Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

16,067 results found
Article

Orbital septum

The orbital septum (plural: orbital septa) is a thin sheet of fibrous tissue that originates from the orbital rim periosteum and blends with the tendon of the levator palpebrae superioris superiorly and inserts into the tarsal plate inferiorly. The orbital septum separates the intra-orbital fat...
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Pronator quadratus sign

The pronator quadratus sign, also known as MacEwan sign, can be an indirect sign of distal forearm trauma. It relies on displacement of the fat pad that lies superficial to the pronator quadratus muscle as seen on a lateral wrist radiograph. Pathology Displacement, anterior bowing, or oblitera...
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Ejaculatory duct

The ejaculatory ducts are paired structures of the male reproductive system and convey seminal fluid. Gross anatomy Each ejaculatory duct is formed by the union of the excretory duct of the seminal vesicle and the ampulla of the ductus deferens and is approximately 2 cm long. The ducts course ...
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Chronic granulomatous disease (pulmonary manifestations)

Pulmonary manifestations of chronic granulomatous disease can be seen in approximately 80% of cases of chronic granulomatous disease, which is a disease characterized by multiple bacterial and fungal infections occurring as a result of a defect in the gene that encodes NADPH oxidase. The most c...
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Teardrop sign (ankle)

The ankle teardrop sign is one of the radiological signs of an ankle joint effusion. It represents the presence of excess fluid in the inferior part of the anterior compartment of the ankle. Pathology Etiology trauma gout rheumatoid arthritis synovitis septic arthritis Radiographic featu...
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Seminal vesicle

The seminal vesicles are paired accessory sex glands of the male reproductive system. The seminal vesicle produces over two-thirds of the ejaculate and is very high in fructose.  Gross anatomy The seminal vesicle is actually a 10-15 cm long tubular structure but is coiled tightly so it only me...
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Prostatic calcification

Prostatic calcifications are a common finding in the prostate gland, especially after the age of 50. They may be solitary but usually occur in clusters 7. Epidemiology They are rare in children, infrequent below age 40, and common in those over 50. Their number and size increase with age 8. Re...
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Teardrop sign (superior mesenteric vein)

The teardrop sign of the superior mesenteric vein is one of the important signs in the local staging of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Its importance lies in its diagnostic, as well as prognostic, significance. This sign is used in assessing the resectability of pancreatic cancer. Radiographic feat...
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Thickening of bronchovascular bundles

Thickening of bronchovascular bundles is a chest CT imaging feature that can be observed in a number of entities. It has some overlap with the terms peribronchovascular interstitial thickening and peribronchovascular thickening. Pathology Causes Conditions that can result in bronchovascular b...
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Uterine smooth muscle tumors of uncertain malignant potential

Uterine smooth muscle tumors of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP) is a recently defined entity by the World Health Organization for a heterogeneous group of uterine smooth muscle tumors that cannot be histologically diagnosed as unequivocally benign or malignant 1. See also WHO classificat...
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Prostate

The prostate gland is part of the male reproductive system and is the largest male accessory gland. It typically weighs between 20-40 grams with an average size of 3 x 4 x 2 cm. The prostate is comprised of 70% glandular tissue and 30% fibromuscular or stromal tissue 1-3 and provides ~30% of the...
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Widening of the presacral space (differential)

Widening of the presacral space is one of the diagnostic indicators of diseases involving pelvic pathology and rectal involvement. It is ideally measured on barium studies at the level of S3/4 disc level on lateral radiographs and the normal value of the presacral space is <15 mm in adults.​ Th...
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Acute lung transplant rejection

Acute lung transplant rejection is one of the early post lung transplant complications. Epidemiology It can occur as several episodes and the first episode may occur early as 5 days after transplantation. The incidence is thought to peak at approximately 2 months post-transplantation (with sev...
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Penile fracture

Penile fracture or rupture is a rare event, however one that requires emergency diagnosis and intervention. It is a rupture of the penile tunica albuginea of the corpora cavernosa or spongiosum caused by trauma to an erect penis, most commonly during sexual intercourse. The urologist needs to kn...
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Pseudogallbladder sign

Pseudogallbladder sign is a sonographic feature that can be seen in some children with biliary atresia. Radiographic features Ultrasound Appears as a cystic structure seen in the liver which is confused with gallbladder in a few cases of biliary atresia. In these patients it is an important f...
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Epiglottis

The epiglottis is a single midline leaf-shaped fibrocartilaginous structure that forms part of the supraglottic larynx and defines the division of the hypopharynx from the larynx.  Gross anatomy The epiglottis projects posterosuperiorly from its stem-like base, which is attached to the thyroid...
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Pulmonary-renal syndromes

Pulmonary-renal syndromes refer to a group of conditions that can affect the lung and kidneys. These conditions are typically characterized by diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and glomerulonephritis.  Diseases that can result in a pulmonary-renal syndrome includes: certain pulmonary vasculitides c...
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Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody associated vasculitides

Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) - associated vasculitides refer to a group of heterogeneous autoimmune diseases characterized by necrotizing vasculitides and positive ANCA titers. They are reactive to either proteinase-3 (PR3-ANCA) - cANCA or myeloperoxidase (MPO-ANCA) - pANCA. These...
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Nodule-in-nodule appearance (liver)

In hepatic imaging, a nodule-in-nodule appearance represents foci of abnormal arterial enhancement within a liver lesion, in cases of a liver regenerative nodule with a focus of hepatocellular carcinoma or high-grade dysplastic nodule. It is so called because of the nodular arterial enhancement ...
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Vanishing vertebrae

Vanishing vertebrae is a rare ischemic manifestation of sickle cell disease, in which a completely infarcted vertebral body literally disappears or vanishes, as a result of infarction. In the few reported cases, the posterior elements remain intact. See also codfish or h-shaped vertebrae ante...
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Tower vertebrae

Tower vertebrae are a rare manifestation of sickle cell disease, in which short infarcted vertebrae are seen adjacent to other abnormally grown in height vertebrae.  See also codfish or H-shaped vertebrae anterior vertebral vascular notches vanishing vertebrae
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Gonadal vein

The gonadal veins are paired structures that drain the gonads in males and females. In males it is called the testicular vein (or internal spermatic vein) and in females it is called the ovarian vein. The gonadal veins are paired with the gonadal arteries and ascend in the abdomen along the psoa...
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Breast varix

Breast varix is, as the name suggests, varices in the breast that are focally dilated veins in the breast.  Pathology If varices are seen bilaterally then a cause for central venous obstruction (superior vena cava syndrome) could be the underlying etiology with the varices being a part of the ...
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Radiation-induced MRI signal changes in bone marrow

Radiation-induced MRI signal changes in bone marrow are the earliest detectable changes in bone. Their severity correlates with increasing radiation dose. Pathology 1st week: decreased marrow cellularity with edema and hemorrhage 2nd week: increased marrow cellularity due to influx from non-i...
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Mandibular osteoradionecrosis

Mandibular osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is more common after radiation therapy for head and neck malignancies due to the superficial position of the mandible, which exposes it to high radiation. The maxilla can also be involved, but this is less frequent.  Epidemiology Mandibular ORN may occur in ...
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Breast aneurysm

Breast aneurysms are a rarely seen cause of a breast mass. Pathology Types true aneurysm: occurs post trauma and is seen as a slowly enlarging pulsatile mass false aneurysm / pseudoaneurysm: occurs in acute trauma, post percutaneous biopsy, due to spontaneous hemorrhage secondary to coagulop...
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Mushroom cap sign (endometriosis)

The mushroom cap sign is one of the important signs of deep rectosigmoid endometriosis seen on T2 weighted MRI sequence. It indicates the submucosal involvement in the rectosigmoid colon. The hypertrophic muscularis propria appears as heterogeneous low signal intensity surrounded by the high sig...
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Layers of the scrotum (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to recall the layers of the scrotum is: Some Damn Englishman Called It The Testes Mnemonic S: skin D: dartos fascia and muscle E: external spermatic fascia C: cremasteric fascia I: internal spermatic fascia T: tunica vaginalis T: tunica albuginea
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Male reproductive system

The male reproductive system (or tract) includes: penis testes epididymides ductus deferentia ejaculatory ducts seminal vesicles prostate bulbourethral glands It can be imaged using almost the entire range of imaging modalities but ultrasound and MRI are most often used (in part because...
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Ureterovaginal fistula

Ureterovaginal fistulae refer to abnormal communications between the lumina of the ureter(s) and the vagina.  Clinical presentation Patients usually present with urinary incontinence through the vagina which may be accompanied by fever and chills 1. Symptoms usually begin within 2-4 weeks foll...
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Carotid cave

The carotid cave is a potential dural space formed by the redundant distal dural ring on the medial aspect of the clinoid segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA). It has been reported to be present in ~80% of cadaveric specimens 3. Gross anatomy The clinoid segment of the ICA is bounded b...
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Puerperal mastitis

Puerperal mastitis refers to mastitis occurring during pregnancy and lactation. Epidemiology It occurs most often during breast feeding and is rarely encountered during pregnancy. Pathology The source of infection is the nursing infants nose and throat; the organisms being Staphylococcus aur...
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Gigantomastia

Gigantomastia (also known as macromastia or mammomegaly) is the term employed when there is massive breast enlargement. It is often associated with pregnancy. It may be rarely unilateral. Gigantomastia is a very common condition characterized by proliferation of either breast fatty tissue or gl...
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Baxter neuropathy

Baxter neuropathy is a nerve entrapment syndrome resulting from the compression of the inferior calcaneal nerve (Baxter nerve). Clinical presentation heel pain with maximal tenderness over the course of the inferior calcaneal nerve (on the plantar medial aspect of the foot and anterior to the ...
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Middle cerebral artery fenestration

Middle cerebral artery (MCA) fenestration is a very rare anatomical variant of the middle cerebral artery, incidentally found during MR or CT angiography. It has an incidence of ~0.6% (range 0.2-1%) 1. Fenestration is the division of the vessel into two separate parallel channels which rejoin d...
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Alveolar sarcoidosis

Alveolar sarcoidosis is an atypical pulmonary manifestation of sarcoidosis.  Epidemiology This appearance may be apparent in approximately 4% of those with pulmonary sarcoidosis on plain film 1 and up to 15% on CT 2. Pathology This appearance is thought to result from the aggregation of a va...
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Pulmonary arterial webs

In thoracic imaging, a pulmonary arterial web is given to describe fibrotic bands which are delicate ribbonlike structures anchored to the vessel wall at two ends with a free unattached mid portion. Sometimes, the term ‘web’ is also used to describe a bands that have branches and form networks o...
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Pharmaceuticals used in nuclear imaging

There are several drugs which are useful for evaluation of nuclear studies for respective systems. These drugs play an important role in monitoring the physiological changes and aiding in diagnosis. Drugs used are metoclopramide and erythromycin in gastrointestinal scintigraphy; used for gastr...
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Maydl hernia

Maydl hernias (alternative plural: herniae) are defined as the presence of two small bowel loops within a single hernial sac, that is, there are two efferent and two afferent loops of bowel, forming a "W" shape. Hence sometimes known as a W hernia or a hernia-in-W. This type of hernia is more p...
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Pantaloon hernia

A pantaloon hernia (or "Saddlebag" hernia) is defined as any combination of two adjacent hernia sacs of the femoral or inguinal region (direct or indirect inguinal hernias (alternative plural: herniae)) on the same side.2 Thus, examples include: femoral with direct hernias, femoral with indirect...
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Gestational and secretory hyperplasia

Gestational and secretory hyperplasia are pregnancy and lactation related physiological changes occurring in breast tissues. Pathology The normal physiology of pregnancy causes a lobular enlargement of terminal duct lobular units along with formation of new ones during the second month of gest...
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Candida pneumonia

Candida pneumonia is form of pulmonary candidiasis where there is air space opacification due opportunistic infection by the fungus Candida albicans. It typically occurs in immunocompromised patients. Due to the organism normally being present as part of oro-pharyngeal flora the diagnosis is oft...
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Pulmonary candidiasis

Pulmonary candidiasis is a form of pulmonary fungal infection and refers to an opportunistic infection of the lung with the fungus Candida albicans. This organism is part of the normal human microbial flora of the oral cavity. Most patients with pulmonary candidiasis tend to have widespread syst...
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Lipoblastoma

Lipoblastoma is a rare, benign, encapsulated tumor arising from embryonic white fat. Epidemiology It occurs primarily in infancy and early childhood (more than 90% before age 3 years). Clinical presentation May present as a rapidly enlarging mass 4. It most often occurs in the extremities an...
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Mediastinal lipomatosis

Mediastinal lipomatosis refers to a condition where there is a deposition of a large amount of mature adipose tissue in the mediastinum. It is a relatively common benign cause of mediastinal widening.   Epidemiology Associations steroid use Cushing syndrome obesity 1 Pathology Mediastinal...
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Prussak space

Prussak space is a subcomponent of the lateral epitympanic space and extends from the level of the scutum to the umbo. This space is best demonstrated on the oblique coronal image.  Gross anatomy Boundaries lateral: pars flaccida of the tympanic membrane and the scutum medial: neck of the ma...
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Intrathoracic kidney

An intrathoracic kidney is a very rare form of ectopic kidney. There has been no reported increased incidence of stones or infections as can be seen with other forms of ectopic kidneys. The adrenal glands are usually normal in location. Epidemiology Thoracic ectopic kidney is rare with male pr...
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Horseshoe lung

Horseshoe lung is one of the rare congenital anomalies of the lung. A band of pulmonary parenchyma is formed extending between the right and left lungs. The pulmonary tissue can be seen either anterior to the aorta or posterior to the pericardium at its caudal aspect. Epidemiology Associations...
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Chorda tympani

The chorda tympani is a nerve that arises from the mastoid segment of the facial nerve, carrying afferent special sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue via the lingual nerve, as well as efferent parasympathetic secretomotor innervation to the submandibular and sublingual glands. ...
Article

Foramen of Rouviere

The foramen of Rouviere is a rarely seen space in the shoulder joint capsule between middle and inferior glenohumeral ligaments and it may communicate with the subcoracoid recess (inferior subscapularis recess). It should not be confused with an acquired defect.
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Renal vein

The renal veins are asymmetric paired retroperitoneal veins that drain the kidneys.  Gross anatomy Course The renal vein is formed by the union of two-to-three renal parenchymal veins in the renal sinus. It emerges from the renal hilum anterior to the renal artery and drains into the inferior...
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Nephroptosis

Nephroptosis, also known as floating/wandering kidney or ren mobilis, refers to the descent of the kidney more than 5 cm or two vertebral bodies when the patient moves from a supine to upright position during IVU 1,2. Displacement can also occur medially across the midline, so-called medial nep...
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Abnormal renal rotation

Abnormal renal rotation, also known as renal malrotation, refers to an anatomical variation in the position of the kidneys, in particular to anomalous orientation of the renal hilum. It may occur unilaterally or bilaterally. It is almost always an asymptomatic incidental finding. Epidemiology ...
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Foramen of Weitbrecht

The foramen of Weitbrecht is a small opening in the glenohumeral joint capsule between superior and middle glenohumeral ligaments and is seen communicating with the subtendinous bursa of the subscapularis muscle.
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Chronic beryllium lung disease

Chronic beryllium lung disease (CBD) or sometimes just simply known as berylliosis refers to lung changes that can be seen with prolonged exposure to beryllium which is an alkaline earth metal that is used in many different industrial applications. Epidemiology It is reported to occur in 2-5% ...
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Chronic granulomatous disease

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) refers to a heterogeneous group of inherited immune deficiency disorders characterized by the inability to destroy phagocytosed catalase-positive bacteria due to a lack of NADPH oxidase which results in formation of granulomas in different tissues. Epidemiolo...
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Ciliated hepatic foregut cyst

Ciliated hepatic foregut cysts are a very rare type of hepatic cyst, with non-specific radiological features. They are usually benign, but rare cases of malignant degeneration (to squamous cell carcinoma) have also been reported.  Epidemiology They are more often seen in adults, although a few...
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Renal pelvis

The renal pelvis (or, more rarely, the renal infundibulum) forms part of the pelvicalyceal system of the kidney and is the connection between the calyces and the ureter. Gross anatomy The renal pelvis is triangular in shape, lies posteriorly in the renal hilum surrounded by fat and vessels and...
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Pulmonary aspiration diseases

Pulmonary aspiration diseases comprise a broad spectrum of conditions that can occur related to aspiration of various contents. These include: according to content  gastric acid aspiration: Mendelson syndrome aspiration of partially-digested food aspiration of water near-drowning pulmonary ...
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Necrotizing sarcoid granulomatosis

Necrotizing sarcoid granulomatosis (NSG) is a rare systemic disease, characterized by sarcoid-like granuloma formation, vasculitis and variable degrees of necrosis. It is sometimes classified under the group of pulmonary angiitis and granulomatosis. Terminology This remains a controversial ent...
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Pulmonary arterial aneurysm

Pulmonary arterial aneurysms refer to a focal dilatation of the pulmonary arterial system. Epidemiology Overall it is considered a rare entity with autopsy prevalence rates of around 1 in 14,000 to 100,000 4,5. Pathology A true pulmonary artery aneurysm results from dilatation of all three l...
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Urinary bladder diverticulum

A urinary bladder diverticulum (plural: diverticula) is an outpouching from the bladder wall, whereby mucosa herniates through the bladder wall. It may be solitary or multiple in nature and can vary considerably in size. Epidemiology There are two peaks; one at 10 years and the other at 60-70 ...
Article

Pulmonary blastomycosis

Pulmonary blastomycosis refers to respiratory infection with the organism Blastomyces dermatitidis. It is a pyogranulomatous fungal infection and the respiratory system is the commonest site of infection with this organism. The disease is endemic to North America. Clinical presentation There c...
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Acute idiopathic scrotal edema

Acute idiopathic scrotal edema (AISE) is a self-limiting condition characterized by marked edema of the skin and dartos fascia without involvement of the deeper layers, testes, or epididymis. It is an important condition to recognize in order to avoid unnecessary surgical exploration. Epidemiol...
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Granulomatous lung disease

Granulomatous lung disease refers to a broad group of infectious and non-infectious conditions characterized by the formation of granulomas. The spectrum includes: infectious mycobacterial pulmonary tuberculosis pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection fungal pulmonary coccidioido...
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Hot tub lung

Hot tub lung refers to pulmonary disease in otherwise healthy patients that can occur by secondary exposure to aerosolized non-tuberculous mycobacteria in contaminated hot water-steam (classically described in hot tubs, hence the name).  Clinical presentation It can present as an acute pulmona...
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Pulmonary angiitis and granulomatosis

Pulmonary angiitis and granulomatosis refers to group of conditions where there is a vascular (angiitis) as well as granulomatous component. At least five distinct clinical syndromes are known, which include: eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (previously known as Churg-Strauss syndr...
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Lymph node imaging

Lymph node imaging is a useful technique, aiding the clinician in determining whether nodes are benign or malignant. Multiple modalities are used for the assessment and characterization of lymph nodes, each with its advantages and drawbacks. Modalities Ultrasound size  number shape contour...
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Kim lesion (shoulder)

Kim lesions are superficial tears between the posterior glenoid labrum and glenoid articular cartilage without labral detachment. Failure to identify and treat this lesion may lead to permanent posterior instability.  Pathology It typically results from a posteroinferiorly directed force on th...
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Posterior labrocapsular periosteal sleeve avulsion lesion

A posterior labrocapsular periosteal sleeve avulsion (or POLPSA) lesion occurs when trauma causes the posterior scapular periosteum and posterior labrum of the glenohumeral joint to strip off leading to a redundant recess. Epidemiology Associations Bennett lesion is associated according to so...
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Reverse Bankart lesion

Reverse Bankart lesion is defined as the detachment of posteroinferior labrum with avulsion of posterior capsular periosteum. This leads to laxity of the posterior band of the inferior glenohumeral ligament with posterior displacement of the humeral head. As is the case with a Bankart lesion, t...
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Reverse Hill-Sachs defect

Reverse Hill-Sachs defect, also called a McLaughlin lesion, is defined as an impaction fracture of anteromedial aspect of the humeral head following posterior dislocation of the humerus. It is of surgical importance to identify this lesion and correct it to prevent avascular necrosis. Radiograp...
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Macrocystic honeycombing

Macrocystic honeycombing refers to a morphological subtype of honeycombing. Many publications consider the individual lung cysts to be greater than 4 mm in diameter to be classified into this category.  This form is considered to be more commonly associated with UIP 3.
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Paracicatricial emphysema

Paracicatricial emphysema is a morphological sub type of pulmonary emphysema.  Pathology In this form, emphysematous spaces are seen adjacent to areas of scarring with latter usually caused by silicosis, granulomatous infection, tuberculosis, pneumonia or pulmonary infarction. Radiographic fe...
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Intraventricular metastases

Intraventricular metastases are a very rare finding. A few intracranial tumors and some extracranial tumors metastasize to the ventricles. The most common site of intraventricular metastasis is the trigone of the lateral ventricles due to high vascularity of the choroid plexuses. The next most c...
Article

Fetal chylothorax

Fetal chylothorax is defined as the presence of lymphatic fluid within the pleural cavity of the fetus. Pathology Associations pulmonary hypoplasia hydrops fetalis premature delivery Radiographic features Antenatal ultrasound may show echogenic fluid in the pleural cavities Treatment S...
Article

Occipital vertebra

Occipital vertebrae are very rare anatomical variants that result from incomplete or aberrant fusion of occipital bone ossification centers. There is a broad spectrum of occipital vertebrae variations and the four most common include: third condyle (condylus tertius) basilar process paracondy...
Article

Vertebral hemangioma

Vertebral hemangiomas are the most common benign vertebral neoplasms. They are usually asymptomatic and incidentally detected due to their characteristic features on imaging for other reasons. Rarely, they can be locally aggressive (see: aggressive vertebral hemangioma). Please refer to the art...
Article

Entorhinal cortex

The entorhinal cortex (plural: cortices) (a.k.a. Brodmann area 28) is located in the mesial temporal lobe and acts as the interface between the hippocampus and the neocortex. It has been considered part of the hippocampal formation (along with Ammon’s horn, subiculum and presubiculum), but is di...
Article

Bilobed testis

Bilobed testis, also known as incomplete unilateral polyorchidism, is a very rare congenital variant in children, and considered to be an incomplete form of polyorchidism. Epidemiology Associations malignancy cryptorchidism inguinal hernia hydrocele infertility varicocele testicular tor...
Article

Achilles tendon xanthoma

Achilles tendon xanthomata are painless soft tissue masses occurring most commonly at the distal portion of the tendon and are usually bilateral and symmetrical. Pathology Characterized by localized accumulation of lipid-laden macrophages, inflammatory cells and giant cells secondary to choles...
Article

Accessory renal artery

Accessory renal arteries are a common variant of the renal arteries. They are present in ~25% (range 20-30%) of the population and bilateral in ~10% 1. Accurate identification is of utmost importance for surgical planning prior to live donor transplantation 2,3 and renal artery embolization for ...
Article

Herringbone artifact

Herringbone artifact, also known as spike artifact, crisscross artifact, or corduroy artifact, is an MRI artifact related to one or few aberrant data point(s) in k-space. In image space, the regularly spaced stripes resemble the appearance of a fabric with a herringbone pattern. The artifact cov...
Article

Urinary system

The urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureter, bladder and urethra. With the exception of the urethra, this is the same in both males and females.  It spans the abdomen and pelvis, from the upper abdomen to the extreme pelvis, being inextricably linked with the genital system. The urinary ...
Article

Relaxometry

Relaxometry is measurement of relaxation times from MR images. T1, T2 and T2* can be estimated using the appropriate pulse sequence and parameters. T2 relaxometry has found useful in quantitating signal changes on T2-weighted images as in evaluating mesial temporal sclerosis. Details T2 relaxo...
Article

Kidneys

The kidneys are paired retroperitoneal organs that lie at the level of the T12 to L3 vertebral bodies. Gross anatomy Location The kidneys are located on the posterior abdominal wall, with one on either side of the vertebral column, in the perirenal space. The long axis of the kidney is parall...
Article

Shmoo sign

Shmoo sign refers to the appearance of a prominent, rounded left ventricle and dilated aorta on a plain PA chest radiograph giving the appearance of Shmoo, a fictional cartoon character in the comic strip Li'l Abner, which first appeared in 1948 5. This sign is indicative of left ventricular enl...
Article

Apophysis

The apophysis is a normal secondary ossification center that is located in the non-weight-bearing part of the bone and eventually fuses with it over time (most of the apophyses fuse during the 2nd decade of life, but this process can be delayed, especially in female athletes). The apophysis is a...
Article

Intervention curriculum

The interventional radiology curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core interventional knowledge. As the different procedures are intrinsically linked to the various radiology subspecialties, its content is mixed with some of the ...
Article

Paratracheal air cyst

Paratracheal air cysts are not an uncommon incidental finding in routine thoracic imaging. They characteristically occur on the right side, in the region of the thoracic outlet.  Occasionally it may mimic pneumomediastinum, so-called pseudopneumomediastinum. Terminology Paratracheal air cysts ...
Article

Pseudocalcifications in the breast

Pseudocalcifications and artifacts in the breast include  gold deposits in lymph nodes  from intramuscular gold therapy for rheumatoid arthritis  adhesive tape deodorant film-screen artifacts They should be differentiated from parenchymal calcification. Precautions to be taken are t...
Article

Eggshell calcification (breast)

Eggshell calcifications in the breast are benign peripheral rim like calcifications Pathology They are typically secondary to fat necrosis or calcification of oil cysts. Radiographic features thin rim-like calcification (<1 mm in thickness) lucent centers small to several centimeters in di...
Article

Breast calcifications (an approach)

An approach to breast calcifications in terms of imaging evaluation and biopsy aims to distinguish benign from malignant etiologies. This article overviews a general approach to the evaluation of breast calcifications. The types and descriptors of calcifications are detailed separately: breast c...

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