Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis
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At the time the case was submitted for publication Ammar Haouimi had no recorded disclosures.View Ammar Haouimi's current disclosures
Primary measles infection at the age of 4 months. Presented with a history of progressive ataxia with seizures.
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Low signal T1 and high signal T2 and FLAIR of the brainstem and middle cerebellar peduncles with no enhancement on postcontrast sequences. Restricted diffusion within the lesions of the middle cerebellar peduncles with mild cerebellar volume loss.
Cerebral volume loss with no abnormal signal of the basal ganglia or white matter at the supratentorial level.
The clinical presentation and the MRI features are most consistent with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (in this case, the CSF analysis was positive for anti-measles antibodies).
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE), also known as Dawson disease, is a rare chronic, progressive and fatal encephalitis that affects primarily children and young adults, caused by a persistent infection of immune resistant measles virus.