Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

12,579 results found
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Widened intercondylar notch

A widened intercondylar notch on knee radiographs is a sign associated with: haemophilic arthropathy (most commonly bilateral) juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (most commonly bilateral) tuberculosis arthropathy (usually unilateral) 3
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Widening of diploic space

Widening of diploic space refers to expansion of the spongy or cancellous bone between the inner and outer tables of the calavarium. The diploic space is the medullary cavity of the skull, and a location of normal physiologic hematopoiesis in adults. Thus, expansion of this structure most common...
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Widening of interpedicular distance

The interpedicular (IP) distance, which is the distance measured between the pedicles on frontal/coronal imaging, can be widened in a number of situations. Pathology Causes include: diastematomyelia syringomyelia conditions that can cause dural ectasia (can potentially cause widening) Marf...
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Widening of the presacral space (differential)

Widening of the presacral space is one of the diagnostic indicators of the diseases involving pelvic pathology and rectal involvement. It is ideally measured on barium studies at the level of S3/4 disc level on lateral radiographs and the normal value of the presacral space is <15 mm in adults.​...
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Widow's peak hair anomaly

Widow's peak hair anomaly refers to a frontal hairline projection. Epidemiology Associations Aarskog syndrome Opitz syndrome Waardenburg syndrome frontonasal dysplasia craniofrontonasal dysplasia Clinical presentation Prominent V-shaped hairline projection. Ocular hypertelorism might be...
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Wildervanck syndrome

Wildervanck syndrome, also known as cervico-ocular-acoustic dysplasia, consists of the triad of: Klippel-Feil syndrome congenital ossicular anomalies: usually diffuse ossicular ankylosis and sensorineural deafness. Duane syndrome: an ocular motility disturbance due to fibrosis of the extraocu...
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Wilhelm Roentgen

Wilhelm C Roentgen (1845-1923) was a German physicist who is celebrated globally for his discovery of x-rays on November 8th 1895. Early life Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen (Röntgen in German) was born on March 27th 1845 in Lennep, Germany. He attended the primary and secondary school run by Martinus...
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Williams-Campbell syndrome

Williams-Campbell syndrome (WCS) is a rare form of congenital cystic bronchiectasis, in which distal bronchial cartilage is defective. Pathology It is thought to result from a deficiency of cartilage formation in the 4th to 6th order segmental bronchi. Radiographic features CT Shows cystic ...
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Williams syndrome

Williams syndrome (WS) is characterized by some or all or the following features: craniofacial dysmorphism (e.g. elfin facies) oral abnormalities short stature (50% of cases) mild to moderate mental retardation supravalvular aortic stenosis 2 pulmonary artery stenosis 3 renal insufficienc...
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Will Rogers phenomenon

The Will Rogers phenomenon is encountered in many disciplines but is particularly relevant to radiology in the setting of staging scans and is due to reclassifying borderline individuals also known as stage migration 1. The most common example in medicine is upstaging certain patients with mali...
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Wilms tumor

Wilms tumor, also known as nephroblastoma, is a malignant pediatric renal tumor. Epidemiology Wilms tumors are the most common paediatic renal mass, accounting for over 85% of cases 1,8 and accounts for 6% of all childhood cancers 2. It typically occurs in early childhood (1-11 years) with pea...
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Wilms tumor (staging)

Wilms' tumor staging is largely anatomical and relates to the invasion and spread of the tumor. Where there is invasion or metastasizes, prognosis is poorer. Wilms tumor, is one of the more common childhood malignancies. stage I confined to kidney complete resection possible stage II local ...
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Wilson disease

Wilson disease, also known as hepatolenticular degeneration, is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism affecting multiple systems.  Epidemiology Wilson disease is commonly found in Japan. It affects 1 in 30,000-40,000 individuals 12. Clinical presentation Clinical presentat...
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Wilson disease (CNS manifestations)

Wilson disease, also known as hepatolenticular degeneration, is a multisystem disease due to abnormal accumulation of copper. It is characterized by early onset liver cirrhosis with CNS findings most frequently affecting the basal ganglia and midbrain. This article aims to discuss the central n...
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Wilson disease (hepatobiliary manifestations)

Hepatobiliary manifestations of Wilson disease vary largely from fatty changes to cirrhosis and occasionally fulminant hepatic necrosis. They result from accumulation of copper in the liver. For a general discussion of the underlying condition, please refer to the article Wilson disease.  Epid...
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Wilson disease (musculoskeletal manifestations)

Wilson disease, also known as hepatolenticular degeneration, is a multisystem disease, which rarely has musculoskeletal manifestations secondary to the accumulation of copper in the articular cartilage.  Radiographic features Plain radiographs Reported manifestations include 1-3 premature os...
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Wilson Mikity syndrome

Wilson Mikity syndrome (WMS) refers to chronic lung disease in premature infants, characterized by early development of cystic interstitial emphysema (PIE). This is now sometimes considered as part of the spectrum of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. See also chronic pulmonary insufficiency of prema...
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Wimberger ring sign

Wimberger ring sign , often simply just called Wimberger ring, refers to a circular calcification surrounding the osteoporotic epiphyseal center of ossification in scurvy, which may result from bleeding. It must not be confused with Wimberger sign, pathognomonic for congenital syphilis. Histor...
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Wimberger sign

The Wimberger sign, also called Wimberger corner sign, refers to localized bilateral metaphyseal destruction of the medial proximal tibias. It is a pathognomonic sign for congenital syphilis. It must not be mixed up with Wimberger ring sign seen in scurvy, which is sometimes also confusingly re...
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Windowing (CT)

Windowing, also known as grey-level mapping, contrast stretching, histogram modification or contrast enhancement is the process in which the CT image greyscale component of an image is manipulated via the CT numbers; doing this will change the appearance of the picture to highlight particular st...
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Windsock sign (aortic dissection)

The windsock sign refers to appearances seen in type A thoracic aortic dissections on contrast CT. It results from intimo-intimal intussusception between the true and false dissected lumens of the thoracic aorta. The altering density of contrast between the dissection lumens which taper distally...
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Windsock sign (disambiguation)

The windsock sign can refer to different anatomical structures or pathologies: windsock sign (duodenal web) windsock sign (aortic dissection)
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Windsock sign (duodenal web)

The windsock sign is a typical appearance of a duodenal web (intraluminal duodenal diverticulum) on upper gastrointestinal contrast series which consists of an intraduodenal barium contrast-filled sac that is surrounded by a narrow lucent line (web or intraluminal mucosal diaphragm) which is wel...
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Windswept pelvis

Wind-swept pelvis fracture is a combination a unilateral AP compression (open book) injury with a contralateral lateral compression injury.  It occurs when the internal rotation of one iliac wing causes a unilateral sacral compression fracture, while the same forces cause external rotation of t...
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Winking owl sign (spine)

The (absent) pedicle sign, also called the winking owl sign, occurs on plain film when a pedicle is absent. The term, winking owl sign, where the missing pedicle corresponds to the closed eye, the contralateral pedicle to the other open eye, and the spinous process to the beak of the animal on ...
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Winquist classification of femoral shaft fractures

The Winquist classification of femoral shaft fractures is based on fracture comminution and was proposed by Winquist in 1980. This classification is used with regards to management decision making, in determining whether a fracture requires an intramedullary nail or open reduction.  Type 0: no ...
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Wirsungocele

Wirsungocele refers to a cystic dilatation of the pancreatic duct of Wirsung, which is the portion of ventral duct between the dorsal-ventral junction and major duodenal papilla. It is believed to be analogous to choledochocele and santorinicele. Clinical presentation It may be an incidental f...
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Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a rare immunodeficiency disease with a characteristic phenotype that includes: X-linked recessive petechiae, bloody diarrhea, epistaxis due to thrombocytopenia with small platelets eczema starts in first month of life recurrent infections with encapsulated b...
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Woggle technique (interventional procedure)

The Woggle technique is the purse-string suture modified using to close a puncture site after a percutaneous procedure. Techniques common to all procedure include: a purse-string suture is done around the introducer sheath (the short plastic tube placed within a vein or artery) cut the needle...
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Wolff-Chaikoff effect

Wolff-Chaikoff effect is an autoregulatory phenomenon, whereby a large amount of ingested iodine acutely inhibits thyroid hormone synthesis within the follicular cells, irrespective of the serum level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) 1.  Pathology The Wolff-Chaikoff effect is thought to be...
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Wolffian duct

The Wolffian duct (also known as the mesonephric duct) is one of the paired embryogenic tubules that drain the primitive kidney (mesonephros) to the cloaca. It also gives off a lateral branch forming the ureteric bud. In both the male and the female the Wolffian duct develops into the trigone of...
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Wolff parkinson white syndrome

The Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome describes paroxysmal tachydysrhythmias in the presence of a specific accessory pathway (AP) which allows direct electrical connection between the atria and ventricles, which usually exclusively occurs via the atrioventricular node. The accessory pathway is usua...
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Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome

Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is an extremely rare chromosomal anomaly characterized by partial deletion of the p arm of chromosome 4 (4p16.3). Clinicopathological spectrum CNS agenesis of the corpus callosum hypertelorism coloboma craniofacial calvarial asymmetry cleft lip + / - palate...
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Wolman disease

Wolman disease is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism resulting in the deposition of fats in multiple organs.  Clinical presentation Patients with Wolman disease typically present during the first two months of life with failure to thrive, diarrhea and vomiting. Abdominal dis...
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Words we never use

There are a number of words we never use at Radiopaedia.org. This may be the result of an international consensus on correct spelling, other times it is a local decision about how we can improve consistency on the site. This is separate to the differences between British (UK) and American (US) ...
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World Radiography Day

World Radiography Day is an annual event held on November 8th to celebrate the anniversary of the discovery of x-rays organized by the International Society of Radiographers and Radiological Technologists (ISRRT). World Radiography Day occurs simultaneously with the International Day of Radiolo...
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Wormian bone

Wormian bones (a.k.a. intrasutural bones) is the name given to the additional small bones sometimes found between the cranial sutures of the bones of the skull vault, most commonly in relation to the lambdoid suture. Some reserve the term Wormian bones to just the intrasutural bones proximate to...
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Wormian bones (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember ten of the numerous conditions associated with Wormian bones is: PORKCHOPS Mnemonic P - pyknodysostosis O - osteogenesis imperfecta R - rickets K - kinky hair syndrome C - cleidocranial dysostosis H - hypothyroidism/hypophosphatasia O - otopalatodigital syndrome ...
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Wound dehiscence

Wound dehiscence is a surgical complication whereby there is rupture of a wound along the surgical scar (dehiscence, refers to "splitting open"). This may occur on the skin surface, or along a deeper suture line. Clinical presentation Presentation may be with pain (e.g. sternal dehiscence), or...
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Wrisberg rip

Wrisberg rips are longitudinal vertical meniscal tears. They occur at the junction of the ligament of Wrisberg and the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus and are commonly associated with anterior cruciate ligament tears 1. 
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Wrist (carpal bridge view)

The carpal bridge view an additional view to the three view series of the wrist and carpal bones. It is used to assess the dorsal aspect of the scaphoid, lunate and the triquetrum. Patient position the patient is seated alongside the table dorsal aspect of affected wrist is placed on the dete...
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Wrist (carpal tunnel view)

The carpal tunnel view is an axial projection to demonstrate the medial and lateral prominences and the concavity. It can be utilized to investigate potential hook of hamate, pisiform and trapezium factures. Patient position patient stands with the back facing the table palmar surface of hand...
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Wrist (clenched fist view)

The clenched fist view is an additional projection used to evaluate suspected widening of the scapholunate interval, often performed bilaterally it is a functional view that requires the patient to clench both hands.  Patient position patient is seated in front of the table  both hands are pl...
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Wrist (horizontal beam lateral view)

The horizontal beam lateral wrist view is a modified lateral projection when performing the three view series of the wrist and carpal bones in trauma. It is the orthogonal projection of the PA wrist without any patient movement, making it the most appropriate projection for patients in pain. Pa...
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Wrist (lateral view)

The lateral wrist view is part of a three view series of the wrist and carpal bones. It is the orthogonal projection of the PA wrist. Patient position patient is seated alongside the table the affected arm if possible is flexed at 90° so the arm and wrist can rest on the table abduct the hum...
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Wrist ligaments

The intrinsic and extrinsic wrist ligaments play a vital role in the stability of the wrist joint. There are numerous ligaments but included below are the most clinically significant. Wrist ligaments are best assessed with dedicated wrist MRI. Gross anatomy intrinsic ligaments (only attach to ...
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Wrist (oblique view)

The oblique wrist view is part of a three view series of the wrist and carpal bones. It is not generally performed in follow-up studies unless specifically requested. Patient position patient is seated alongside the table the affected arm if possible is flexed at 90° so the arm and wrist can ...
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Wrist (PA view)

The PA wrist view is part of a three view series of the wrist and carpal bones. Although performed PA the view can often be referred to an AP view. Patient position patient is seated alongside the table the affected arm if possible is flexed at 90° so the arm and wrist can rest on the table ...
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Wrist (radial deviation view)

The wrist PA radial deviation view is specialized projection employed to better demonstrate the carpal bones that lay on the ulnar aspect of the wrist. Patient position patient is seated alongside the table the affected arm if possible is flexed at 90° so the arm and wrist can rest on the tab...
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Wrist radiograph

Wrist radiographs are ubiquitous in the emergency departments. They are commonly performed in the pediatric and elderly populations after a fall on an outstretched hand as well as in patients after higher force trauma. Moreover, they may be performed as part of a skeletal survey looking for meta...
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Wrist radiograph (an approach)

Wrist radiographs are ubiquitous on any night of the week in emergency departments, especially when pavements are icy! Systematic review Distal radial contour Check the contour of the distal radius: AP the distal radial articular surface should cup the carpals the articular surface should ...
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Wrist radiograph (approach)

Wrist x-rays are commonly used for the assessment of the wrist following trauma. This is usually a fall onto an outstretched hand. Systematic review It is useful to have a systematic approach; I tend to start proximally and work distally looking at structures on both views together: distal ra...
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Wrist radiograph (summary approach)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Wrist radiographs are commonly used for the assessment of the wrist following trauma.  Summary approach alignment AP distal radius and ulna have smooth joint surface carpal arcs are smooth carpal bones do not overlap ...
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Wrist series

The wrist series is comprised of a posteroanterior, oblique, and lateral projection. The series examines the carpal bones that are consisting of the scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform, trapezium, trapezoid, capitate and hamate. It also examines the radiocarpal and distal radiocarpal joint al...
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Wrist series (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists A wrist series (or wrist x-ray) may be performed for a multitude of reasons. However, they are most commonly used in the assessment of trauma, by clinical teams within the Emergency Department or Orthopedic service. Refere...
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Wunderlich syndrome

Wunderlich syndrome is a rare condition, in which spontaneous nontraumatic renal hemorrhage occurs into the subcapsular and perirenal spaces 2. Clinical presentation Wunderlich syndrome is clinically characterized by Lenk's triad: acute flank pain flank mass hypovolemic shock Pathology Et...
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Wyburn-Mason syndrome

Wyburn-Mason syndrome (also known as Bonnet-Dechaume-Blanc syndrome) is a rare, nonhereditary neurocutaneous disorder that typically presents with unilateral vascular malformations that primarily involve the brain, orbits and facial structures. It is currently classified as a craniofacial arteri...
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Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis

Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis is an uncommon inflammatory disease of the gallbladder which may be difficult to differentiate from malignancy, both on imaging and pathologically. It is characterized by presence of multiple intramural nodules. Epidemiology It is seen predominantly in female ...
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Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis

Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP) is a rare form of chronic pyelonephritis and represents a chronic granulomatous disease resulting in a non-functioning kidney. Radiographic features are usually specific. Epidemiology Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is seen essentially in all age gro...
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Xanthomatous meningioma

Xanthomatous meningiomas are rare histological variants of meningiomas grouped into the subtype of metaplastic meningiomas, being WHO grade I tumors. They are characterized by cells with a lipid-filled vacuolated cytoplasm. Although reported numbers are too small to confirm that this is definit...
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XCCL view

An XCCL view is a supplementary mammographic view. It is a type of exaggerated cranio-caudal view. It is particularly good for imaging the lateral aspect of the breast.  It is often done when a lesion is suspected on a MLO view but cannot be seen on the CC view. In this view, the lateral aspect...
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XCCM view

An XCCM view is a supplementary mammographic view. It is a type of exaggerated cranio-caudal view. It is particularly good for imaging the medial portion of the breast. In this view, the medial portion of the breast is placed forward. A negative 15° tube tilt is suggested. An optimal XCCM view ...
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Xenon-127

Xenon-127 is a radiopharmaceutical principally used when a performing VQ scan. It is not a widely used alternative to xenon-133 with the main advantage being a higher proton energy allowing for post perfusion scanning.  photon energy: 203 KeV physical half life: 36.3 days
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Xenon-133

Xenon-133 is a radiopharmaceutical principally used when a performing VQ scan. Inhalation of this gas can also be used to assess cerebral blood flow. photon energy: 81 KeV physical half-life: 5.27 days biological half-life: 30 seconds normal distribution: lungs <15% of inhaled gas is absorb...
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Xiphisternum

The xiphisternum (also known as the xiphoid process or simply the xiphoid) is the smallest of the three parts of the sternum (manubrium, body or gladiolus and xiphisternum). It arises from the inferior and posterior margin of the sternal body and projects inferiorly. It is a small cartilaginous ...
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Xiphoid shape variations

There is considerable anatomic variation in the shape of the xiphoid of the sternum: xiphoid ending is classified as single, double, or triple. xiphoid size varies (e.g. elongated process) xiphoid morphology (e.g. ventral or dorsal deviation, hook-like, reverse S-shape). Clinical presentatio...
Article

X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy

X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is an inherited metabolic peroxisomal disorder and one of the more common leukodystrophies in both children and adults. It is characterized by a lack of oxidation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) that results in severe inflammatory demyelination typically of ...
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X-linked Opitz G/BBB syndrome

X-linked Opitz G/BBB syndrome (XLOS) is an x-linked disorder with a spectrum of congenital anomalies. Anomalies that may be seen are: facial anomalies  ocular hypertelorism prominent forehead widow's peak broad nasal bridge anteverted nares cleft lip and/or palate  laryngotracheoesophage...
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X-marks-the-spot sign (large bowel volvulus)

The X-marks-the-spot is a sign of complete bowel volvulus and refers to the crossing loops of the bowel at the site of the transition. It has been reported to improve diagnostic confidence in detecting cecal and sigmoid volvulus. This is in contrast to the split-wall sign which indicates partial...
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X-ray artifacts

Artifacts can present in a variety of ways including abnormal shadow noted on a radiograph or degraded image quality and have been produced by artificial means from hardware failure, operator error and software (post-processing) artifacts.  There are common and distinct artifacts for film, comp...
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X-ray film

X-ray film displays the radiographic image and consists of emulsion (single or double) of silver halide (silver bromide (AgBr) is most common) which when exposed to light, produces a silver ion (Ag+) and an electron. The electrons get attached to the sensitivity specks and attract the silver ion...
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X-ray interaction with matter

X-rays in the diagnostic range interact with matter primarily via two processes, which are fundamental in understanding how an image is formed in a radiographic exam. These process are the photoelectric effect  Compton scatter 
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X-ray production

X-rays are produced due to sudden deceleration of fast-moving electrons when they collide and interact with the target anode. In this process of deceleration, more than 99% of the electron energy is converted into heat and less than 1% of energy is converted into x-rays. Definitions Cathode T...
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X-rays

X-rays represent a form of electromagnetic radiation. They are produced by the x-ray tube, using the high voltage to accelerate the electrons produced by the cathode. The produced electrons interact with the anode, thus producing x-rays. The x-rays produced include Bremsstrahlung and the charact...
Article

X-ray tube

An x-ray tube functions as a specific energy converter, receiving the electrical energy and converting it into two other forms of energy: x-radiation and heat. Heat is considered the undesirable product of this conversion process; therefore x-radiation is created by taking the energy from the el...
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Yasargil classification of vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations

The Yasargil classification is one of the two common systems for classifying vein of Galen malformations that is currently in use at the time of writing (mid 2016).  Classification type I: small pure cisternal fistula between the vein of Galen (voG) and either the pericallosal arteries (anteri...
Article

Yellow nail syndrome

The yellow nail syndrome (YNS) is a rare disorder principally affecting the lymphatic system. It is characterized by a clinical triad: nail discolouration: yellow slow-growing dystrophic nails (scleronychia) lymphedema (peripheral/primary) pulmonary disease exudative pleural effusions (leas...
Article

Yin-yang sign (solitary fibrous tumor)

The yin-yang sign is a radiologic appearance described in solitary fibrous tumor of the dura on MR. On T2-weighted images, these tumors have two separate solid components, one that is hyperintense and one that is iso- to hypointense relative to brain parenchyma. Histologically, the former repre...
Article

Yin-yang sign (vascular)

The yin-yang sign, also known as the Pepsi sign, is a radiological sign described in both true and false aneurysms on various imaging modalities. Radiographic features Ultrasound On Doppler ultrasound, the yin-yang sign indicates bidirectional flow due to the swirling of blood within the true...
Article

Yolk sac

Yolk sac is the first anatomical structure identified within the gestational sac. It plays a critical role in embryonal development by providing nutrients, serving as the site of initial hematopoiesis, providing endocrine, metabolic and immunological functions and contributing to the development...
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Young and Burgess classification of pelvic ring fractures

The Young and Burgess classification is a modification of the Tile classification 1. It is the recommended 5 and most widely used classification system for pelvic ring fractures. It takes into account force type, severity, and direction, as well as injury instability. Anteroposterior compress...
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Young's modulus

Young's modulus is a relationship between elasticity, strain, and stress: elasticity x (change in length / original length) = (force / area) put another way, this is elasticity x (strain) = stress or elasticity = stress / strain Elasticity is measured in kilopascals (kPa). This relationsh...
Article

Young syndrome

Young syndrome shares similar clinical and radiological findings to primary ciliary dyskinesia and cystic fibrosis, however the underlying pathogenesis yet to be fully elucidated. Obstructive azoopsermia at the level of the epididymis is thought to be the cause of infertility. The commonly refer...
Article

Y sign (epidural lipomatosis)

The Y sign refers to a common appearance in lumbar epidural lipomatosis where excess fat in the extradural space compresses the dural sac into the shape of the letter "Y". 
Article

Yunis-Varón syndrome

Yunis Varón syndrome is a rare skeletal dysplasia. It is thought to be autosomal recessive. Radiographic features severe neurologic impairment cleidocranial dysplasia absent clavicles macrocrania diastasis of sutures micrognathia absent thumbs and distal phalanges of fingers hypoplasia ...
Article

Zabramski classification of cerebral cavernous malformations

The Zabramski classification of cerebral cavernomas has been proposed as a way of classifying cerebral cavernous malformations, and although not used in clinical practice it is useful in scientific publications that seek to study cavernous malformations. The classification was proposed in 1994 ...
Article

Z deformity

The Z deformity is one of the musculoskeletal manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis in hand: radial deviation at the wrist ulnar deviation of the digits, and often palmar subluxation of the proximal phalanges
Article

Zebra sign (cerebellum)

The zebra sign has been termed to describe the finding of layering of blood in amongst the folia of the cerebellum, particularly in the setting of remote cerebellar hemorrhage.1 This type of hemorrhage is characterized by a streaky pattern, like a zebra's stripes, due to blood spreading in the ...
Article

Zebra spleen

Zebra spleen, also referred to as psychedelic spleen or more correctly inhomogeneous splenic enhancement refers to the transient heterogeneous parenchymal enhancement of the spleen during the arterial or early portal venous phases of contrast enhancement in CT, MRI, or ultrasound imaging. It is...
Article

Zebra stripes

Zebra stripes/artifacts appear as alternating bright and dark bands in a MRI image. The term has been used to describe several different kind of artifacts causing some confusion. Artifacts that have been described as a zebra artifact include the following: Moire fringes 1,2 Zero-fill artifact...
Article

Zebra stripe sign (bones)

The zebra stripe sign occurs where children with osteogenesis imperfecta have been treated with cyclical bisphosphonate therapy, e.g. pamidronate. When the drug is delivered in cycles, dense bone is formed while treatment is being given. This results in dense stripes across the metaphyses of bon...
Article

Zellweger syndrome

Zellweger syndrome (ZS), also known as the cerebrohepatorenal syndrome, is a multisystem metabolic abnormality. As the name implies it primarily affects the central nervous system (CNS), liver and kidneys.  Epidemiology The condition typically presents in neonates with poor feeding and/or seiz...
Article

Zenker diverticulum

Zenker diverticulum, also known as a pharyngeal pouch, is a posterior outpouching of the hypopharynx, just proximal to the upper esophageal sphincter through a weakness in the muscle layer called the Killian dehiscence. Epidemiology More than 50% of the affected patients present in 60-80 years...

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