Prostate cancer - staging
Citation, DOI & case data
Prostate cancer - radiation therapy planning. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA): 7.7 ng/mL.
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Quality: mild geometric distortion on DWI, does not compromise diagnostic confidence
Prostate size: 48 x 40 x 55 mm (CC x AP x ML) ≈55 mL, PSA density ~0.14 ng/mL2.
Peripheral zone (PZ): focal finding on the left as below, beyond that heterogeneous signal intensity
Focal lesion #1:
- location: left lobe, peripheral zone – apical to basal mainly posterolateral (anterior to posteromedial), visible on axial and sagittal images
- lesion size: 25 x 15 x 25 mm
- T2w: circumscribed, homogenous moderate hypointense with an indistinct margin of the pseudocapsule
- DWI: markedly hyperintense on DWI (b1000 and b1400) and markedly hypointense on ADC
- DCE: focal early enhancement - positive
Transition zone (TZ): moderate heterogeneity, multiple BPH nodules
Prostate margin: lesion #1 with broad capsular contact (>20 mm), irregular contour and bulge
Neurovascular bundles: probably involved
Seminal vesicles: there are signs of extension along the ejaculatory ducts into the seminal vesicles above the base of the prostate
Lymph nodes: no enlarged or suspicious lymph nodes
Pelvic bones: no signs of bony metastasis
Histologically proven prostate cancer, visible in the left peripheral zone (apical to basal, posteromedial to anterior) with broad capsular contact and capsular bulge.
MRI putative stage: cT3bN0Mx
4 case questions available
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- in T2 moderate hypointense left posteromedial and posterolateral peripheral zone with diffusion restriction and broad capsular contact and irregularity (red arrows)
- the indistinct margin of the pseudocapsule (green arrowhead)
- tumor extension along the ejaculatory ducts into the seminal vesicles above the base of the prostate (blue arrowheads).
Findings from the MRI of the prostate are illustrated on a map.
Histology of the US-guided systematic biopsy 4 months before the MRI showed a high-grade acinar adenocarcinoma (modified Gleason score 4+3=7b within five cores and 3+4=7a within one core) of the left lobe and a low-grade acinar adenocarcinoma (modified Gleason score 3+3=6) within one core taken from the right posteromedial mid gland. The five remaining biopsy cores were negative.
The results of the systematic biopsy are illustrated.
This case shows an already histologically proven prostate cancer.
Histology of the systematic biopsy taken 4 months earlier showed low-grade acinar adenocarcinoma (modified Gleason score 3+3=6) within one core taken from the right medial mid gland and intermediate and high-grade acinar adenocarcinoma (modified Gleason score 4+3=7b, high grade) in the samples from the left lobe. None of the samples showed capsular infiltration.
MRI was done for radiation therapy planning and staging purposes and suggests extraprostatic extension due to the broad capsular contact irregular contour and the capsular bulge.
There are signs of seminal vesicle invasion with extra-glandular tumor extension along the ejaculatory ducts above the base of the prostate.
The patient received intensity-modulated radiotherapy.
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