Q fever pneumonia refers to pulmonary infection with the organism Coxiella burnetii. It is sometimes classified as an atypical pneumonia. It can occur as either sporadic or outbreak cases.
The clinical picture is often dominated by fever, headaches and myalgias 5. A cough...
The quad sign is a static sonographic sign observed in pleural effusion. It consists of four lines representing the pleural, rib, fluid and lung. Similar to the sinusoid sign, this sign has a high sensitivity and specificity for pleural effusion, which is anechoic in itself.
The quadrangular space (or quadrilateral space) is one of two spaces located in the posterior compartment of the arm, along with the lateral triangular space.
medial: lateral border of the long head of the triceps brachii muscle
lateral: medial cortex of the surgica...
Quadrangular space syndrome (QSS) is an uncommon diagnosis mainly because of lack of literature on the subject and possible misdiagnosis.
QSS is present on ~1% of shoulder MRIs 6.
Patients present with posterior shoulder pain and paresthesia over the later...
The quadratus femoris muscle is the most inferior of the deep group of muscles in the gluteal region. It is a flat rectangular muscle below the obturator internus muscle and its associated gemellus superior and inferior muscles.
origin: lateral aspect of the ischium just anterior to t...
The quadratus lumborum muscle is an irregular quadrilateral muscle that forms part of the posterior abdominal wall.
location: dorsal abdominal wall
attachments: medial half of inferior margins of 12th ribs and upper four lumbar transverse processes
branches of the lumba...
The quadratus plantae muscle acts to aid in flexing the 2nd to 5th toes.
origin: medial surface of calcaneus and lateral process of calcaneal tuberosity
insertion: lateral side of tendon of flexor digitorum longus in proximal sole of the foot
action: assists flexor digitorum longus t...
The quadriceps is the group of 4 muscles in the anterior compartment of the thigh that connect to the patella via the quadriceps tendon. The muscles are located:
superficial: rectus femoris
medial: vastus medialis
lateral: vastus lateralis
deep: vastus intermedius
All four muscles are inner...
The quadriceps tendon is a thick tendon extending to the patella made up of contributions from all four quadriceps muscles. It classically has a trilaminar appearance:
superficial layer: rectus femoris
middle layer: vastus medialis, vastus lateralis
deep layer: vastus intermedius
Quadriceps tendon rupture is usually associated with forced flexion of the knee or a direct blow, although spontaneous ruptures are reported.
Predisposing illnesses include:
connective tissue disorders
systemic lupus erythematosus
Quadricuspid aortic valve (QAV) is a rare cardiac valvular anomaly where the aortic valve has four cusps, instead of the usual three.
The estimated incidence on necropsy at ~1 in 8,000. While the incidence of QAV on 2D echocardiography has been reported to range between 0.01-0.04%...
The quadrigeminal cistern (also known as superior cistern or cistern of the great cerebral vein) is one of the subarachnoid cisterns.
It is located between the colliculi, the splenium of the corpus callosum and the superior surface of the cerebellum and extends from the third ventricle to the g...
Quadrigeminal cistern lipomas make up approximately 25% of intracranial lipomas and are located within the quadrigeminal cistern. They may be associated with hypoplasia of the inferior colliculus or agenesis of the corpus callosum.
Please refer to the generic article on intracranial lipomas fo...
The quadrigeminal plate, also known as the tectal plate or just as tectum, is the portion of the midbrain tectum upon which the superior and inferior colliculi sit.
The tectum is the dorsal portion of the midbrain (brainstem) and is derived in embryonic development from the alar plate of the ne...
Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) is a bone mineral density (BMD) measurement technique in which the CT scanner is calibrated using solid phantoms (made of calcium hydroxyapatite, representing various bone mineral densities) placed under the patient in a pad. With this calibration, the Houn...
Quenching refers to rapid expulsion of the liquid cryogen used to maintain the MR magnet in a superconducting state.
Modern MRI scanners contain superconducting magnets which have very low energy consumption, made possible by maintaining internal subzero temperatures by way of a 'cr...
Poorly written multiple choice questions are not only useless, but they can also actually confuse students and even misinform. In some instances, although the question is well written, it concerns a topic that is so esoteric as to be a waste of time. So before you even begin to write multiple ch...
MRI protocol for a quick stroke assessment corresponds to a short protocol, usually just the DWI/ADC, adopted by some institutions as a complementary tool to the CT imaging in stroke code patients. The aim is to provide additional information to support stroke diagnosis within the narrow time wi...
Quiz mode presents multi-study cases in a way that is optimised for both presented tutorials and self-directed learning.
The cases shown will depend upon the system chosen and case ratings. We are planning to take into account many other (smarter) factors in the future.
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