Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

361 results found
Article

Obelion

The obelion refers to the skull landmark along the sagittal suture intersected by an imaginary line connecting the two parietal foramina, where both are present. It is said to represent the site of commencement of sagittal suture closure 1. It is one of the skull landmarks, craniometric points ...
Article

Obersteiner-Redlich zone

The Obersteiner-Redlich zone represents the transition point along a nerve where enveloping glial cells are replaced by Schwann cells. Vestibular schwannomas are believed to arise most commonly from this region 1.
Article

Obesity

Obesity is defined as a body mass index (BMI) greater than 30. It is described as being a "modern epidemic" due to increased rates of metabolic syndrome and other complications in these patients, along with a high and increasing prevalence.  Epidemiology Obesity rates vary around the world but...
Article

Obex

The obex is the most caudal point in the fourth ventricle and is therefore considered as part of the ventricular system in the brain. It is the point in the medulla where ventricle narrows to become the central canal of the spinal cord. It occurs at the level of the foramen magnum and is theref...
Article

Oblique fissure

The oblique fissures (also called the major fissures or greater fissures) are bilateral structures in both lungs separating the lung lobes.  Gross anatomy Right oblique fissure The superior part of the right oblique fissure separates the right upper lobe from the right lower lobe and the infe...
Article

Oblique fracture

Oblique fractures are complete fractures that occur at a plane oblique to the long axis of the bone. Like transverse fractures, the term is predominantly used in the context of describing a fracture in a long bone. Oblique fractures are particularly prone to angulation in the plane of the fract...
Article

Oblique pericardial sinus

The oblique pericardial sinus is a blind-ending pericardial cul-de-sac behind the heart which opens into the pericardial space proper inferiorly. Gross anatomy It's boundaries are: right (in ascending order): inferior vena cava, right inferior pulmonary vein and right superior pulmonary vein ...
Article

Obliteration of the retrosternal airspace

Obliteration of the retrosternal airspace is seen in any cause of an anterior mediastinal mass. 
Article

Obliterative bronchiolitis

Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB), also known as bronchiolitis obliterans or constrictive bronchiolitis, is a type of bronchiolitis and refers to bronchiolar inflammation with submucosal peribronchial fibrosis associated with luminal stenosis and occlusions. OB should not be confused with bronchio...
Article

Obliterative bronchiolitis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the causes of obliterative bronchiolitis is: CRITTS Mnemonic C: cryptogenic organising pneumonia (COP)/BOOP R: rheumatoid arthritis I: infectious: post-viral/post-atypical infection (e.g. Mycoplasma pneumonia) T: transplant: heart/lung/haematopoetic stem cell transpl...
Article

Obstetric curriculum

The obstetric curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core obstetric knowledge. Definition Topics pertaining to the normal and abnormal pregnancy, the gravid uterus and fetal environment, placenta, normal fetal development and fet...
Article

Obstruction of nasolacrimal drainage apparatus

Obstruction of nasolacrimal drainage apparatus results in epiphora and can be primary or secondary, congenital or acquired. Obstruction can occur in canaliculi, lacrimal sac, or nasolacrimal duct (post saccular) levels. Congenital obstruction is usually secondary to persistence of the membrane ...
Article

Obstructive bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

Obstructive bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is an uncommon manifestation of non-invasive aspergillosis seen in patients with AIDS. It is typically caused by Aspergillus fumigatus and represents marked overgrowth of intraluminal of the fungus. See also pulmonary aspergillosis: aspergilloma (sap...
Article

Obstructive cystic renal dysplasia

Obstructive cystic renal dysplasia, or Potter type IV cystic renal disease, is a potential complication that can occur from prolonged obstruction of the bladder outlet or urethra during gestation.  Pathology Ureteric obstruction during active nephrogenesis results in cystic renal dysplasia; th...
Article

Obstructive hydrocephalus

Obstructive hydrocephalus is a term usually used to denote obstructive non-communicating hydrocephalus.  It is actually a term that causes confusion as used in the above sense implies that communicating hydrocephalus does not have an obstruction to CSF flow / absorption; this is not true as the...
Article

Obstructive jaundice (summary)

Obstructive jaundice represents a set of conditions that cause jaundice by obstructing the flow of bile into the duodenum anywhere along the intrahepatic or extrahepatic biliary tree. Reference article This is a summary article; read more in our article on jaundice. Summary epidemiology dep...
Article

Obstructive uropathy

An obstructive uropathy is a catch-all term encompassing any cause of complete or partial, congenital or acquired and permanent or intermittent obstruction to the urinary tract. Depending on the severity of obstruction and extent, it may result in permanent change in both the collecting system p...
Article

Obturator artery

The obturator artery is a branch of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery. It provides vascular supply within the pelvis and lower limb.  Summary origin: anterior division of the internal iliac artery location: pelvis and lower limb supply: pelvic muscles, ilium, head of femur, ...
Article

Obturator canal

The obturator canal is a small opening in the superior aspect of the obturator foramen that connects the pelvis to the medial compartment of the thigh. The obturator foramen is otherwise covered by the obturator membrane. Gross anatomy Contents The contents of the obturator canal are the obtu...
Article

Obturator externus muscle

The obturator externus is a flat, triangular muscle, which covers the outer surface of the anterior wall of the pelvis. Summary origin: external surface of obturator membrane and adjacent bone (inferior pubic ramus and the ramus of the ischium) insertion: trochanteric fossa of femur action: ...
Article

Obturator foramen

The obturator foramen is the large, obliquely oriented, ovoid aperture located at the anterior aspect of both sides of the pelvis, bounded by parts of the ischium and pubis. It is covered by thin fibrous membrane, the obturator membrane, which is covered on the internal and external surfaces by ...
Article

Obturator hernia

Obturator hernias are a rare type of abdominal hernia, and can be clinically very difficult to diagnose. Epidemiology Typically obturator hernias occur in elderly women 3-4 or patients with chronically raised intra-abdominal pressure (e.g. ascites, COPD, chronic cough)4.  It has been suggested...
Article

Obturator internus muscle

The obturator internus muscle, like the piriformis muscle, is a muscle of the pelvic wall and of the gluteal region. Summary origin anterolateral wall of true pelvis deep surface of obturator membrane and surrounding bone insertion: medial side of greater trochanter of femur action latera...
Article

Obturator nerve

The obturator nerve is a large nerve arising from the lumbar plexus and the nerve of the medial compartment of the thigh. It arises from the anterior divisions of L2-4 in the lumbar plexus.  Gross anatomy Course Pelvis The nerve descends medial to psoas major to the obturator canal where it ...
Article

Obturator nerve neuropathy

Obturator nerve neuropathy is an entrapment neuropathy that occurs when the obturator nerve is compressed by surrounding structures.  Pathophysiology It occurs as the nerve dives under the superior pubic ramus to enter the obturator foramen: the anterior division lies between adductor brevis, ...
Article

Obturator vein

The obturator vein travels between the adductor region of thigh and internal iliac vein entering the pelvis through the obturator foramen (along with the obturator artery and obturator nerve).  Course and termination Along the pelvic side wall the vein travels between the ureter and the intern...
Article

Obtuse marginal artery

The obtuse marginal (OM) arteries sometimes referred to as lateral branches are branch coronary arteries that come off the circumflex artery. There can be one or more obtuse marginal arteries. It typically traverses along the left margin of heart towards the apex. The first obtuse marginal arter...
Article

Occam's razor

Occam's razor (also known as the KISS principle or lex parsimoniae), an often cited principle of parsimony, economy, or succinctness used in problem-solving. It states that among competing hypotheses, the one with the fewest assumptions should be selected. Although other, more complicated solut...
Article

Occipital artery

The occipital artery, a posterior branch of the external carotid artery, opposite the external maxillary, near the lower margin of the posterior belly of the digastic muscle, and ends in the posterior part of the scalp. Summary origin: branch of the external carotid artery at the level of the ...
Article

Occipital bone

The occipital bone is a trapezoid skull bone that contributes to the posteroinferior part of the cranial vault. It is pierced by the foramen magnum, permitting communication from the cranial cavity to the vertebral canal Gross anatomy The occipital bone is composed of four parts: squamous par...
Article

Occipital condyle fracture

Occipital condylar fractures result from high-energy blunt trauma and is a specific and localized type of basilar skull fracture. Epidemiology The exact incidence of these fractures is unknown but are reported to occur in 3-4% patients with moderate-severe traumatic brain injuries 3. Clinical...
Article

Occipital horn syndrome

Occipital horn syndrome is a rare X-linked disorder of copper metabolism resulting in connective tissue abnormalities. The Menkes kinky hair syndrome is the severe form of this disease, with patients rarely surviving past 3 years of age. Occipital horn syndrome (also known as  X-linked cutis lax...
Article

Occipitalis

Occipitalis originates from tendinous fibres from the lateral two thirds of the superior nuchal line (of the occipital bone) and the mastoid part of the temporal bone. It inserts into the epicranial aponeurosis.  It is supplied by the posterior auricular and occipital arteries.  It is innervat...
Article

Occipital lobe

The occipital lobe is the smallest of the four lobes of the brain. It sits posterior to the temporal lobe and parietal lobes, underlying the occipital bone and overlying the tentorium cerebelli. Its most notable functional component is the primary and secondary visual cortex. Gross anatomy The...
Article

Occipital plagiocephaly

Occipital plagiocephaly is a type of plagiocephaly. It is used to describe the shape of the skull which is a result of an early fusion of the lambdoid suture. The premature fusion may occur either on one side or both sides of the suture. Epidemiology It is one of the rarest craniosynostosis, a...
Article

Occipital pole

The occipital pole is an anatomical landmark that corresponds to the posterior portion of the occipital lobe. It is formed by the convergence of the superior and inferior occipital gyri in the majority of individuals; the middle occipital gyrus also contributes when it is present 1. Gross anato...
Article

Occipital sinus

The occipital sinus is the smallest of the dural venous sinuses and lies, as its name suggests, on the inner surface of the occipital bone. Tributaries from the margins of the foramen magnum, some of which connect with both the sigmoid sinus and internal vertebral plexus, coalesce to pass in the...
Article

Occipital triangle

The occipital triangle is one of the paired triangles in the posterior triangle of the neck. The triangles of the neck are surgically focussed, first described from early dissection-based anatomical studies which predated cross-sectional anatomical description based on imaging (see deep spaces o...
Article

Occipital triangles

Boundaries anterior: posterior border of sternocleidomastoid posterior: anterior border of trapezius inferior: inferior belly of omohyoid Contents spinal accessory nerve cutaneous and muscular branches of the cervical plexus upper most part of brachial plexus supraclavicular nerve tran...
Article

Occipital vertebrae

Occipital vertebrae is a very rare anatomical variant and results from incomplete or aberrant fusion of occipital bone ossification centres. There is a broad spectrum of occipital vertebrae variations and the four most common include: third condyle (condylus tertius) basilar process paracondy...
Article

Occipitotemporal sulcus

The occipitotemporal sulcus, also known as the lateral occipitotemporal sulcus, runs anteroposteriorly on the inferior surface of the temporal lobe, separating the inferior temporal gyrus laterally from the fusiform gyrus medially. It runs parallel and lateral to the collateral sulcus (which is ...
Article

Occipitotemporal suture

The occipitotemporal/occipitomastoid suture is the obliquely oriented articulation of the anterior border of the squamous occipital bone and the mastoid portion of the temporal bone. A mastoid foramen is occasionally located near or in it. The occipitotemporal suture and the parietotemporal sut...
Article

Occult fracture

Occult fractures are those that are not visible on imaging, most commonly plain radiographs and sometimes CT, either due to lack of displacement or limitations of the imaging study. There may be signs of a fracture without one actually being seen. MRI or nuclear medicine studies are sometimes re...
Article

Occult intrasacral meningocoele

Occult intrasacral meningocoele is a rare congenital lesion characterised by the presence of a cyst within the sacral thecal sac. It is an extradural sacral arachnoid cyst, not a true meningocoele, since meninges are not involved. It is associated with spinal dysraphism, tethered cord syndrome ...
Article

Ochronosis

Ochronosis, or alkaptonuria, is a rare multisystem autosomal recessive metabolic disorder. On imaging, the most particular presentation is on the spine, with osteoporotic bones and dense disc calcifications.  Terminology The term ochronosis usually refers to the bluish black discoloration of ...
Article

Octreoscan

An octreoscan is a scinitigraphic study that uses 111In labelled octreotide which is a somatostatin analog. It is particularly useful for assessment of neuroendocrine tumours. Examples include: carcinoid tumour paraganglioma(s) glomus jugulare tumour glomus jugulotympanicum glomus vagale ...
Article

Ocular abductors

The ocular abductors are the extra-ocular muscles responsible for abduction of the globe: lateral rectus (primary function) superior oblique (tertiary function) inferior oblique (tertiary function)
Article

Ocular adductors

The ocular adductors are the extra-ocular muscles responsible of adduction of the globe: medial rectus (primary function) inferior rectus (tertiary function) superior rectus (tertiary function)
Article

Ocular depressors

The ocular depressors are the extra-ocular muscles responsible for depression of the globe: inferior rectus (primary function) superior oblique (secondary function)
Article

Ocular elevators

The ocular elevators are the extra-ocular muscles responsible for elevation of the globe: superior rectus (primary function) inferior oblique (secondary function)
Article

Ocular external rotators

The ocular external (lateral) rotators are the extra-ocular muscles responsible for external rotation (extorsion) of the globe: inferior oblique (primary function) inferior rectus (secondary function)
Article

Ocular internal rotators

The ocular internal (medial) rotators are the extra-ocular muscles responsible for internal rotation (intorsion) of the globe: superior oblique (primary function) superior rectus (secondary function)
Article

Ocular metastasis

Ocular metastases, also termed uveal metastases, account for over 80% of all ocular pathology, and need to be distinguished from extraocular metastasis, which are a quite different group of tumours. This article will discuss metastatic lesions affecting the orbits. For other intracranial metast...
Article

Ocular pathology

Ocular pathology covers a wide range of conditions and therefore represents the cause of a wide range of symptoms, signs and radiographic features. Ocular metastases account for over 80% of all ocular pathology. With regard to the remainder of ocular lesions, the primary differentiating factor ...
Article

Oculomotor nerve

The oculomotor nerve is the third of the cranial nerves and arises from the midbrain. It is responsible for the movements of four of the six extra-ocular muscles, the other two being innervated by the trochlear and abducens nerves. Gross anatomy Nucleus and cisternal portion The oculomotor nu...
Article

Oculomotor nerve palsy

An oculomotor nerve palsy results in weakness of the superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, and levator palpebrae, leading to an eye that is "down and out". Pathology It has numerous possible aetiologies which can be divided according to which portion of the nerve i...
Article

O'Donoghue unhappy triad

O'Donoghue unhappy triad or terrible triad often occurs in contact sports, such as basketball, football, or rugby, when there is a lateral force applied to the knee while the foot is fixated on the ground. This produces the "pivot shift" mechanism. The O'Donoghue unhappy triad comprises three t...
Article

Odontogenic myxoma

Odontogenic myxomas are rare tumours that involve the mandible or maxilla and account for 3-6% of odontogenic tumours 2. Epidemiology Typically seen in the 2nd to 3rd decades of life (slightly earlier than ameloblastomas). They are usually not painful. Pathology Arises from mesenchymal odont...
Article

Odontohypophosphatasia

Odontohypophosphatasia is the mildest form of hypophosphatasia that manifests as tooth dysplasia and/or early loss of deciduous or permanent teeth. Pathology As with all forms of hypophosphatasia, the underlying abnormality is a mutation in the ALPL gene that encodes for tissue non-specific al...
Article

Odontoid fracture

Odontoid process fracture, also known as the peg or dens fracture, occurs where there is a fracture through the odontoid process of C2. Pathology The mechanism of injury is variable, and can occur both during flexion or extension with or without compression 5. Classification There are two cl...
Article

Odontoma

Odontomas are one of the most common of mandibular lesions encountered and the most common odontogenic tumours of the mandible. They account for up to two-thirds of all such tumours; the next most common are ameloblastomas, making up the majority of the remaining one-third. Epidemiology They c...
Article

OEIS complex

The OEIS complex refers to the combined occurence of: an omphalocoele bladder exstrophy / cloacal exstrophy an imperforate anus and spinal anomalies: e.g kyphoscoliosis hemivertebrae Epidemiology The estimated occurrence is at around 1-200,000 to 400,000 live births 1,8. Pathology Pos...
Article

Oesophageal atresia

An oesophageal atresia refers to an absence in contiguity of the oesophagus due to an inappropriate division of the primitive foregut into the trachea and oesophagus. This is the most common congenital anomaly of the oesophagus.  Epidemiology It is thought to occur in ~1:3000-4500 live births ...
Article

Oesophageal atresia (classification)

Oesophageal atresia is closely related to tracheo-oesophageal fistula and can be divided into1: type A: isolated oesophageal atresia (8%) type B: proximal fistula with distal atresia (1%) type C: proximal atresia with distal fistula (85%) type D: double fistula with intervening atresia (1%) ...
Article

Oesophageal bronchus

Oesophageal bronchus refers to the rare occurrence where a bronchus arises directly from the oesophagus. Epidemiology It is more common in females with a M:F of 1:2 2.  Gross anatomy Oesophageal bronchi may be the main bronchus, which gives rise to oesophageal lung, or may be a lobar bronchu...
Article

Oesophageal cancer (staging)

Oesophageal cancer staging can depend slightly on whether the tumour is squamous cell or adenocarcinoma subtype. Due to the lack of a serosal layer, oesophageal cancer often tends to have mediastinal spread at the time of diagnosis. Staging TNM staging T staging Tx: primary tumour cannot be...
Article

Oesophageal cancer (summary)

Oesophageal cancer is a relatively uncommon tumour that occurs within the oesophagus of affected individuals. Patients present with symptoms of increasing dysphagia that progress from solid foods to liquids. Reference article This is a summary article; read more in our article on oesophageal c...
Article

Oesophageal carcinoma

Oesophageal carcinoma is relatively uncommon. It tends to present with increasing dysphagia, initially to solids and progressing to liquids as the tumour increases in size, obstructing the lumen of the oesophagus. Epidemiology Oesophageal cancer is responsible for <1% of all cancers and 4-10% ...
Article

Oesophageal diverticula

Oesophageal diverticula are sac or pouch projections arising from the oesophagus. Epidemiology They can occur in all ages but more frequent in adults and elderly people. Pathology Oesophageal diverticula are either: true diverticula: include all oesophageal layers false diverticula: contai...
Article

Oesophageal duplication

Duplication of the oesophagus has a range of macroscopic appearances, ranging from complete (which is very rare) to partial cystic duplication (oesophageal duplication cyst). It is the second most common gastrointestinal tract duplication after that of the ileum. Epidemiology A complete duplic...
Article

Oesophageal duplication cyst

Oesophageal duplication cysts are a type of congenital foregut duplication cyst. Epidemiology Less common compared to other foregut duplication cysts. There may be an increased male predilection 5. Clinical presentation Patients are generally asymptomatic but may complain of dysphagia due to...
Article

Oesophageal dysmotility

Oesophageal dysmotility refers to the pathological disruption of the normal sequential and coordinated muscle motion of the oesophagus to transport food from the oropharynx to the stomach. It is an umbrella term used to refer to the common pathophysiological endpoint of dysmotility that can be c...
Article

Oesophageal fibrovascular polyp

Oesophageal fibrovascular polyps are benign intraluminal submucosal pedunculated tumours that can grow significantly and cause dysphagia symptoms. They usually occur in the upper third of the oesophagus, at the level of the upper oesophageal sphincter.  Terminology They were previously denomin...
Article

Oesophageal food impaction

Oesophageal food impaction (or steakhouse syndrome) refers to a food bolus acutely obstructing the oesophagus. Clinical presentation The main symptom is usually of acute dysphagia. Radiographic features Plain radiograph Depending on the composition of the ingested content, the bolus may be ...
Article

Oesophageal hiatus

The oesophageal hiatus is the opening in the diaphragm through which the oesophagus passes from the thoracic to abdominal cavity. It is one of three apertures in the diaphragm and is located in the right crus. It is situated in the muscular part of the diaphragm at the level of T10 and is ellip...
Article

Oesophageal leiomyoma

Oesophageal leiomyoma is a benign smooth-muscle neoplasm of the oesophagus. It is the most common benign tumour of the oesophagus. Epidemiology It is most frequently presents in young and middle age groups (20-50 years). The overall incidence is around 8-43 per 10,000 autopsy series 4. Clinic...
Article

Oesophageal leiomyomatosis

Oesophageal leiomyomatosis is rare benign condition. Epidemiology It usually presents at childhood. There is a recognised increased female predilection. Pathology It is considered a hamartomatous condition and is associated with abnormal diffuse proliferation of smooth muscle fibres in dista...
Article

Oesophageal leiomyosarcoma

Oesophageal leiomyosarcoma is a rare malignant tumour of the oesophagus of smooth muscle origin.  Epidemiology The first case of oesophageal leiomyosarcoma was described in 1905.  Since then, there have been over 164 cases described in the literature. Radiographic features Fluoroscopy - Bari...
Article

Oesophageal lipoma

Oesophageal lipomas are rare fat containing intrathoracic lesion. Epidemiology They may account for approximately 0.4% of the benign tumours of the alimentary tract 1. There may be greater male predilection. The average age of presentation at around 50 years.  Pathology As with all lipomas, ...
Article

Oesophageal mass (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the causes of an oesophageal mass is: CALL the MVP Mnemonic C: carcinoma A: adenoma L: lymphoma L: leiomyoma M: metastasis V: varices P: papilloma/polyp
Article

Oesophageal myotomy

Oesophageal myotomy (or Heller myotomy) is a procedure that can be performed to treat a lower oesophageal sphincter (LES) that fails to relax (e.g. achalasia). The procedure involves a longitudinal incision of the distal oesophageal musculature to break the sphincter tone. A fundoplication wrap...
Article

Oesophageal perforation

Oesophageal perforation is a rare but serious medical emergency with a very high mortality rate, especially if the diagnosis is delayed. Epidemiology Most patients are in their 60s with a slight male predominance 5.  Clinical presentation If a perforation is not detected during the procedure...
Article

Oesophageal-pleural fistula

An oesophageal-pleural fistula refers to an abnormal connection between the oesophagus and pleura.  Pathology They can arise from a number of underlying pathologies which can result in an oesophageal rupture 3: post surgical endoscopic procedures post oesophageal dilatation secondary to a ...
Article

Oesophageal pseudodiverticulosis

Oesophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis is an uncommon condition in which there are numerous small outpouchings within the oesophageal wall. Epidemiology It is a rare condition, found in <1% of oesophagrams. It may occur at any age, but is more common between ages  50 and 70. There is a sl...
Article

Oesophageal squamous papilloma

Oesophageal squamous papilloma is an uncommon finding on oesophagography (barium swallow). It is a benign lesion, but it is difficult to differentiate it from osophageal carcinoma on oesophagography and the diagnosis is usually made with endoscopic biopsy. Clinical presentation Often asymptoma...
Article

Oesophageal stent

Oesophageal stents are a treatment option in patients with oesophageal strictures. It is most commonly used for symptomatic relief in those with dysphagia secondary to malignancy. The stent is typically covered in nature and inserted endoscopically or fluoroscopically. The distal oesophagus is t...
Article

Oesophageal stricture

Oesophageal strictures refer to any persistent intrinsic narrowing of the oesophagus.  Pathology Aetiology The most common causes are fibrosis induced by inflammatory and neoplastic processes. Because radiographic findings are not reliable in differentiating benign from malignant strictures, ...
Article

Oesophageal web

Oesophageal webs refer to an oesophageal constriction caused by a thin mucosal membrane projecting into the lumen. Epidemiology Oesophageal webs tend to affect middle-aged females. Clinical presentation Patients are usually asymptomatic and the finding may be incidental and unimportant. Howe...
Article

Oesophagectomy

Oesophagectomy (or esophagectomy) is a surgical procedure that involves excision of the majority of the oesophagus and part of the proximal stomach, usually as a treatment for oesophageal carcinoma or carcinoma of the gastric cardia, although benign conditions (e.g. stricture) can be treated wit...
Article

Oesophagus

The oesophagus is a muscular tube that conveys food and fluids from the pharynx to the stomach. Gross anatomy The oesophagus is 23-37 cm long with a diameter of 1-2 cm and is divided into three parts: cervical: continuous with the hypopharynx, commences at the lower border of cricoid cartilag...
Article

Off-ended

The term off-ended is used by some orthopaedic surgeons and radiologists to describe a long bone fracture that is displaced by more than the width of the bone. An off-ended fracture is often shortened due to muscle contraction.
Article

Oil cyst (breast)

Oil cysts in breast imaging refer to benign breast lesions where an area of focal fat necrosis becomes walled off by fibrous tissue.  Clinical presentation Non-tender palpable lump asymptomatic Pathology Fat debris from ruptured lipocytes tends to conglomerate to form a macroscopic pool of ...
Article

O'Kelly-Marotta grading scale

The O'Kelly-Marotta (OKM) grading scale is a proposed method of assessing the degree of angiographic filling and contrast stasis in the setting of intracranial aneurysms treated by flow diversion. Taking into account the dynamic nature of the contrast stasis, it is designed for use with cerebral...

Updating… Please wait.
Loadinganimation

Alert accept

Error Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

Alert accept Thank you for updating your details.