Periosteal osteosarcoma

Case contributed by Dr Prashant Mudgal


Gradually increasing swelling and pain in the right leg for 5 months

Patient Data

Age: 20 years
Gender: Male

There is a large soft tissue mass in the right leg below the knee.

The right fibula shows extensive and aggressive long segment periosteal reaction along the proximal diaphysis which is perpendicular to the shaft, forming Codman triangle and extends perpendicularly from the inner cortex to the outer margin of the tumor. There is cortical erosion and cortical thickening suggestive of possible intramedullary extension.


Malignant periosteal reaction, Codman triangle, cortical erosion and thickening.  In view of the age of the patient, imaging features are suggestive of periosteal osteosarcoma. Differential diagnosis include a high grade surface osteosarcoma.

Open arrow shows Codman triangle (which is a characteristic, but not specific feature of periosteal osteosarcoma).

Case Discussion

Periosteal osteosarcoma is the second most common type of juxtacortical osteosarcoma after parosteal osteosarcoma accounting for 1.5% of all osteosarcomas. Patients typically present in the 2nd or 3rd decade of life, with a characteristic location along the diaphyses of long bones, most commonly the tibia.

The prognosis for periosteal osteosarcoma is better than other subtypes of osteosarcomas, but worse than parosteal osteosarcoma.

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Case information

rID: 27369
Published: 31st Jan 2014
Last edited: 10th Jul 2021
Tag: pm
Inclusion in quiz mode: Included

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