Scurvy

Case contributed by Dr Micheál Breen

Presentation

A 3-year-old male presented with a one-month history of limp and progressive refusal to bear weight. On physical examination, he was found to have a petechial rash and gingival bleeding.

Patient Data

Age: 3-year-old
Gender: Male
Modality: X-ray

There are metaphyseal abnormalities in the distal femur and the proximal and distal tibia characterized by sub-physeal horizontally oriented foci of lucency with inteveneing parallel bands of sclerosis. Although the overall mineralization appears within normal limits, there does appear to be periarticular demineralization.

MR of both lower extremities without and with contrast

Modality: MRI

There is bilateral diffuse abnormal marrow signal throughout the femoral and tibial metaphyses which is characterized by T2 hyperintensity and T1 hypointensity. Of note, these areas also demonstrate abnormal enhancement on the postcontrast images. There is no evidence of cortical disruption. However, abnormal signal and enhancement does extend along the sub-periosteum. Additional areas of abnormal soft tissue edema and post contrast enhancement surrounding the metaphyses are most notable surrounding the knees and ankles. Abnormal soft tissue signal involves the vastus medialis muscles bilaterally, and to a lesser extent the vastus lateralis and the short head of the biceps femoris muscle bilaterally. 

Case Discussion

The differential diagnosis for this appearance includes haematologic malignancies such as leukaemia and nutritional disorders. Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is considered less likely given the symmetry. Withheld history, in this case, is that this 3-year-old boy had a history of autism, sensory processing disorder and poor dietary intake consisting mainly of crackers, yoghurt and water. Blood tests showed no evidence of leukaemia however his ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) level was undetectable. A presumptive diagnosis of scurvy was made and the patient was treated with 1g ascorbic acid for 2 days followed by 100mg ascorbic acid three times a day. Iron, vitamin D and other nutritional supplementation was also commenced. The patient made a rapid symptomatic improvement and no further imaging was obtained.

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Case Information

rID: 40593
Case created: 27th Oct 2015
Last edited: 28th Dec 2015
Inclusion in quiz mode: Included

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