Post encephalitis gliosis

Case contributed by Dr Azza Elgendy

Presentation

Headache and menstrual irregularities. At the age of 10 years, patient had encephalitis and since then suffering from chronic seizures. No focal neurologic deficits.

Patient Data

Age: 3rd decade
Modality: MRI

Unilateral predominantly, frontal,insular and parietal cortical and subcortical atrophy. There is abnormal bright signals involving the frontal and parietal lobes consistent with encephalomalacia and gliosis. Ex-vaccuo dilation of the right ventricular system is also seen. 

Case Discussion

The patient doesn't have any prior imaging. She doesn't have any focal neurologic symptoms and absence of the wallarian degeneration or the crossed cerebellar diaschisis. She has a chronic seizures (the right hippocampus and almost all the temporal lobe are replaced by extensive encephalomalacia and gliosis). The anatomical distribution could mimic post herpetic encephalitis, Rasmussen encephalitis and Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome. DDMS is excluded because the patient had the encephalitis at the age of 10 and DDMS is a congenital occlusion of the MCA, here MCA is patent (intact flow void) and the patient doesn't have hemiplegia. Rasmussen encephalitis is a very rare unilateral encephalitis, predominately involving frontal, insular and  parietal regions with contralateral cerebellar volume loss (crossed cerebellar diaschisis). Herpetic encephalitis can affect any age group, classically involve limbic system, insula, sub frontal area, and cingulate gyrus. The case was read as post encephalitis gliosis as per patient history. The cystic lesion in the pituitary is not fully assessed due to the lack of the contrast and the proper protocol to differentiate Rathke's cleft cyst from different cystic sellar lesions.

 

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Case Information

rID: 34040
Case created: 2nd Feb 2015
Last edited: 12th Jan 2016
Inclusion in quiz mode: Included

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