosis, also known as Paget-Schroetter syndrome, is due to repetitive activity of the upper extremities with compression and thrombosis of the axillary-subclavian vein.
Any anatomical abnormality at the thoracic outlet and repetitive trauma are predisposing factors for its initiation.
This patient has bilateral thoracic outlet syndrome with a thrombus at the left subclavian vein, the costoclavicular space, which is anatomically limited superiorly by the clavicle, anteriorly by the subclavian muscle and posteriorly by the first rib and middle scalene muscle.
- Demondion, X., Herbinet, P., Van Sint Jan, S., Boutry, N., Chantelot, C., & Cotten, A. (2006). Imaging Assessment of Thoracic Outlet Syndrome 1. Radiographics, 26(6), 1735-1750.