X-rays represent a form of electromagnetic radiation. They are produced by the X-ray tube, using the high voltage to accelerate the electrons produced by the cathode. The produced electrons interact with the anode, thus producing X-rays. The X-rays produced include Bremsstrahlung and the charact...
X-linked deafness, also termed incomplete partition type III, is a rare genetic disorder associated with a mutation in the POU3F4 gene located on the X chromosome.
Male patients present with progressive mixed hearing loss. Female carriers have normal hearing or only mild...
X-linked Opitz G/BBB syndrome (XLOS) is a X-linked disorder with a spectrum of congenital anomalies. Anomalies that may be seen are
broad nasal bridge
cleft lip and/or palate
Artifacts can present in a variety of ways including abnormal shadow noted on a radiograph or degraded image quality and have been produced by artificial means from hardware failure, operator error and software (post-processing) artifacts.
There are common and distinct artifacts for film, comp...
X-ray film displays the radiographic image and consists of emulsion (single or double) of silver halide (AgBr is most common) which when exposed to light, produces silver ion (Ag+) and electron. The electrons get attached to the sensitivity specks and attract the silver ion. Subsequently, the si...
X-rays in the diagnostic range interact with matter primarily via two processes, which are fundamental in understanding how an image is formed in a radiographic exam. These process are the
X-rays are produced due to sudden deceleration of fast moving electrons when they collide and interact with the target anode. In this process of deceleration more than 99% of the electron energy is converted into heat and less than 1% of energy is converted into X-ray production.
An X-ray tube functions as a specific energy converter, receiving the electrical energy and converting it into two other forms of energy: x-radiation and heat. Heat is considered the undesirable product of this conversion process; therefore X-radiation is created by taking the energy from the el...
Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis is an uncommon inflammatory disease of the gallbladder which may be difficult to differentiate from malignancy, both on imaging and pathologically. It is characterised by presence of multiple intramural nodules.
It is seen predominantly in female ...
Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP) is a rare form of chronic pyelonephritis and represents a chronic granulomatous disease resulting in a non-functioning kidney. Radiographic features are usually specific.
Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is seen essentially in all age gro...
Xanthomatous meningiomas are rare histological variants of meningiomas grouped into the subtype of metaplastic meningiomas, being WHO grade I tumours. They are characterised by cells with a lipid-filled vacuolated cytoplasm.
Although reported numbers are too small to confirm that this is defini...
An XCCL view is a supplementary mammographic view. It is a type of exaggerated cranio-caudal view. It is particularly good for imaging the lateral aspect of the breast.
It is often done when a lesion is suspected on a MLO view but cannot be seen on the CC view. In this view, the lateral aspect...
An XCCM view is a supplementary mammographic view. It is a type of exaggerated cranio-caudal view. It is particularly good for imaging the medial portion of the breast. In this view, the medial portion of the breast is placed forward. A negative 15° tube tilt is suggested.
An optimal XCCM view ...
Xenon-127 is a radiopharmaceutical principally used when a performing VQ scan. It is an not widely used alternative to xenon-133 with the main advantage being a higher proton energy allowing for post perfusion scanning.
photon energy: 203 KeV
physical half life: 36.3 days
Xenon-133 is a radiopharmaceutical principally used when a performing VQ scan. Inhalation of this gas can also be used to assess cerebral blood flow.
photon energy: 81 KeV
physical half life: 5.27 days
biological half life: 30 seconds
normal distribution: lungs
<15% of inhaled gas is abs...