History of urinary tract infection.
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CT scans through the kidneys show a staghorn calculus in an enlarged left kidney with low attenuation cystic spaces. Left perinephric inflammatory change. No ureteric calculus. No perinephric collection.
Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis associated with long-term obstruction is uncommon. Like in this case, it typically occurs in the presence of a staghorn calculus.