Tension pneumothorax

Case contributed by Dr Julian L. Wichmann

Presentation

Sudden left thoracic pain spreading to the left arm. Although pneumothorax was suspected, the patient was transferred for a complete triple-rule-out-CT.

Patient Data

Age: 30 years
Gender: Male
CT

CT Scout + axial lung window images

A large left tension pneumothorax clear on the scout image. The heart is displaced to the right. The planned triple-rule-out protocol was aborted, an unenhanced scan of the thorax was performed and the patient was immediately transferred to the emergency department for tube thoracostomy.

X-ray

X-ray images after placement of thoracic drain

Post-placement of chest tube shows a good inflation of the left lung with no residual pneumothorax. Extensive ipsilateral subcutaneous emphysema. 

Case Discussion

This case of a sudden onset of a tension pneumothorax in an otherwise healthy young male demonstrates the necessity to look for the obvious pathology. Although the patient complained about pain in the left chest radiating to the left arm, acute myocardial infarction is less likely than a pneumothorax, especially in this young patient with no history of heart disease.

As the patient was >2.0 m in height, aortic dissection due to undetected Marfan diease was also suspected by the radiologist and should be considered in the differential diagnoses for this case. Marfan disease is also a risk factor for pneumothorax.

As the vital signs were stable, the patient was immediately transferred to the emergency department for tube thoracostomy rather than performing an emergency needle thoracocentesis.

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Case information

rID: 25861
Case created: 12th Nov 2013
Last edited: 16th Oct 2017
System: Chest
Inclusion in quiz mode: Included

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