Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

284 results found
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Gadobenate dimeglumine

Gadobenate dimeglumine (also known as MultiHanceTM) is an extracellular intravenous contrast agent used in magnetic resonance imaging. linear, ionic molecule  95-96% renal excretion, 4-5% hepatic excretion T1 relaxivity @ 1.5 T: 6.0-6.6 concentration: 0.5 mmol/ml recommended dosage: 0.1 mmo...
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Gadobutrol

Gadobutrol (also known as Gadovist/GadavistTM) is an extracellular intravenous contrast agent used in magnetic resonance imaging. cyclic, nonionic molecule  100% renally excreted T1 relaxivity @ 1.5 T: 4.9-5.5 (slightly higher than other extracellular contrast agents) concentration: 1.0 mmol...
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Gadodiamide

Gadodiamide (also known as OmniscanTM) is an extracellular intravenous contrast agent used in magnetic resonance imaging. linear, nonionic molecule  100% renally excreted T1 relaxivity @ 1.5 T: 4.0-4.6 concentration: 0.5 mmol/ml recommended dosage: 0.1 mmol/kg Indications As an extracellu...
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Gadofosveset trisodium

Gadofosveset trisodium (also known as AblavarTM or VasovistTM) is an intravenous blood pool contrast agent used in magnetic resonance imaging. It was designed as an agent for contrast-enhanced MR angiography since it exhibits strong binding to plasma proteins, thus remaining in the blood stream...
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Gadolinium

Gadolinium (Gd) is a metallic element (atomic number 64) that can be chelated into paramagnetic agents that are injected intravenously during MR imaging. The gadolinium ion is useful as an MRI agent because it has seven unpaired electrons, which is the greatest number of unpaired electron spins...
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Gadopentetate dimeglumine

Gadopentetate dimeglumine (also known as MagnevistTM) is an extracellular intravenous contrast agent used in magnetic resonance imaging. linear, ionic molecule  100% renally excreted T1 relaxivity @ 1.5 T: 3.9-4.3 concentration: 0.5 mmol/ml recommended dosage: 0.1 mmol/kg Indications As a...
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Gadoterate meglumine

Gadoterate meglumine (also known by the tradename DotaremTM) is an intravenous extracellular MRI contrast agent. cyclic, ionic molecule  100% renally excreted T1 relaxivity @ 1.5 T: 3.4-3.8 (slightly lower than other extracellular contrast agents) concentration: 0.5 mmol/ml recommended dosa...
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Gadoteridol

Gadoteridol (also known as ProHanceTM) is an extracellular intravenous contrast agent used in magnetic resonance imaging. cyclic, nonionic molecule  100% renally excreted T1 relaxivity @ 1.5 T: 3.9-4.3 concentration: 0.5 mmol/ml recommended dosage: 0.1 mmol/kg Indications As an extracellu...
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Gadoversetamide

Gadoversetamide (also known as OptiMARKTM) is an extracellular intravenous contrast agent used in magnetic resonance imaging. linear, nonionic molecule  100% renally excreted T1 relaxivity @ 1.5 T: 4.4-5.0 concentration: 0.5 mmol/ml recommended dosage: 0.1 mmol/kg Indications As an extrac...
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Gadoxetate disodium

Gadoxetate disodium (also known by the tradenames PrimovistTM and EovistTM) is a hepatospecific paramagnetic gadolinium-based contrast agent, used exclusively in MRI liver imaging. Its chief use is in hepatic lesion characterisation, i.e. assessing focal liver lesions identified on other imaging...
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Gage sign

Gage sign is a V-shaped lucent defect at the lateral portion of the epiphysis and/or adjacent metaphysis. It is pathognomonic to Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. It may occur early in the disease and is one of the  five indicators of a worse prognosis, which are: Gage sign  calcification lateral t...
Article

Galactocoele

Galactocoeles are the most common benign breast lesion (BIRADS II) that typically occur in young lactating women; however they mostly occur on cessation of lactation 1. They are also sometimes referred to as a lactocoele. Clinical presentation Patients typically present with a painless breast ...
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Galassi classification of middle cranial fossa arachnoid cysts

The Galassi classification of middle cranial fossa arachnoid cysts​ is used to classify arachnoid cysts in the middle cranial fossa, which account for 50-60% of all arachnoid cysts 1. Galassi et al published this classification in 1982, and at the time of writing (June 2016) it remains the most ...
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Galaxy sign

The so-called galaxy sign, initially described as the sarcoid galaxy, represents a coalescent granuloma seen in a minority of patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis 1. The same appearance can be seen in tuberculosis 2,3. In other words, it represents a mass-like region composed of numerous smaller ...
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Galea aponeurotica

The galea aponeurotica (also called the epicranial aponeurosis) is a tough fibrous band that extends over the cranium. Gross anatomy Attachments anteriorly: frontalis posteriorly: occipitalis occipital protruberance and the occipital bone laterally: the auricular muscles Related patholo...
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Galeazzi and Monteggia fracture-dislocations (mnemonic)

There are several mnemonics for the difference between a Galeazzi and a Monteggia fracture-dislocation: GRIMUS MUGR (pronounced mugger) FROG GRUesome MURder It is useful to note that it is the head of the non-fractured bone that is dislocated. Mnemonics GRIMUS GRIMUS helps to remember wh...
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Galeazzi fracture-dislocation

Galeazzi fracture-dislocations consist of fracture of the distal part of the radius with dislocation of distal radioulnar joint and an intact ulna. A Galeazzi equivalent fracture is a distal radial fracture with a distal ulnar physeal fracture 2. Epidemiology Galeazzi fractures are primarily e...
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Gallbladder

The gallbladder is a pear-shaped musculomembranous sac, lodged in a fossa on the under surface of the right lobe of the liver, and extending from near the right extremity of the porta hepatis to the anterior border of the liver.  Gross anatomy It typically measures from 7 to 10 cm in length an...
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Gallbladder agenesis

Agenesis of the gallbladder is a rare congenital anomaly. Epidemiology The incidence is <0.1% (range 0.04-0.1%). There is strong female predominance present among the symptomatic cases. Clinical presentation Most patients with agenesis of the gallbladder are asymptomatic. Although some pa...
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Gallbladder carcinoma

Gallbladder carcinomas are usually asymptomatic until they reach an incurable stage. As such, early incidental detection is important, if the occasional patient is to be successfully treated. The majority (90%) are adenocarcinomas, and the remainder are squamous cell carcinomas.  Epidemiology ...
Article

Gallbladder duplication

Gallbladder duplication is a rare anatomic anomaly characterised by the presence of an accessory gallbladder. There is no increased risk for malignancy or calculi compared to a single gallbladder 2. Epidemiology Prevalence is estimated at 1 in 3000.  Classification Boyden's classification di...
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Gallbladder empyema

Gallbladder empyema (suppurative cholecystitis1) is an uncommon complication of cholecystitis and refers to a situation where the gallbladder lumen is filled and distended by purulent material (pus). Epidemiology There is an increased incidence in those with diabetes 2 and/or advanced atherosc...
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Gallbladder ghost triad

Gallbladder ghost triad is a term used on ultrasound studies when there is a combination of three gallbladder features on biliary atresia: atretic gallbladder, length less than 19 mm irregular or lobular contour  lack of smooth/complete echogenic mucosal lining with an indistinct wall
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Gallbladder hydrops

Gallbladder hydrops refers to marked dilatation of the gallbladder due to chronic obstruction of the cystic duct results in accumulation of the sterile non pigmented mucin. Clinical presentation Abdominal pain with palpable gall bladder without any signs of infection. In an asymptomatic patien...
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Gallbladder perforation

Gallbladder perforations are a relatively rare complication that can occur in some situations but occurs most frequent as a result of acute cholecystitis. It can carry a relatively high mortality rate. It can also occur during laparoscopic cholecystectomies with the incidence of gallbladder perf...
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Gallbladder polyp

Gallbladder polyps are elevated lesions on the mucosal surface of the gallbladder. The vast majority are benign, but malignant entities are possible. Gallbladder polyps may be detected on ultrasound, CT, or MRI, but are usually best characterized on ultrasound. Epidemiology Gallbladder polyps ...
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Gallbladder sludge

Gallbladder sludge (also known as biliary sand, biliary sediment, or thick bile) is a mixture of particulate matter and bile, normally seen as a liquid-liquid level in the  gallbladder on ultrasound, corresponding to the precipitate of bile solutes 1.  These precipitates consist of cholesterol ...
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Gallbladder triplication

Gallbladder triplication is an extremely rare anomaly. There are three types of gallbladder triplication are described according to the number of cystic duct and their insertion: Three gallbladders and three cystic ducts which unite to form a common cystic duct before joining the CBD. Two cyst...
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Gallbladder volvulus

Gallbladder volvulus is a relatively rare condition in which there is a rotation of gallbladder around the axis of cystic duct and artery. Clinical presentation Symptoms are nonspecific, however right upper quadrant pain, fever and vomiting are suggestive of gallbladder colic. Laboratory evalu...
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Gallium 67 scintigraphy

Gallium 67 is a radiotracer which is used in the form of various salts like citrate and nitrate. Gamma camera imaging includes planar (2 dimensional) , SPECT and SPECT/CT scans. It has a predilection to sites of inflammation. It binds to inflammatory proteins and thus it pools up at the sites of...
Article

Gallstone ileus

Gallstone ileus is an uncommon cause of a mechanical small bowel obstruction (SBO). It is a rare complication of chronic cholecystitis 7 and occurs when a gallstone passes into the small bowel and usually impacts at the ileocaecal valve.  Epidemiology Although overall gallstone ileus is an unc...
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Gallstone pancreatitis

Gallstone pancreatitis refers to pancreatitis caused by gallstones, specifically distal choledocholithiasis. Gallstones is the cause for 35-40% of acute pancreatitis but this number has a wide regional variance.  Epidemiology Gallstone pancreatitis has a higher incidence in women (compared to ...
Article

Gamekeeper thumb

Gamekeeper thumb is essentially synonymous with skier thumb, although the latter has a more acute injury connotation. It is an avulsion or rupture of the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) of the thumb.  Epidemiology The repetitive breaking-of-necks of small game (rabbits and such) resulted in ch...
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Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) peak

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is one of the compounds examined in MR spectroscopy and is the principle inhibitory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system 1. It resonates at approximately 2.2-2.4 ppm chemical shift overlapping the peaks of glutamate and glutamine 1-3. It is not routinely ...
Article

Gangliocytoma

Gangliocytomas are rare benign (WHO grade I) CNS tumours which differ from gangliogliomas by the absence of neoplastic glial cells. Both tumours are defined by the presence of displaced ganglion cells (large mature neurons that show cytological or architectural abnormalities).  On imaging these...
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Ganglioglioma

Gangliogliomas are uncommon usually low grade (WHO Grade I) CNS tumours. They are, however, the most frequent of the neuronal-glial CNS neoplasms. Epilepsy is a common clinical presentation and this tumour has a typical occurrence in the temporal lobes, although they have been described in all p...
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Ganglion cyst

Ganglion cysts are non-malignant cystic masses that occur in association with musculoskeletal structures 6. They are sometimes also simply referred to as ganglia or a ganglion, but should not be confused with the anatomical term ganglion. Epidemiology They occur more commonly in young women (e...
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Ganglioneuroma

Ganglioneuromas are fully differentiated neuronal tumours that do not contain immature elements and potentially occur anywhere along the peripheral autonomic ganglion sites.  On imaging, usually, they present as well-defined solid masses and can be quite large at presentation. Generally, they a...
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Gangrenous cholecystitis

Gangrenous cholecystitis is a rare and severe complication of acute cholecystitis. Radiographic features Characteristic imaging features include: intraluminal membranes overdistenion of the gallbladder focal irregularity in gallbladder wall absence of mural enhancement pericholecystic abs...
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Garden classification of hip fractures

The Garden classification of proximal femoral fractures is the most widely used, and is useful as it is both simple and predicts the development of AVN. Garden stage I : undisplaced incomplete, including valgus impacted fractures. Garden stage II : undisplaced complete Garden stage III : comp...
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Gardner syndrome

Gardner syndrome is one of the polyposis syndromes. It is characterised by: familial adenopolyposis (FAP) multiple osteomas especially of the mandible, skull and long bones epidermal cysts fibromatoses desmoid tumours of mesentery and anterior abdominal wall  Other abnormalities include: ...
Article

Garland triad

Garland triad, also known as the 1-2-3 sign or Pawnbrokers sign, is a lymph node enlargement pattern which has been described in sarcoidosis: right paratracheal nodes right hilar nodes left hilar nodes Hilar lymphadenopathy is symmetrical and usually massive. These so-called potato nodes don...
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Gartner duct cyst

Gartner duct cysts develop from embryologic remnants of the Wolffian (mesonephric) duct. They are often noticed incidentally on ultrasound or MRI. Clinical presentation They may cause mass effect on adjacent structures. Pathology Location Gartner duct cysts are located in the anterolateral ...
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Gas in the urinary bladder

There numerous causes of gas in the bladder. In the hospital setting by far the most common is the recent placement of an indwelling urinary catheter. Other causes include: iatrogenic IDC by far the most common cause cystoscopy etc... emphysematous cystitis intraluminal and intramural gas ...
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Gasless abdomen

A specific cause of the gasless abdomen can usually be made when the patient's history is known. Common causes include: small bowel obstruction bowel ischaemia congenital atresia ascites pancreatitis large abdominal mass - due to dsplacement
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Gastric adenocarcinoma

Gastric adenocarcinoma, commonly referred to as gastric cancer, refers to a primary malignancy arising from the gastric epithelium. It is the most common gastric malignancy.  Epidemiology Gastric cancer is rare before the age of 40, but its incidence steadily climbs after that and peaks in the...
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Gastric antral valvular ectasia

Gastric antral valvular ectasia (GAVE), also known as watermelon stomach, is a rare condition affecting the stomach. It is one of the diagnosis to consider in older patients with severe anaemia and occult or profuse gastrointestinal bleeding (especially in those with cardiac, liver, or renal dis...
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Gastric antral web

Gastric antral webs are a ring of mucosa in the distal stomach (gastric antrum) that can lead to gastric outlet obstruction. A circumferential ring of mucosa has also been termed a "gastric antral diaphragm". Epidemiology Gastric antral webs are rare. There is an association with tri...
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Gastric band

A gastric band is a surgically placed device, used to assist in weight loss. It is now the most popular form of bariatric surgery, largely replacing gastric bypass procedures 1. Performed laparoscopically, a silicone band device is placed around the stomach to reduce its volume. The band is adj...
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Gastric band malposition

Gastric band malposition is an early complication from laparoscopic gastric band procedures which are performed for obesity. It can occur as in isolation or with other gastric band complications. As surgical experience of lap gastric banding has accumulated, it has become a relatively rare comp...
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Gastric band slippage

Gastric band slippage is a late complication of laparoscopic gastric banding surgery performed for obesity. It is reported to occur in 4-13% of cases 1-3. It can occur in either an anterior or posterior direction. Clinical presentation Patients can present with cessation of weight loss, sever...
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Gastric band erosion

Gastric band erosion or penetration is a potentially serious complication following laparoscopic gastric band surgery for obesity.  Epidemiology Gastric band erosion is a delayed complication observed in between 0.3-14% of patients 1-2. Clinical presentation Patients often present non-specif...
Article

Gastric diverticulum

Gastric diverticula are sac-like projections that usually originate from the gastric fundus, most commonly on the posterior surface. They are the least common gastrointestinal diverticulum.  Epidemiology Gastric diverticula are rare and commonly detected incidentally. The incidence varies from...
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Gastric duplication cyst

A gastric duplication cyst is a rare congenital foregut duplication cyst affecting the stomach. It accounts for less than 10% of all gastrointestinal duplications. The most common site of gastrointestinal tract duplication cysts (GTDC's) are the ileum, followed by oesophagus, large bowel and jej...
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Gastric emphysema

Gastric emphysema, referring to the presence of gas in the wall of the stomach is a relatively rare imaging finding 1. The stomach is the least common location for intramural gas in the gastrointestinal tract.  Differential diagnosis There is a wide range of causes, ranging from life-threateni...
Article

Gastric lipoma

Gastric lipomas are a location-specific subtype of gastrointestinal lipomas and represent a rare benign mesenchymal tumours of the stomach. They can be definitively diagnosed on CT.  Epidemiology Gastric lipomas are rare, accounting for <5% of gastrointestinal lipomas and <1% of all gast...
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Gastric lymph node stations

Gastric lymph node stations were originally divided into 16 groups proposed by the Japanese Research Society for Gastric Cancer in 1963. Gross anatomy The areas of stomach which drain into regional lymph nodes: cardia and proximal lesser curvature drain into left gastric lymph nodes, then int...
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Gastric lymphoma

Gastric lymphoma may either represent secondary involvement by systemic disease or primary malignancy confined to the stomach.  Epidemiology  Gastric lymphoma represents the most common site of extranodal lymphoma, accounting for 25% of all such lymphomas, 50% of all gastrointestinal lymphomas...
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Gastric metastases

Gastric metastases are rare, found in less than 2% of patients who die of a carcinoma 6. Pathology Gastric metastases usually are haematogenous metastases, but stomach may be involved less frequently by the lymphatic spread or by direct extension of tumour from neighbouring structures or mesen...
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Gastric outlet obstruction

Gastric outlet obstruction is a syndrome resulting from mechanical obstruction of stomach emptying. Pathology Aetiology Gastric outlet obstruction can be due to malignant or benign causes. Malignant adenocarcinoma (second most common 4) GIST lymphoma (less commonly than other malignancies...
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Gastric polyps

Gastric polyps are uncommon findings, even on endoscopy where they are encountered in only 2-6% of patients.  Pathology There are a number of gastric polyp subtypes 1-3: non-neoplastic polyps hamartomatous polyps Peutz-Jeghers syndrome juvenile polyposis syndrome Cowden syndrome hyperpla...
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Gastric tumour staging (TNM)

Gastric cancer staging is routinely performed using the TNM staging system. This article is based on the 7th edition of the TNM classification of malignant tumours. TNM staging (7th edition) T T1 T1a: tumour invades the lamina propria and or muscularis mucosae  T1b: tumour invades submucosa...
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Gastric volvulus

Gastric volvulus is a specific type of volvulus that occurs when the stomach twists on its mesentery. It should be at least 180 and causes bowel obstruction to be called gastric volvulus and merely gastric rotation on its root is not considered gastric volvulus. Clinical presentation Patients ...
Article

Gastrinoma

Gastrinomas are the second most common pancreatic endocrine tumour and the most common type in the setting of multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN I). Epidemiology Most gastrinomas are sporadic, although some are seen in the setting of multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN I). In genera...
Article

Gastrinoma triangle

The gastrinoma triangle is an anatomical area in the abdomen, from where the majority (90%) of gastrinomas are thought to arise.  Gross anatomy Boundaries The triangle is formed by joining the following three points: superiorly: confluence of the cystic and common bile ducts   inferiorly: j...
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Gastro-oesophageal junction

The gastro-oesophageal junction (GOJ) (also known as the oesophagogastric junction) is the part of the gastrointestinal tract where the oesophagus and stomach are joined. Gross anatomy The GOJ is normally mostly intra-abdominal and is 3-4 cm in length. To some extent, the oesophagus slides in ...
Article

Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease

Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is a spectrum of disease that occurs when gastric acid refluxes from the stomach into the lower end of the oesophagus across the lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS). Pathology Minor reflux disease In most patients with reflux disease, reflux is initiated...
Article

Gastrocnemius muscle

The gastrocnemius muscle is one of the posterior calf muscles (triceps surae) and sits superificial to the much larger soleus muscle. It gives the calf its distinctive two-headed appearance and is a primary plantarflexor. Summary origin: superior to articular surfaces of lateral and medial fem...
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Gastroduodenal artery

The gastroduodenal artery (GDA) is a branch of the common hepatic artery. Gross anatomy The GDA is a terminal branch of the common hepatic artery along with the proper hepatic artery. It passes inferiorly behind the 1st part of the duodenum and bifurcates into: right gastroepiploic artery r...
Article

Gastrointenstinal amyloidosis

Gastrointestinal amyloidosis is relatively common, although symptomatic involvement is more rare. It is diagnosed if there is persistent gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms with endoscopic biopsy proven amyloid deposition. Epidemiology Tends to affect middle-aged and older patients.  Clinical pres...
Article

Gastrointestinal angiodysplasia

Gastrointestinal angiodysplasias or angioectasias are one of the most common causes of occult gastrointestinal bleeding. Clinical presentation Patients can present with symptoms and signs upper or lower gastrointestinal bleeding although they can commonly be an incidental finding.  Epidemiolo...
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Gastrointestinal cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection

Cytomegalovirus infection of the gastrointestinal tract is usually seen in patients who are severely immunocompromised, such as solid organ transplantation and is common in HIV/AIDS, and is in fact the most common gastrointestinal manifestation of AIDS 1-2.  Epidemiology Approximately 30% of a...
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Gastrointestinal MRI contrast agents

Gastrointestinal MRI contrast agents are varied and can be either positive or negative agents. Acceptance of the use of MR in abdominal imaging has been limited in part by difficulty in distinguishing bowel from intraabdominal masses and normal organs. The use of enteric contrast agents can aid ...
Article

Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumours

Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumours (GI NETS) can be functional or non-functional: functional NETS can be challenging to localise as:  they are often small in size at the time of diagnosis  arise in many sites throughout the body non-functioning and/or malignant NETs often are larger at ...
Article

Gastrointestinal nodular lymphoid hyperplasia

Gastrointestinal nodular lymphoid hyperplasia is a type of nodular lymphoid hyperplasia that can be found elsewhere in the body. It is formed out of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), and most often is a diagnostic dilemma for radiologists in the stomach and terminal ileum. Pathology Gut-a...
Article

Gastrointestinal schwannoma

A gastrointestinal schwannoma is an extremely rare mesenchymal neoplasm which arises in relation to the gastrointestinal tract. Epidemiology They are reported to typically present at about the 3rd to 5th decades of life 4. Clinical presentation Patients are often asymptomatic but may occasio...
Article

Gastrointestinal string sign

The gastrointestinal string sign (string sign of Kantour) refers to the string-like appearance of a contrast-filled bowel loop caused by severe narrowing of a bowel loop. Originally used to describe the reversible narrowing caused by spasms in Crohn disease, it is now used for any severe narrow...
Article

Gastrointestinal stromal tumour

Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal tumours of the gastrointestinal tract. They account for ~5% of all sarcomas. They respond remarkably well to chemotherapy.  Terminology Previously these tumours have been variably referred to as leiomyomas, leiomyosarcomas...
Article

Gastrointestinal tract

The gastrointestinal tract includes any part of the oral cavity, oropharynx, oesophagus, stomach, small bowel, colon, rectum and anal canal. 
Article

Gastrointestinal tract lipomas

Gastrointestinal tract (GIT) lipomas are not common and can be found anywhere along the entire length of the gastrointestinal tract.  Epidemiology GIT lipomas are most frequently encountered between the ages to 50 and 70 3. Clinical presentation The majority of lipomas are asymptomatic and f...
Article

Gastrointestinal tuberculosis

Gastrointestinal tuberculosis refers to the infection of abdominal organs with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It generally affects the following organs: ileocaecum (terminal ileum and caecum): most commonly due to abundance of lymphoid tissue 1 colon liver spleen peritoneum lymph nodes A poi...
Article

Gastroschisis

Gastroschisis refers to extra-abdominal herniation (evisceration) of fetal or neonatal bowel loops (and occasionally portions or the stomach and or liver) into the amniotic cavity through a para-umbilical abdominal wall defect.   Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at around 1-6 per 10,000...
Article

Gastrosplenic ligament

The gastrosplenic ligament is a peritoneal ligament which is formed by ventral part of dorsal mesentery. Gross anatomy The gastrosplenic ligament extends from the greater curvature of the stomach to the hilum of the spleen. It contains the short gastric arteries. Related anatomy During porta...
Article

Gaucher disease

Gaucher disease (GD) is the most common lysosomal storage disease in humans and the most common genetic disease among Ashkenazi Jews. It is a genetic multisystem disease arising from a deficiency of glucocerebrosidase activity, resulting in accumulation of a glycolipid (glucocerebroside) within ...
Article

Gd-DTPA labeled albumin

Gd-DTPA labeled albumin is an intravascular MRI contrast agent. Gd-DTPA is covalently bonded to albumin in ratios from 16:1 to 31:1 providing excellent enhancement of liver, spleen, myocardium, brain, and slow moving blood of rats and rabbits. The albumin has a molecular weight of about 92,000 a...
Article

Gd-DTPA labeled dextran

Gd-DTPA labeled dextran is an intravascular MRI contrast agent. Dextran is a polysaccharide consisting of a polymer of glucose molecules with a molecular weight between 75,000-100,000. Dextran has a high level of safety and is broken down more rapidly than albumin. Approximately 15 Gd-DTPA molec...
Article

Gel bleed in breast implants

Gel bleed is a phenomenon associated with silicone breast implants. Pathology Gel bleed refers to microscopic diffusion of silicone gel through the breast implant elastomer shell. The implant shell, made of silicone, is a semipermeable membrane that allows for the egress or bleed of silicone n...
Article

Gelatinous marrow transformation

Gelatinous marrow transformation, also know as serous atrophy of the marrow, refers to a marrow disorder that occurs with chronic illness and poor nutritional status.  It is characterized by atrophy of the fatty marrow and loss of hematopoietic cells, replaced by extracellular gelatinous substan...
Article

Gemistocytic astrocytoma

Gemistocytic astrocytoma is a histologic subtype of low grade astrocytoma, with a poorer prognosis than other matched WHO grade tumours, and with no specific imaging features.  For a general discussion of clinical presentation, epidemiology, treatment please refer to the article on low grade as...
Article

Genant classification of vertebral fractures

The Genant classification of vertebral fractures​ is based on the vertebral shape, with respect to vertebral height loss involving the anterior, posterior, and/or middle vertebral body. grade 0: normal grade 1: mild fracture, 20% to 25% loss of height grade 2: moderate fracture, 25% to 40% lo...
Article

Gene expression classifier

A gene expression classifier (GEC) test is a developing technology in the pathologic analysis of thyroid nodules, using tissue from a fine needle aspiration. The test is designed to help classify "indeterminate" thyroid nodules, and therefore avoid surgery for indeterminate nodules th...
Article

General overview of Radiopaedia org

Radiopaedia.org is a rapidly growing open-edit radiology resource primarily compiled by radiologists and radiology residents/registrars and fellows from across the globe. The site aims to create the best radiology reference available, and to make it available for free, forever and for all. It i...
Article

General surgery curriculum (student)

The medical student radiology general surgery curriculum covers a set of pathological processes and presentations that are common in general surgery placements.

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