Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

475 results found
Article

I-123 Ioflupane

I123 Ioflupane is a radiopharmaceutical for the diagnosis of Parkinson disease and its differential diagnoses. Characteristics iodine-123 is a cyclotron product physical half-life is 13.22 hours predominant energy of its gamma spectrum is 159 keV Ioflupane is the international nonproprietar...
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I-131

I-131​ (or 131I) is a radioisotope used in the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid lesions. It is one of the oldest radiotracers used in nuclear medicine, in use for over 50 years. It is predominately used in thyroid ablation therapy, for patients post thyroidectomy, and for metastatic thyroid ca...
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Ice pick sign

The ice pick sign is a smooth tapered narrowing of the upstream pancreatic duct distal to the pancreatic lesion seen frequently in benign pancreatic lesions such as a focal autoimmune pancreatitis, this is due to the extrinsic narrowing of the duct secondary to periductal fibrosis and inflammati...
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Ice-cream cone sign

The ice cream cone sign may refer to: the appearance of the malleus head and the incus body on axial CT scan: failure of this normal configuration suggests incudomalleolar dysarticulation. Ball of the ice cream is formed by the head of malleus and cone is formed by the body of the incus. Space ...
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Ichikado CT scoring of acute respiratory distress syndrome

CT scoring systems have been proposed in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) to predict clinical outcomes. This scoring system was established by Ichikado et al. in 2006 2 and at the time of writing (July 2016), this is the most widely used CT scoring system. Classification...
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Idiopathic dilatation of the pulmonary trunk

Idiopathic dilatation of the pulmonary trunk is a rare congenital anomaly comprising of pulmonary trunk enlargement with or without dilatation of the right and left pulmonary arteries. For this diagnosis, exclusion of pulmonary and cardiac diseases (mainly pulmonary valve stenosis) and confirma...
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Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy

Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy is a subtype of dilated cardiomyopathy. It is a type of non ischaemic cardiomyopathy where no underlying cause can be found. Epidemiology This form of cardiomyopathy may account for up to 50% of all dilated cardiomyopathies 4. Patients usually ranging around 2...
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Idiopathic eosinophilic oesophagitis

Idiopathic eosinophilic oesophagitis is a cause of dysphagia, most commonly seen in males aged 20-40. On a barium swallow, there is a distinctive stricture seen with ring-like indentations.
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Idiopathic giant bullous emphysema

Idiopathic giant bullous emphysema, also known as vanishing lung syndrome (VLS), is characterised by giant emphysematous bullae, which commonly develop in the upper lobes and occupy at least one-third of a hemithorax. It is a progressive condition that is also associated with several forms of em...
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Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome

Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (IHES) is a leukoproliferative disorder and refers to a situation when there is an unexplained prolonged eosinophilia with associated organ system dysfunction. The condition can affect several organ systems which includes: heart: cardiac involvement in idio...
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Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (mnemonic)

Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) are diffuse interstitial lung diseases of unknown cause. A useful mnemonic for the American Thoracic Society-European Respiratory Society (ATS/ERS) classification of IIPs is: All Idiopathic Chronic Lung Disease aRe Nonspecifically Patterned The mnemoni...
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Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias

Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) are diffuse interstitial lung diseases of unknown cause. They are characterized by cellular infiltration of the interstitial compartment of the lung with varying degrees of inflammation and fibrosis. Classification For many years many attempts have bee...
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Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: HRCT chest approach

The approach to HRCT chest in patients with suspected idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) is with the aim to: make sure an appropriate study requested i.e. HRCT chest with optimal individually adjusted protocol and ensure adequacy of the HRCT chest quality (see imaging protocol below) meti...
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Idiopathic intracranial hypertension

Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), also historically known as pseudotumour cerebri, is a syndrome with signs and symptoms of increased intracranial pressure but where a causative mass or hydrocephalus is not identified. Terminology The older term benign intracranial hypertension is ge...
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Idiopathic pauci immune pulmonary capillaritis

Idiopathic pauci immune pulmonary capillaritis (IPIPC) is considered a rare type of pulmonary vasculitis. Some authors consider this due be an organ specific subset of microscopic polyangiitis 3. It can result in diffuse alveolar haemorrhage. Pathology It is an isolated small vessel vasculitis...
Article

Idiopathic pneumonia syndrome

Idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS) refers to diffuse lung injury which can occur following haematopeotic stem cell transplantation where neither an infectious nor non-infectious aetiology can be found. Epidemiology The incidence of IPS is thought to be around 12% following haematopoetic stem ...
Article

Idiopathic portal hypertension

Idiopathic portal hypertension (noncirrhotic portal hypertension or Banti syndrome) is a term that has been given to portal hypertension occurring without hepatic cirrhosis, parasitic infection, or portal venous thrombosis. Epidemiology Rare condition. More common in India and Japan. Patholog...
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Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension is uncommon, representing only a tiny fraction of all cases of pulmonary arterial hypertension, which has a very long list of secondary causes (see causes of pulmonary arterial hypertension). Terminology Older terms for this entity include primary pul...
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Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a clinical syndrome and considered the most common and the most lethal form of pulmonary fibrosis corresponding to the histologic and imaging pattern of UIP. It is more common in middle age or elderly men and diagnosed by:  histological or imaging pattern ...
Article

Idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis

Idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis (IPH) is an uncommon form of pulmonary haemosiderosis. It is characterised by the triad of haemoptysis iron deficiency anemia diffuse pulmonary infiltrates, usually represented by diffuse pulmonary haemorrhage The diagnosis is usually made by exclusion 1. ...
Article

Idiopathic pulmonary ossification

Idiopathic pulmonary ossification (also known as bony metaplasia of lung) is a rare disorder with unknown cause characterised by bony tissue within the lung. The condition is asymptomatic. Radiographic features Plain radiograph May show branching calcific shadows are usually seen in lower par...
Article

Idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis

Idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis (IRF) is a sub type of retroperitoneal fibrosis where no obvious cause is found. It includes a spectrum of diseases which are characterized by fibro-inflammatory tissue surrounding the abdominal aorta and the iliac arteries. This process may extend into the re...
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Idiopathic scrotal calcinosis

Idiopathic scrotal calcinosis (ISC), sometimes called dystrophic scrotal calcinosis,  is a rare benign condition characterized by superficial calcifications within the skin of the scrotum of unclear etiology, typically affecting men aged 20-40. The condition is primarily cosmetic, but may recur ...
Article

Idiopathic transient osteoporosis of the hip

Idiopathic transient osteoporosis of the hip (ITOH) is a self-limiting clinical entity of unknown cause, although almost certainly a vascular basis and possible overactivity of the sympathetic system exists. There is some controversy as to whether ITOH represents a very early, reversible stage o...
Article

IgA nephropathy

IgA nephropathy (also known as IgA nephritis or Berger disease) is a form of glomerulonephritis.  Epidemiology IgA nephropathy is considered the most common glomerulonephritis worldwide and is a leading cause of chronic kidney disease and renal failure. Pathology Primary IgA nephropathy is c...
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IgA vasculitis

IgA vasculitis (formally known as Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP)) is a type of non-thrombocytopaenic immune-mediated small vessel acute leukocytoclastic vasculitis. It tends to occur in the paediatric population (peak incidence 3-10 years) 3. In order to differentiate from other types of vascu...
Article

IgG-4 related lung disease

IgG-4 related lung disease is a recently described condition. It may occur with or without systemic involvement. It is considered part of the spectrum of IgG-4 related sclerosing disease. Radiographic features CT On HRCT of the chest, it may be categorised into four major subtypes 5: solid n...
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IgG4-related sclerosing disease

IgG4 related sclerosing disease is a systemic disease that is characterised by extensive IgG4-positive plasma cells and T-lymphocyte infiltration of various organs. Clinical presentation Clinical manifestations are apparent in the pancreas, biliary tree, gallbladder, salivary gland, retroperit...
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Ileal atresia

Ileal atresia is a congenital abnormality where there is significant stenosis or complete absence of a portion of the ileum. There is an increased incidence in those with chromosomal abnormalities. This article will focus on ileal atresia alone but bear in mind that some cases correspond to jej...
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Ileal conduit

An ileal conduit (or "Bricker conduit") was one of the original types of urinary diversions, and it is still in use today. The conduit is most often placed after cystectomy (or cystoprostatectomy) for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Although not a continent diversion, it may be preferred if the...
Article

Ileal ureter interposition

Ileal ureter interpositions are uncommon urologic reconstructions, using a loop of small bowel to replace a damaged ureter. The concept is similar to the formation of a neobladder from small bowel (e.g. ileal conduit), except one is forming a neo-ureter. Variants include using colon as an inter...
Article

Ileocaecal valve

The ileocaecal valve separates the terminal ileum from the caecum and functions to regulate flow between these two structures and prevent reflux from the caecum into the small intestine.  Gross anatomy The ileocaecal valve consists of two muscular layers of ileum, an upper and lower lip, that ...
Article

Ileocolic artery

The ileocolic artery is a branch of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) that runs obliquely to the ileocaecal junction. It divides into an ileal branch that supplies the terminal ileum and anastomoses with the terminal SMA and a colic branch that supplies the proximal ascending colon and anast...
Article

Ileovesicostomy

Ileovesicostomy (also known as "cutaneous ileocystostomy", "ileal chimney", or "bladder chimney") is an uncommon urologic diversion in which a loop of small bowel is anastomosed/augmented to the dome of the bladder. This loop of bowel then exits through a urostomy. The diversion is not continent...
Article

Ileum

The ileum is the final part of the small intestine, following the duodenum and jejunum. Terminology The ileum is not to be confused with the ilium. Gross anatomy The ileum is 2-4 m in length and is separated from the caecum by the ileocaecal valve (ICV). While there is no discrete line demar...
Article

Iliac artery aneurysm

Iliac arterial aneurysms are focal dilatations of the iliac artery.  Although the dimensions that define the aneurysm are dependent on the sex of the patient and the portion of the artery involved, a common iliac artery (CIA) with a diameter ≥1.7 cm in males or ≥1.5 cm in females is considered ...
Article

Iliac vein occlusion

Iliac vein occlusion can be due to the variety of causes including: iatrogenic neonatal catheters catheter dissection injuries  IVC filter insertion dialysis catheters malignancy-related direct tumour invasion radiotherapy  enlarged lymph nodes hypercoagulable state prior DVTs May-Th...
Article

Iliacus muscle

The iliacus muscle is one of the muscles of the posterior abdominal wall and contributes to the iliopsoas muscle and tendon. Summary origin: superior 2/3s of the iliac fossa, anterior sacroiliac ligaments and anterior sacral ala insertion: into the psoas major tendon to form iliopsoas tendon ...
Article

Iliofemoral ligament

The iliofemoral ligament is very strong and shaped like an inverted Y, lying anteriorly and intimately blended with the capsule. Its apex is attached between the anterior inferior iliac spine and acetabulum rim, its base to the intertrochanteric line. The oblique lateral ligament attaches to a t...
Article

Iliofemoral line

The Iliofemoral line is traced on an AP pelvis projection. It is a curvilinear line, along the outer surface of the ilium, through the superior acetabular rim and the femoral neck. It should be bilaterally symmetrical. Asymmetry may be the result of congenital dysplasia, slipped femoral capital...
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Iliohypogastric nerve

The iliohypogastric nerve arises from the anterior ramus of the L1 nerve root of the lumbar plexus along with the ilioinguinal nerve. It a sensory nerve that provides lateral and anterior cutaneous branches supplying the posterolateral gluteal skin and skin in the pubic region. Gross anatomy O...
Article

Ilioinguinal nerve

The ilioinguinal nerve arises from the anterior ramus of the L1 nerve root from the lumbar plexus along with the iliohypogastric nerve. The predominantly sensory nerve eventually passes through the superficial inguinal ring to provide cutaneous sensation to the upper medial thigh, mons pubis and...
Article

Iliolumbar artery

The iliolumbar artery is one of three branches of the posterior division of the internal iliac artery. Summary origin: posterior division of the internal iliac artery location: pelvis supply: ilium, iliacus muscle, psoas major muscle, quadratus lumborum muscle, erector spinae muscle, anterio...
Article

Iliolumbar ligament

The iliolumbar ligament is a strong band of connective tissue which courses from the transverse process of L5 (in over 96% of cases) to the posterior iliac wing and iliac crest. It functions to maintain the alignment of L5 on the sacrum during various movements 1, 2. It is an important landmark...
Article

Iliopsoas compartment

The iliopsoas compartment is an extra-retroperitoneal space that runs along the posterior aspect of the abdomen and pelvis and extends into the thigh. Gross anatomy Boundaries The iliopsoas compartment is bound by the iliopsoas fascia, which is continuous with: anteriorly: transversalis fasc...
Article

Iliopsoas muscle

The iliopsoas muscle is found within the iliopsoas compartment and is an important muscle in locomotion and upright posture.  Summary origin: fusion of psoas major and iliacus muscles insertion: lesser trochanter of the femur nerve supply: femoral nerve; lumbar plexus blood supply: iliolumb...
Article

Iliotibial band

The iliotibial band (ITB) is a thick band of fascia formed proximally at the hip by the fascia of the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius and tensor fasciae latae muscles.  The band consists of deep and superficial layers: the superficial layer is the main tendinous component and inserts onto Gerd...
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Iliotibial band syndrome

Iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS), or iliotibial band friction syndrome, is a common cause of lateral knee pain related to intense physical activity resulting in chronic inflammation. Epidemiology Commonly affect young patients who are physically active, most often long distance runners or cycli...
Article

Ilium

The ilium is among the three bones of the innominate bone: ilium, ischium, and pubis. These are individual bones in the youth and unite to form one bone in adults, the principal union being in the acetabulum. Ilium is called so as it supports the 'flank'. The ilium is not to be confused with t...
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Ilium vs ileum

The medical terms ileum and ilium have been causing great confusion to medical students and junior doctors alike for decades now. Only separated by one letter, the second vowel, the pronunciation may be identical, or differ slightly with the i sound resembling that in "bit" for ilium (ɪlɪəm) or ...
Article

Image guided percutaneous renal biopsy

Image guided percutaneous renal biopsy, utilising either ultrasound or CT allows for an accurate, reliable method of acquiring renal tissue for histopathological assessment. Biopsy may be of a native or transplant kidney. It is divided into two types: non-focal or non-targeted focal or target...
Article

Image intensifier

Image intensifiers are utilised to convert low energy radiation into visible light images. Frequently the detector portion of an x-ray c-arm use in operating theatres, the image intensifier has a low scatter input portion comprised of low absorption substances such as titanium or aluminium 1,2. ...
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Image interpretation questions

Image interpretation questions are one of the three types of multiple choice questions on Radiopaedia, the other two being basic factual and knowledge integration.  Image interpretation questions are built entirely around an image. They should only be answerable through correct image interpreta...
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Image plate artifact

Image plate artifact is caused by backscatter radiation. Backscatter radiation is transmitted through the back of the cassette to the cassette hinge where the lead coating gets weakened or cracked.  To reduce backscatter, the radiographer should collimate where possible.
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Image preparation

Images are clearly a very important part of Radiopaedia.org and we aim for high quality and uniformity across the site. As always patient anonymity is essential, and any images with patient details included will be removed. Supported formats JPG: small size but degraded by compression. Use qua...
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Image preparation (multiple choice questions)

Image preparation for multiple choice questions is needed if an image is uploaded specifically for a question, rather than simply added from an existing case. It is essential that images are formatted in a consistent style. Please download PowerPoint (Windows and macOS) and Keynote (macOS) from...
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Image reconstruction (CT)

Image reconstruction in computed tomography is a rapidly evolving industry, the race to produce an efficient yet accurate image reconstruction method while keeping scan dose to a minimum has defined improvements in CT over the past decade. The principle behind image reconstruction in CT is the ...
Article

Image/series description

Each case can have multiple studies, and each study can have multiple series. Each series is either a single image or a stack of images. Both the study and in the individual series within it can have descriptions.  In general the 'series description' (immediately below the large image in case ...
Article

Images

All images should be uploaded via the "Add case" page.  NB: Although individual images/diagrams can an be uploaded directly from the image management console (via add image in article edit mode), this method is now no longer recommended and will soon be removed.  Out-sourced images Copyright ...
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Imaging in liver transplantation

Imaging in liver transplantation is aimed to evaluate donor and recipient for successful transplantation and its outcome. Pre-transplant evaluation Donor volume of liver parenchymal disease (diffuse or focal) vascular anatomy arterial variations  venous variations biliary anatomy Recipi...
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Imaging of gunshot injuries

Gunshot injuries often require imaging assessment, and this evaluation has both clinical relevance (assessment of organ damage, surgical planning and prognostication), and often also forensic implications. Pathology Mechanism Some understanding of the factors that influence wounding capacity ...
Article

Imaging the shoulder

Imaging the shoulder is often reliant on multi-modality imaging. The shoulder is a complex ball-and-socket joint that relies on the structural integrity of the glenoid labrum and accompanying shoulder ligaments and rotator cuff muscles to function. Acute trauma may result of bony, labral, ligam...
Article

Immature ovarian teratoma

Immature ovarian teratomas are uncommon ovarian germ cell tumours. They differ from mature ovarian teratomas (dermoid cysts) both histologically by the presence of immature tissue, and clinically by their more malignant behaviour. Epidemiology They are considerably less common than mature ovar...
Article

Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome

Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is paradoxical deterioration of a pre-existing illness following abrupt improvement in an individual's immune function. It is classically seen in HIV/AIDS patients following initiation of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Increasing...
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Immunity

The human body regularly encounters harmful microorganisms, and because of this it has developed a system of defences to help identify and eliminate infective pathogens in the body, known as the Immune system. Humans have two types of immunity: innate immunity and acquired immunity. The innate...
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Immunodeficiency-associated CNS lymphomas

Immunodeficiency-associated CNS lymphomas are recognised in the current (2016) WHO classification of CNS tumours as a specific subtype of primary CNS lymphoma. A number of further specific subtypes are recognised, including: AIDS-related diffuse large B-cell lymphoma EBV-positive diffuse large...
Article

Immunohistochemistry

Immunohistochemistry is a method of assessing histology with the use of antibodies to specific antigens. It is complementary to the older technique of chemical staining of tissues but is often combined with a counter-stain for context (e.g. haematoxylin to stain cell nuclei blue).  The process ...
Article

Imperforate hymen

Imperforate hymen is a congenital condition in which the hymen is without a normal central opening. Epidemiology 0.1% of patients, usually isolated findings Clinical features Primary amenorrhea with cyclic lower abdominal pain during menarche age. Imperforate hymen can be diagnosed at physic...
Article

Implantable loop recorder

Implantable loop recorders, also known as insertable cardiac monitors, are small insertable devices that continuously monitor and record cardiac rhythms. They are placed subcutaneously and used for the evaluation of patients with recurrent unexplained episodes of palpitations or syncope. They sh...
Article

In utero herpes simplex infection

In utero herpes simplex infection usually occurs from transplacental tramission of the herpes simplex virus. Transplacental intrauterine infection with herpes simplex virus is an extremely rare complication of primary herpes simplex in pregnancy. Epidemiology Fetal HSV infection much less c...
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In utero infection

In utero infections, also known as congenital infections, can result from a vast number of aetiological organisms and account for 2% to 3% of all congenital anomalies 4.  TORCH group: in utero toxoplasmosis infection / congenital toxoplasmosis infection: congenital cerebral toxoplasmosis oth...
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In utero syphilis infection

In utero syphilis infection results from transmission of the maternal infection from the spirochete Treponema pallidum.  Pathology The pathogen is capable of crossing the placenta during any time in gestation.  Markers The following tests can be assessed on maternal blood fluorescent trepon...
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In utero varicella zoster virus infection

An in utero varicella zoster virus infection is an infrequent type of in utero infection. The clinical features can be diverse and variable depending on the stage of gestation. Epidemiology Fetal infection with varicella is unusual in the current age due to most women of childbearing age being...
Article

In-phase and out-of-phase sequences

In-phase (IP) and out-of-phase (OOP) sequences correspond to paired MRI gradient echo (GRE) sequences obtained with the same repetition time (TR) but with two different echo time (TE) values.  Applications The main application of the IP-OOP sequences is to identify pathological (microsopic) fa...
Article

In-utero bowel perforation

In-utero bowel perforation results in a chemical peritonitis (meconium peritonitis) from peritoneal leakage of sterile meconium. It can result from many causes which include: intestinal atresias: jejuno-ileal atresia ileal atresia anal atresia in utero intestinal ischaemia underlying gast...
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Inanimate object inspired signs

Inanimate object inspired signs are numerous with many radiographic appearances likened to bottle, hooks, items of clothing, weapons etc...  They are listed below in the 'related articles' section.   
Article

Inca bone

The so called inca bone, also known as the preinterparietal bone or os Inca, is a triangular sutural bone located at the previous site of the posterior fontanelle. It is common and a normal variant. The inca bone is one of the Wormian bones. It is so called because of the supposed high incidenc...
Article

Incarcerated uterus

An incarcerated uterus or trapped uterus describes an extremely rare situation where a retroverted or retroflexed gravid uterus fails to ascend into the abdominal cavity. Epidemiology This is an uncommon presentation and is said to occur in 1 in 3000 pregnancies. Uncomplicated retroversion may...
Article

Incidental findings on trauma CT

Incidental findings on trauma CT are defined as findings unrelated to the specific mechanism of injury. Epidemiology They are reported to be present in 55-75% of patients, with most being within the abdomen and pelvis 1. As the use of whole body CT for trauma increases, there is an associated ...
Article

Incidental lung nodules

Incidental lung nodules are encountered commonly in routine cross sectional imaging. The risk of developing cancer in very small nodules (<5mm) is very low. However, clear-cut recommendations are still not in place with high variation in practice amongst reporting radiologists 1. As a result, it...
Article

Incidental splenic lesion (an approach)

The majority of splenic lesions are benign and when an incidental splenic lesion is found in an asymptomatic patient, it may pose a dilemma in workup because imaging findings are often nonspecific. benign imaging features: no follow up imperceptible wall well-marginated homogeneous <10-20 H...
Article

Incidentaloma

An incidentaloma is a radiological neologism to denote a mass lesion found incidentally and of dubious clinical significance. Although it can refer to any incidental lesion (e.g. pituitary 3, thyroid 4), it is most often used to denote an incidental adrenal lesion, which is commonly an adrenal a...
Article

Incisional hernia

Incisional hernias are relatively common and along with parastomal hernias, umbilical hernias, paraumbilical hernias and spigelian hernias, they are usually anterior abdominal hernias. Epidemiology Usually develop within a few months of surgery but a small proportion can remain clinically sile...
Article

Incisive canal

The maxillary incisive canal runs through the maxilla in the midline. It connects the inferior nasal cavity with the superior oral cavity, opening at the incisive foramen posterior to the central maxillary incisor teeth. It contains the descending palatine artery and the nasopalatine nerve.  Re...
Article

Incisive canal cyst

Incisive canal cysts, also known as nasopalatine duct cysts (NPDC), are developmental, non-neoplastic cysts arising from degeneration of nasopalatine ducts. These ducts usually regress in fetal life. The persistence of ductal epithelium leads to formation of cyst. It is considered the most comm...
Article

Incisive foramen

The incisive foramen (also known as nasopalatine foramen or anterior palatine foramen) is the oral opening of the nasopalatine canal. It is located in the maxilla in the incisive fossa, midline in the palate posterior to the central incisors, at the junction of the medial palatine and incisive s...
Article

Incisive nerve

The incisive nerve is one of the two terminal branches of the inferior alveolar nerve, a branch of the posterior division of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. It continues running anteriorly in the medullary cavity of the mandible after the mental nerve branches off and exits via ...
Article

Inclusion body myositis

Inclusion body myositis (IBM) is a type of inflammatory myopathy. It is often considered is the most common acquired myopathy in patients older than 50. Epidemiology Inclusion body myositis tends to present in older individuals 4 (often after the age of 50), although the disease may occasional...
Article

Incomplete border sign

The incomplete border sign is useful to depict an extrapulmonary mass on chest radiograph. An extrapulmonary mass will often have a inner well defined border and an ill-defined outer margin 1-3. This can be attributed to the inner margin being tangential to the x-ray beam and has good inherent ...
Article

Incomplete double aortic arch

Incomplete double aortic arch is a rare vascular ring anomaly wherein a segment of the minor aortic arch, usually the left, is atretic.  Clinical presentation As in the case of other vascular rings, this anomaly can cause 1: stridor wheezing dysphagia Some patients may reach adulthood with...
Article

Incomplete fractures

Incomplete fractures are a heterogeneous group of fractures that predominantly occur in the long bones of paediatric patients. Rang 1 describes a continuum of fractures that occur with increasing longitudinal force applied along the length of the bone. At the point where force exceeds the struct...
Article

Incomplete hippocampal inversion

Incomplete hippocampal inversion unsurprisingly describes the situation where the normal inversion of the hippocampus fails to happen during development. Terminology Incomplete hippocampal inversion is the most correct description of this finding. Hippocampal malrotation is a term used by some...
Article

Incomplete miscarriage

Incomplete miscarriage is a term given to miscarriage where there are retained products of conception still within the uterus. Radiographic features Ultrasound Ultrasound appearance is variable, ranging from visible fetal parts to a mass of mixed echogenicity. The presence of a prominent vasc...

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