Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

16,067 results found
Article

Large rod like breast calcification

Large rod like calcifications are benign calcifications seen within ectatic ducts. Pathology Associations plasma cell mastitis Radiographic features >1 mm in diameter may have lucent centers (if calcium is only in walls of ducts) branching pattern may be seen radiation towards the nipple...
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Punctate microcalcification within the breast

Punctate microcalcifications within the breast are defined as calcific opacities <0.5 mm in diameter seen within the acini of a terminal ductal lobular unit. Epidemiology Associations fibrocystic changes skin calcification skin talc rarely in DCIS: punctate, clustered, segmentally distribu...
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Popcorn calcification within the breast

Popcorn calcification in the breast is the classical description for the calcification seen in involuting fibroadenomas which, as the name suggests, has a popcorn-like appearance.  Pathology A fibroadenoma in the long run may degenerate and calcify. Initially, there are a few punctate peripher...
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PGMI evaluation system

PGMI (Perfect, Good, Moderate, Inadequate) is a method of evaluation of clinical image quality in mammography developed by the United Kingdom Mammography Trainers Group with the support of the Royal College of Radiographers, aimed to ensure the maintenance of a high standard of mammography in Br...
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Fibrotic non-specific interstitial pneumonitis

Fibrotic non-specific interstitial pneumonitis is a histological subtype of non-specific interstitial pneumonitis (NSIP). It is considered the more common form 1. This pattern manifests as chronic interstitial inflammation obscured by interstitial fibrosis (with dense collagen), a temporal homog...
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Subcarinal air cyst

Subcarinal air cysts refer to small air cysts that can be detected on a CT scan. They are thought to represent small main bronchial diverticula although the former term is preferred 2. They may be associated with chronic airflow limitation. Clinical presentation Patients are asymptomatic and t...
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Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors

Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors (GI NETs) are neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the GI tract and can be functional or non-functional: functional NETs can be challenging to localize as:  they are often small in size at the time of diagnosis arise in many sites throughout the body non-fun...
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Reactive arthritis

Reactive arthritis (ReA) is a sterile inflammatory monoarticular or oligoarticular arthritis that follows an infection at a different site, commonly enteric or urogenital. It is classified as a type of seronegative spondyloarthropathy. Terminology Reactive arthritis was formerly known as Reite...
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Aberrations in the normal development and involution of the breast

Aberrations in the Normal Development and Involution of the breast (ANDI) is an overarching term used to describe a wide spectrum of benign breast disease. As the name suggests, it is based on the theory that most of the encountered benign breast disorders are aberrations in the normal developme...
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Oppenheimer ossicle

Oppenheimer ossicles are accessory ossicles associated with the facet joints and are found in ~4% (range 1-7%) of lumbar spines 1.  Gross anatomy Oppenheimer ossicles predominantly occur as a single, unilateral ossicle of the inferior articular processes of the lumbar spine although they can a...
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Montgomery glands

Montgomery glands are large sebaceous glands in the breast, representing a transition between a mammary gland and a sweat gland. Gross anatomy Located within the nipple-areolar complex, Montgomery glands open onto the skin surface via protrusions on the skin known as Montgomery tubercles. They...
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Lymphatic drainage of the breast

Lymphatic drainage of breast originates from breast lobules and flows through intramammary nodes and channels into a subareolar plexus, called Sappey’s plexus. From this plexus, lymphatic drainage takes place through three main routes that parallel venous tributaries. Lymphatics from the left br...
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Upper lobe pulmonary fibrosis

Upper lobe predominant pulmonary fibrosis can be associated with a number of pathologies. These include cystic fibrosis: see pulmonary manifestations of cystic fibrosis pulmonary sarcoidosis Langerhans cell histiocytosis pulmonary tuberculosis pneumoconioses silicosis allergic bronchopulm...
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Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis

Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) is a recently described rare, benign entity. About half of cases are felt to be idiopathic, with the other half secondary to underlying diseases or conditions (e.g. transplantation). Idiopathic cases belong to the group of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia...
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Pleural carcinomatosis

Pleural carcinomatosis is a descriptive term given to the diffuse and widespread spread of metastatic tumor through to the pleural space. It is reported to most commonly occur with breast, bronchogenic and gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas metastatic involvement 2. An accompanying serosanguinous ...
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Sesamoid ossicles of the nuchal ligament

Sesamoid ossicles of the nuchal ligament are a relatively common anatomical variant that are usually asymptomatic and most commonly occur at the C5-C6 or C6-C7 vertebral levels.  Epidemiology They occur in ~7.5% of the population, with a male predominance of 3:1 1.  Radiographic features Pla...
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Negative enhancement integral

The negative enhancement integral in MR perfusion is used to calculate the relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV).  It represents the area described by the baseline and the signal loss due to passage of contrast bolus in tissue. 
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Lung architectural distortion

Lung architectural distortion in thoracic radiology refers to a descriptive term give when the normal pulmonary bronchial, vascular, fissural or septal anatomy is disrupted and manifested as loss of smooth course of the fissures, crowding of dilated bronchioles or vessels with angulated course 1...
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Varicose bronchiectasis

Varicose bronchiectasis refers to an uncommon morphological subtype of bronchiectasis. According to one study, this type as a pure form accounted for ~10% of all bronchiectasis 1. For a general discussion, please refer to the article on bronchiectasis. Radiographic features There are intermit...
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Foregut duplication cyst

Foregut duplication cysts are a type of congenital duplication cyst. They are sometimes classified under bronchopulmonary foregut malformations. Entities classified as foregut duplication cysts include: bronchogenic cysts neurenteric cysts other enteric cysts esophageal duplication cysts l...
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Breast

The breast is an apocrine gland seen in both males and females. However, in females it has a specific function which is the production of milk for neonatal nutrition and immune function. Gross anatomy Composition The breast has an inhomogeneous structure which is predominantly composed of adi...
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Amazia

Amazia is a rare congenital condition defined by the absence of breast tissue (glandular parenchyma in either one or both of the breasts) and a normal nipple and areola complex. However, the most common etiology of amazia is iatrogenic; biopsy of the developing breast and the use of radiation th...
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Breast hypoplasia

Breast hypoplasia is a condition which is characterized by underdevelopment of the breast. Breast hypoplasia can be congenital or acquired. Pathology Congenital hypoplasia Associations include: ulnar-mammary syndrome Poland syndrome Turner syndrome congenital adrenal hyperplasia Acquired...
Article

Lumbar rib

Lumbar (or 13th) ribs are a rare anatomical variant and represent transitional vertebrae at the thoracolumbar junction with a prevalence of ~1% 1. It presents as an additional rib coming off T13 or L1 (depending on numbering classification) and may be unilateral or bilateral. Lumbar ribs are mos...
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Amastia

Amastia is a rare congenital condition characterized by the absence of breast tissue, nipple and areola. This may occur unilaterally or bilaterally. Pathology During embryological development, breasts first appear as ectoderm ridges during the 6th week of gestation. This ridge grows thicker an...
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Normal radiological reference values

A list of normal radiological reference values is as follows: adrenal gland: <1 cm thick, 4-6 cm length abdominal aorta: <3 cm diameter appendix: on CT <6 mm caliber atlantodental distance adults: <3 mm children: <5 mm azygos vein: on erect chest x-ray <10 mm diameter bladder wall: <3 mm...
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Pulmonary talc granulomatosis

Pulmonary talc granulomatosis is one of the forms of talc-induced pulmonary disease and one of the excipient lung diseases. It is caused by talc particles mainly seen in patients injecting crushed methadone tablets intravenously.  As pulmonary talc granulomatosis is clinically and radiologicall...
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Talc-induced lung disease

Talc-induced lung disease comprises of a group of pathologies that can occur related to exposure to the mineral talc (hydrated magnesium silicate). Four types of pulmonary disease secondary to talc exposure have been defined, these are: talcosilicosis - associated with occupational exposure t...
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Talc pulmonary embolism

Talc (magnesium trisilicate) pulmonary embolism is a rare cause of non thrombotic pulmonary embolism. It tends to be more prevalent in patients with narcotic abuse. Clinical presentation Most patients are asymptomatic although dyspnea and persistent cough occur with severe talc exposure. Clini...
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C sign - talocalcaneal coalition

The C sign is an important radiological sign which may be seen on a lateral radiograph of the ankle in those with the talocalcaneal subtype of tarsal coalition. It can be seen in both osseous and non-osseous coalition. Radiographic appearance A continuous C-shaped arc on a lateral ankle radiog...
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Carrying angle

Carrying angle is a small degree of cubitus valgus, formed between the axis of a radially deviated forearm and the axis of the humerus. It helps the arms to swing without hitting the hips while walking. In full flexion these axes become aligned.  Normally it is 14° (female) and 11° (male) away ...
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Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (breast manifestations)

Breast involvement in granulomatosis with polyangiitis is seen in patients with avid systemic manifestations.  Clinical presentation Clinically they can mimic carcinoma as a palpable, tender mass. Pathology Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (or formerly known as Wegeners granulomatosis) is a ...
Article

Mammary duct ectasia

Mammary duct ectasia is the abnormal widening of one or more breast ducts to greater than 2 mm diameter, or 3 mm at the ampulla. It can be due to benign or malignant processes. Terminology Some publications use this term synonymously with periductal mastitis 7 or plasma cell mastitis 10,11, wh...
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Breast amyloidosis

Amyloid deposition in the breast occurs predominantly in two forms breast involvement in primary amyloidosis - commoner in association with other conditions like multiple myeloma, plasmacytosis and rheumatoid arthritis and another in the localized form which is rarer.  Clinical presentation ...
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Supernumerary nipples

Supernumerary nipples, also known as accessory nipples or polythelia, are a common congenital malformation. The nipples may be either along the embryonic milk lines or beyond the milk lines, the latter type are called ectopic supernumerary nipples. Much more rarely, the nipples appear with compl...
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Cingulate gyrus

The cingulate gyrus lies on the medial aspect of the cerebral hemisphere. It forms a major part of the limbic system which has functions in emotion and behavior. The frontal portion is termed the anterior cingulate gyrus (or cortex) 1,2.  Gross anatomy Location The cingulate gyrus extends fro...
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Thoracoplasty

Thoracoplasty is a surgical procedure that was originally designed to permanently collapse the cavities of pulmonary tuberculosis by removing the ribs from the chest wall 1-3 . It involved resection of multiple ribs, allowed the apposition of parietal to the visceral or mediastinal pleura. Until...
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Pulmonary lymphoproliferative disease

Pulmonary lymphoproliferative disease refers to a diverse spectrum of conditions where there is an abnormal proliferation of indigenous cell lines or lung parenchymal infiltration by lymphoid cells. They can be focal or diffuse and may be classified as reactive or neoplastic on the basis of cell...
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Inflammatory bowel disease (thoracic manifestations)

Thoracic manifestations of both ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease can be variable and cannot be used to differentiate between these entities. They can develop at any time with respect to the clinical onset of the underlying disease. Actually, they can also predate the colonic disease or deve...
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Wackenheims line

Wackenheims line (also known as the clivus canal line or basilar line) is formed by drawing a line along the clivus and extending it inferiorly to the upper cervical canal. Normally the tip of the dens is ventral and tangential to this line. In basilar invagination odontoid process transects th...
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Ranawat's line

Ranawat's line is the perpendicular distance between the center of the sclerotic ring of C2 and a line drawn along the axis of the C1 vertebra. Normal value is 17 mm in males and 15 mm in females. It is decreased in basilar invagination. History and etymology Chitranjan S Ranawat (fl. 2020) i...
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Boogard's angle

Boogard's angle is measured by drawing a line from basion to opisthion and another line along the plane of the clivus to the basion intersecting the first line - the angle between these two lines is measured. The normal angle is 126° +/- 6°. If the angle measures more than 136° it is indicative...
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Klaus height index

Klaus height index is the distance between tip of the dens and the tuberculum torcula line (Twining's line) 1,2. A normal height is 40-41 mm. A decreased Klaus height index is seen in basilar invagination.
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McRae line

McRae line is a radiographic line drawn on a lateral skull radiograph or on a midsagittal section of CT or MRI that connects the anterior and posterior margins of the foramen magnum (basion to opisthion). Significance indicates the presence of basilar invagination (atlantoaxial impaction): the...
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Sleeve gastrectomy

Sleeve gastrectomy is a bariatric surgical procedure involving resection of the greater curvature of the fundus and body of the stomach to leave approximately 15% of the original gastric volume (60-100 mL), thus creating functional restriction. The postsurgical gastric pouch resembles a banana-s...
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Renal amyloidosis

Renal amyloidosis is rare as an isolated entity but can be associated with systemic amyloidosis.  Epidemiology Renal involvement is estimated to affect a large proportion of the patients with systemic amyloidosis, with about half of them dying of renal failure complications 8.  Clinical prese...
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Splenic amyloidosis

Splenic amyloidosis is rare as an isolated entity. Most often it is associated with either systemic amyloidosis or hepatic amyloidosis. Epidemiology In general, splenic involvement in amyloidosis is rather frequent (5-10% of cases 6,7). Clinical presentation Symptoms include abdominal mass a...
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Deductive echocardiography

Deductive echocardiography is a step-by-step approach in diagnosing and differentiating congenital heart disease. Parameters assessed position of heart  levocardia dextrocardia visceroatrial situs solitus inversus ambiguus ventricular loop D-loop L-loop conotruncus normal transpose...
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Chronic mesenteric ischemia

Chronic mesenteric ischemia, also known as intestinal angina, is an uncommon type of intestinal ischemia usually affecting elderly patients as a result of significant stenosis of two or more mesenteric arteries. Epidemiology Normally seen in patients older than 60 years of age and is three tim...
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Isolated periaortitis

Isolated periaortitis is a non-aneurysmal form of chronic periaortitis. Clinical features pain fever fatigue weight loss anemia mesenteric arterial ischemia: abdominal pain, diarrhea, and gastrointestinal hemorrhage  renal artery stenosis: renovascular hypertension  vascular impairment ...
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Peri-aneurysmal retroperitoneal fibrosis

Perianeurysmal retroperitoneal fibrosis is a subtype of a spectrum of retroperitoneal fibrosis. It is characterized by association with an inflammatory aneurysm, adventitial and periadventitial inflammation, medial thinning and chronic retroperitoneal inflammatory process which is associated wit...
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Idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis

Idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis, also known as Ormond disease or occasionally Albarran-Ormond syndrome 6, is a subtype of retroperitoneal fibrosis where no cause is found. It includes a spectrum of diseases which are characterized by fibroinflammatory tissue encasing the abdominal aorta and ...
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Aortoenteric fistula

Aortoenteric fistulas are pathologic communications between the aorta (or aortoiliac tree) and the gastrointestinal tract and represent an uncommon cause of catastrophic gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Aortic fistulas may be considered primary (associated with a complicated abdominal aortic aneury...
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CT artifacts

CT artifacts are common and can occur for various reasons. Knowledge of these artifacts is important because they can mimic pathology (e.g. partial volume artifact) or can degrade image quality to non-diagnostic levels. CT artifacts can be classified according to the underlying cause of the art...
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CT guided adrenal biopsy

CT guided adrenal biopsy is usually performed for the diagnosis of indeterminate adrenal nodules or tumors. This procedure has declined in recent years due to improvements in, and validation of, non-invasive CT and MR techniques that can now diagnose benign adrenal lesions with a high degree of ...
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Transjugular renal biopsy

Transjugular renal biopsy can be performed to obtain an adequate tissue sample for histopathologic diagnosis on renal dysfunctions. It is usually performed in high-risk patients in whom percutaneous renal biopsy is not feasible or is contraindicated. This is also useful in morbidly obese patient...
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Hepatisation of the gallbladder

Hepatisation of the gallbladder is a sonographic entity in which the gallbladder lumen is entirely filled with tumefactive sludge giving the gallbladder a similar appearance to liver parenchyma. It is one of the causes of non-visualization of the gallbladder on sonography. Pathology In the set...
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Double aortic arch

Double aortic arches are the most common symptomatic type of the aortic arch variant. It may account for up to 50-60% of vascular rings. Clinical presentation Double aortic arch is mostly diagnosed in childhood due to symptoms related to esophageal and/or tracheal obstruction. Respiratory symp...
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Tangential calcium sign

A tangential calcium sign is a sign seen with an aortic aneurysm rupture. The calcified intimal rim is discontinuous and is seen to tangentially point away from the aneurysmal lumen. This sign is seen at the point of breach. There is associated retroperitoneal leakage.
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Aortocaval fistula

Aortocaval fistula is a rare and devastating complication of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), in which the aneurysm erodes into the inferior vena cava. Epidemiology Spontaneous rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm into the adjacent inferior vena cava occurs in <1% of all aneurysms and in ~...
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Abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture is a feared complication of abdominal aortic aneurysm and is a surgical emergency. It is part of the acute aortic syndrome spectrum. Epidemiology Abdominal aortic aneurysms are common and affect ~7.5% of patients aged over 65 years 6. Clinical presentat...
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Exophytic hepatic mass

Exophytic hepatic mass or tumor is a lesion which predominantly lies outside the margins of liver but originates from within the liver. Pathology Causes include 1: benign  hepatic hemangioma hepatic adenoma hepatic cyst hepatic angiomyolipoma focal nodular hyperplasia malignant  hepati...
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Spontaneous retroperitoneal hemorrhage

Spontaneous retroperitoneal hemorrhage (SRH) is a distinctive clinical pathology of retroperitoneal bleeding without a preceding history of trauma. For a broader discussion, including other etiologies, please refer to the parental article on retroperitoneal hemorrhage.  Clinical presentation ...
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Retroperitoneal hemorrhage

Retroperitoneal hemorrhage can be a source of significant yet occult blood loss. Terminology Some articles conflate and/or confuse retroperitoneal hemorrhage and Wunderlich syndrome 5. However Wunderlich syndrome refers primarily to bleeding around the kidney, not the retroperitoneum in genera...
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Tumor-to-tumor metastasis

A tumor-to-tumor metastasis, also known as a collision tumor, is a rare metastatic process in which a primary malignant tumor ('donor') metastasizes to another tumor ('recipient'), most commonly a benign tumor such as a meningioma. Epidemiology Tumor-to-tumor metastasis is considered very rare...
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Small aorta (differential)

Causes of a small aorta include: Williams syndrome Takayasu arteritis giant cell arteritis neurofibromatosis midaortic syndrome small aorta syndrome idiopathic
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Splenic haemangiomatosis

Splenic haemangiomatosis involves multiple, diffuse splenic hemangiomas replacing its entire parenchyma and is very rare. Epidemiology Associations Reported associations include Klippel-Trénaunay-Weber syndrome Kasabach-Merritt syndrome 6 Pathology It can occur as a manifestation of syste...
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Pulmonary infiltrates

The term pulmonary infiltrate is considered a context-dependent, non-specific and imprecise descriptive term when used in radiology reports (plain film or CT). From a pathophysiological perspective, the term "infiltrate" refers to “an abnormal substance that accumulates gradually within cells o...
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Flash filling hepatic hemangioma

Flash filling hepatic hemangiomas, also known as flash filling hepatic venous malformations, are a type of atypical hepatic hemangioma, which due to its imaging features often raises the concern of a malignant process rather than a benign one.  Terminology It is important to note that accordin...
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Pulmonary sequestration (intralobar)

Intralobar pulmonary sequestration (ILS) is a subtype of pulmonary sequestration.  Clinical presentation Patients usually present before the third decade with recurrent infection. Pathology It is the commoner type of pulmonary sequestration (four times commoner than extralobar sequestration)...
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Thoracic endometriosis

Thoracic endometriosis is an uncommon location for endometriosis and the main cause of catamenial pneumothorax.  Epidemiology Most often occurs in the third and fourth decades of life 3. Clinical presentation Symptoms may include: catamenial pleuritic chest pain catamenial hemoptysis: when...
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Spoke wheel pattern in kidney

A spoke wheel pattern in renal imaging refers to a vascular appearance seen with certain renal tumors, typically seen in oncocytomas but can also be seen in renal cell carcinomas.  This appearance refers to a peripheral rim of vessels from which centripetal vessels converge centrally giving the...
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Threads and streaks sign

The threads and streaks sign refers to an angiographic appearance of a vascularized tumor thrombus extending into the ipsilateral renal vein or the inferior vena cava from a renal cell carcinoma. This gives an appearance of linear, thread-like or string-like appearance of the involved vessel.  ...
Article

Pie in the sky bladder

Pie in the sky bladder refers to the appearance of a contrast-opacified floating bladder seen high in the pelvis due to the presence of a large pelvic hematoma. This sign should raise concern regarding the possibility of an underlying urethral injury.
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Spaghetti sign (bladder)

The spaghetti sign may be seen in upper urinary tract bleeding. It refers to the presence of a linear worm- or spaghetti-like filling defect within a contrast-opacified bladder 1,2. This linear filling defect represents blood clot extruded from the ureter and thereby molded into a tubular shape...
Article

Os intermetatarseum

The os intermetatarseum is an uncommon accessory ossicle of the foot occurring in ~4% (range 1-7%) of the population.  Clinical presentation It is usually asymptomatic and an incidental finding although it can be a cause of dorsal midfoot pain.  Gross anatomy The os intermetarseum is typical...
Article

Extrapleural sign

The extrapleural sign, described by Ben Felson in 1973 1, refers to the appearance of a pulmonary opacity with oblique margins that taper slowly to the chest wall when the lesion is viewed tangentially to the x-ray beam. This appearance suggests that the lesion is pleural or extrapleural in natu...
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Male urethra

The male urethra is a fibromuscular tube that drains urine from the bladder. It has a longer, more complicated, course than the female urethra and is also more prone to pathology. Gross anatomy The male urethra measures, on average, 18-20 cm in length. It commences at the internal urethral ori...
Article

Myocardial bridging of the coronary arteries

Myocardial bridging is a common congenital anomaly of the coronary arteries where a coronary artery courses through the myocardium.  Epidemiology It is found approximately in 20-30% of the adult population in autopsy studies. The incidence in coronary angiograms is between 2-15% and can be eas...
Article

Bullet and bodkin sign

Bullet and bodkin sign is the appearance of the ureter when there is an abrupt transition in the ureteral caliber. Bullet in the name is represented by the dilated proximal ureteric segment which appears to be perched on the constricted / non-dilated encased ureter which gives an appearance of a...
Article

Maiden waist deformity

A maiden waist deformity or sign is a name given to the appearance when there is medial deviation of both ureters. This typically occurs in retroperitoneal fibrosis. In this condition, there is medial indrawing of the ureters due to deposition of fibrous tissue in the retroperitoneum at the leve...
Article

Moth eaten calyces

Moth eaten calyx refers to the ragged, feathery calyceal outline due to irregular erosions of the calyx. It is one of the earliest excretory urographic appearance of genitourinary tuberculosis.  Pathology This appearance is due to necrotizing papillitis, which may further progress to form medu...
Article

Renal hilar lip

A renal hilar lip is a developmental anomaly of the kidney. It is an infolding of the cortex at the level of the renal sinus and in this region the renal cortex appears thicker.  Radiographic features On imaging it appears as supra- or infra-hilar cortical bulges. At certain levels of cross-se...
Article

Kidney sweat sign

The kidney sweat sign refers to the presence of thin, hypoechoic, extracapsular fluid collections around kidneys in renal failure patients. This fluid is thought to represent perirenal edema. It can be appreciated on ultrasound, CT and MRI.  Differential diagnosis perirenal hematoma perirenal...
Article

Big rib sign

The big rib sign is a sign to differentiate right and left ribs on lateral chest radiographs.  It exploits a technique of magnification differences on lateral projections between right and left ribs. For example, on right lateral projections the left ribs appear larger than right ribs.  This s...
Article

Companion shadows

Companion shadows are smooth, homogeneous, radiopaque shadows running parallel along the bones. In a study of 700 chest radiographs, Ben Felson found that 75% had companion shadows on the lower ribs 3. Radiographic features They appear secondary to soft tissues and intercostal muscles running ...
Article

Pulmonary nodular lymphoid hyperplasia

Pulmonary nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (PNLH) is a type of benign lymphoproliferative disease that can affect the lung. Epidemiology It can present in any age group although the majority of cases present between 50 and 70 years of age 6. Clinical presentation Most cases are usually asymptoma...
Article

Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia

Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (NLH) is a type of rare, benign, lymphoproliferative disease. It is most commonly reported affecting the gastrointestinal and respiratory systems. The presence of gut/mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (GALT/MALT) can be seen in children and young adults as a normal ...
Article

Balloon on a string sign (ureter)

The balloon on a string sign refers to the appearance of the ureter on intravenous urography in ureteropelvic junction obstruction. It is seen due to the high and eccentric point of the exit of ureter from a dilated renal pelvis. 
Article

Spotted nephrogram

A spotted nephrogram is a descriptive term indicating an appearance of patchy, segmental and subsegmental renal parenchymal enhancement. Pathology The pattern is indicative of focal areas of cortical ischemia or necrosis, as a result of small vessel occlusion. This abnormal perfusion pattern c...
Article

Cystic lesions of the spleen (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for causes of cystic lesions in the spleen is: TEAM Mnemonic T: trauma E: echinococcal A: abscess M: metastasis
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Bladder wall calcification (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the causes of bladder wall calcification is: CREST Mnemonic C: cystitis post radiation therapy/chemotherapy/chronic infection R: radiation E: eosinophilic cystitis S: schistosomiasis T: tuberculosis
Article

Cleft epiphysis

Cleft epiphysis is a normal variant of an epiphysis. It can be either unilateral or bilateral. The most common site is the epiphysis of the first proximal phalanx of the foot. Radiographic features Plain radiograph Plain radiographs will demonstrate a lucent defect in the epiphysis. The borde...

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