Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

14,338 results found
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T2 hyperintense basal ganglia (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic to recall the causes of T2 hyperintense basal ganglia is: LINT Mnemonic L: lymphoma I: ischemia N: neurodegenerative conditions T: toxins See also For a more detailed differential please see T2 hyperintense basal ganglia article. 
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T2 hypointense basal ganglia (mnemonic)

The commonest causes of basal ganglia T2 hypointensity can be recalled using the following mnemonic: ChOMP Mnemonic Ch: childhood hypoxia O: old age M: multiple sclerosis P: Parkinson's disease, more in globus pallidus
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T2 mapping - myocardium

T2 mapping is a magnetic resonance imaging technique used to calculate the T2 times of a certain tissue and display them voxel-vice on a parametric map. It has been used for tissue characterization of the myocardium 1-5 and has been investigated for cartilage 6,7 and other tissues 4. The T2 tim...
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T2* mapping - myocardium

T2* mapping is a magnetic resonance imaging technique used to calculate the T2* time of tissue and display them voxel-vice on a parametric map. It is used for myocardial tissue characterization 1-4 and has been investigated for other tissues 5,6. Methodology T2* mapping is usually based on gra...
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T2 relaxation

T2 relaxation, also known as spin-spin relaxation or transverse relaxation, refers to the progressive dephasing of spinning dipoles resulting in decay in the magnetization in the transverse plane (Mxy). Following a radiofrequency pulse, this form of relaxation occurs with the time constant T2. T...
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T2* relaxation

T2* decay refers to an exponential decrease in Mxy  (i.e. signal strength) following the initial excitation pulse as a function of time constant T2*. A picture of the signal or free induction decay (FID) is shown on the right, occurring immediately after a 90o RF excitation pulse in a liquid pha...
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T2 shine through

T2 shine-through refers to high signal on DWI images that is not due to restricted diffusion, but rather to high T2 signal which 'shines through' to the DWI image. T2 shine through occurs because of long T2 decay time in some normal tissue. This is most often seen with subacute infarctions due ...
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T2 washout

T2 washout is a phenomenon encountered on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) which results in DWI images (e.g. b = 1000) appearing normal despite abnormal ADC maps.  For the phenomenon to occur a particular combination of ADC and T2 signal intensity is required.  increased T2 signal facilitated...
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T2 weighted image

T2 weighted image (T2WI) is one of the basic pulse sequences in MRI. The sequence weighting highlights differences in the T2 relaxation time of tissues. Summary repetition time (TR): long echo time (TE): long flip angle: less important than with T1 weighting fat: intermediate-bright fluid:...
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Tabar 5-tier grading system

The Tabar 5-tier grading system is used to classify mammographic lesions. This should not be confused with the Tabar classification of parenchymal patterns in breast imaging. It is a separate but translatable system to the BI-RADS classification system (please note that Tabar grade 3 ≠ BI-RADS 3...
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Tabes dorsalis

Tabes dorsalis is a form of tertiary late neurosyphilis in which there is demyelination of the posterior columns of the spinal cord. For a general discussion, and for links to other system specific manifestations, please refer to the article on syphilis.  Clinical presentation Patients presen...
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Tachon syndrome

Tachon syndrome is a rare systemic side effect of epidural or intra-articular corticosteroid injections. Clinical presentation Minutes after injection, patients may complain of 1: acute low back pain chest tightness facial erythema profuse sweating cough agitation Treatment and prognosi...
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Tachycardia induced cardiomyopathy

Tachycardia induced cardiomyopathy (TIC) (or tachycardiomyopathy) is considered a reversible form of acquired cardiomyopathy where there is impaired left ventricular systolic dysfunction precipitated by a tachycardia or a tachyarrhythmia. Typically there is an impairment left ventricular systol...
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Tadpole sign

The tadpole sign, also known as the lollipop sign, refers to a characteristic morphology of post-traumatic bridging vein thrombosis with a rounded "head" and a tapering "tail". The finding demonstrates a high specificity for abusive head trauma, a sub-type of non-accidental injury, and should wa...
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Taeniae coli

The taeniae coli are the three outer muscular bands of the colon. They sit on top of the inner circumferential layer and result in the classical appearance of the colon: the haustral markings are interrupted unlike the valvulae conniventes within the small bowel.
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Tags

Tags on Radiopaedia.org allow authors to specify a little more about what the article is about and allows articles to be more completely related to articles that are similar. Additionally, there are a number of 'official tags'.  articles cases: [articles only]  cases needed to illustrate art...
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Tailgut duplication cyst

Tailgut duplication cysts, also known as retrorectal cystic hamartomas, are rare congenital lesions that are thought to arise from vestiges of the embryonic hindgut.  Epidemiology There is a recognized strong female predilection. While it can present at any age, presentation is usually at arou...
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Tail sign

The tail sign has been described as being specific to Dandy-Walker malformation in fetal MRI.1 It is described as a linear T2 hypointensity in the inferior part of the vermis. Histologically, it corresponds to a thickness of the fourth ventricle roof that appears raised and dysplastic.1 The sp...
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Takayasu arteritis

Takayasu arteritis (TA), also known as idiopathic medial aortopathy or pulseless disease, is a granulomatous large vessel vasculitis that predominantly affects the aorta and its major branches. It may also affect the pulmonary arteries. The exact cause is not well known but the pathology is thou...
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Takeuchi procedure

The Takeuchi procedure refers to a direct anastomosis of the anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery directly to the aorta was described in the 1970s and currently remains the procedure of choice. An intrapulmonary aortocoronary tunnel or baffle was performed by Takeuchi prior ...
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Takotsubo cardiomyopathy

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) (a.k.a. apical ballooning syndrome) is a condition characterized by transient regional abnormal cardiac wall motion, not confined to a single coronary arterial territory. It has been described predominantly in postmenopausal women, often following exposure to sudden...
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Talar beak sign (talus)

The talar beak sign is seen in cases of tarsal coalition, and refers to a superior projection of the distal aspect of the talus. It is most frequently encountered in talocalcaneal coalition. It is thought to result from abnormal biomechanic stresses at the talonavicular joint.  Terminology The...
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Talar body fractures

Talar body fractures are a subtype of talar fracture, subdivided into: talar dome osteochondral fracture posterior talar process fracture lateral talar process fracture
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Talar declination angle

The talar declination angle is drawn on the weightbearing lateral foot radiograph between the mid-talar axis and the supporting surface. It should usually measure approximately 21°. If the first metatarsal axis is steep, the mid-talar axis approaches the horizontal and is projected above the fi...
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Talar dislocation

There are many types of talar dislocation given its multiple articulations: tibiotalar dislocation subtalar dislocation total talar dislocation talonavicular dislocation ​Chopart fracture-dislocation
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Talar fractures

Talar fractures are an uncommon injury, accounting for <5% of all foot fractures. Recognition of the unique talar anatomy is important for correct diagnosis. Pathology Location talar head fractures talar neck fractures talar body fractures talar dome osteochondral fracture posterior talar...
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Talar head fracture

Talar head fractures most commonly result from a compressive force with a plantar flexed foot. Pathology Talar head fractures almost always involve the talonavicular joint, and associated dislocation/subluxation is common. Two types of talar fractures are described 3: compression fracture, o...
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Talar neck fracture

Talar neck fractures extend through the thinnest cross-sectional portion of the talus, just proximal to the talar head. They represent one of the most common types of talus fracture (~30-50%), along with chip and avulsion fractures of the talus (~40-49%). These fractures are commonly associated ...
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Talc-induced lung disease

Talc-induced lung disease comprises of a group of pathologies that can occur related to exposure to the mineral talc (hydrated magnesium silicate). Four types of pulmonary disease secondary to talc exposure have been defined, these are: talcosilicosis - associated with occupational exposure t...
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Talcosis

Talcosis is a type of pneumoconiosis and can be prevalent in intravenous drug users. It is one of the four recognized types of talc-induced lung disease. Pathology Talc (magnesium silicate) is used in the preparation of tablets intended for oral use, where it acts as a 'filler' and lubricant. ...
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Talc pleurodesis

Talc pleurodesis is one of the chemical methods of pleurodesis which is a procedure performed to prevent recurrence of a pneumothorax or recurrent pleural effusion in benign or malignant conditions. It involves achieving an area of adhesion between the parietal and visceral layers of the pleura....
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Talc pulmonary embolism

Talc (magnesium trisilicate) pulmonary embolism is a rare cause of non thrombotic pulmonary embolism. It tends to be more prevalent in patients with narcotic abuse. Clinical presentation Most patients are asymptomatic although dyspnea and persistent cough occur with severe talc exposure. Clini...
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Talocalcaneal angle

The talocalcaneal angle, also known as the kite angle, refers to the angle between lines drawn down the axis of the talus and calcaneus measured on a weight-bearing DP foot radiograph. This angle varies depending on the position of the calcaneus under the talus and the stiffness of the ligaments...
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Talocalcaneal coalition

Talocalcaneal coalition is one of the two most common sub-types of tarsal coalition, the other being calcaneonavicular coalition. It accounts for 45% of all tarsal coalitions, and although all three facets of the talocalcaneal joint can be involved, the middle facet is most commonly involved.  ...
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Talocalcaneal joint

The talocalcaneal joint, also called the clinical subtalar joint, is an important and complex joint in the hindfoot that allows articulation of the talus and calcaneus.  Gross anatomy It comprises three articulations between talus and calcaneus 1: anterior: head of talus with anterior facet o...
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Talonavicular coalition

Talonavicular coalition is one of the less common subtypes of tarsal coalition, the most commons being talocalcaneal coalition and calcaneonavicular coalition. As with other forms of coalition it can be osseous, cartilaginous or fibrous. Clinical presentation Uni-or bilateral. Most patients ar...
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Talonavicular coverage angle

The talonavicular coverage angle reflects the degree of, if any, talonavicular lateral subluxation. On DP weight-bearing foot radiographs, it is the angle between: articular surface of the talar head articular surface of the proximal navicular Interpreting the talonavicular coverage angle: n...
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Talonavicular dislocation

Talonavicular dislocations are a rare injury, and is caused by forced extreme abduction or adduction of the forefoot. They are often associated with calcaneocuboid dislocation (often transient) and calcaneal fractures (and are then called transcalcaneal talonavicular dislocations). See also ta...
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Talonavicular joint

The talonavicular joint is an important part of the Chopart joint between the talus of the hindfoot and the navicular of the midfoot. Gross anatomy The talonavicular joint primarily consists of the articulation between the head of the talus and the concavity produced by the posterior aspect of...
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Talus

The talus is a tarsal bone in the hindfoot that articulates with the tibia, fibula, calcaneus, and navicular bones. It has no muscular attachments and around 60% of its surface is covered by articular cartilage.  Gross anatomy The talus has been described as having three main components: head,...
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Tamm-Horsfall proteins

Tamm-Horsfall proteins, also known as uromodulin, may be a cause of echogenic renal pyramids in a neonate. Tamm-Horsfall proteins are physiologically excreted by the renal tubular epithelium. They are most often encountered on neonatal renal ultrasound, where the concentrated proteins in the re...
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Tam o' shanter sign (skull)

The "tam o' shanter" is a Scottish hat, named after the character in Robert Burns' 1 poem of the same name. The appearances of advanced Paget disease of the skull are similar in appearance to the hat.  Paget involvement of the skull, with widening of the diploic space and an overall enlargement...
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Tamoxifen-associated endometrial changes

The oncological agent tamoxifen has pro-oestrogenic changes on the endometrium resulting in abnormal growth with an increased prevalence of: endometrial polyps: occurs in ~8-36% of women in treated 8 endometrial hyperplasia: occurs in ~1-20% of women treated ref cystic endometrial atrophy en...
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Tamoxifen-induced reversible hepatic steatosis

Tamoxifen is an important anti-estrogen agent used for the treatment of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer and it may induce reversible hepatic steatosis. This is usually transient and may occasionally be associated with hepatic dysfunction. It only rarely leads to cirrhosis 1. Epidemiolog...
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Tangential calcium sign

A tangential calcium sign is a sign seen with an aortic aneurysm rupture. The calcified intimal rim is discontinuous and is seen to tangentially point away from the aneurysmal lumen. This sign is seen at the point of breach. There is associated retroperitoneal leakage.
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Tangential views

Tangential views are useful to differentiate intracutaneous radiopaque particles in a tattoo from intraparenchymal microcalcifications. Mammographic findings close to the skin such as masses, microcalcifications, skin dimpling or shaded areas always pose a problem of differential diagnosis. Va...
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Tangent sign

The tangent sign is useful in helping to quantify supraspinatus muscle belly fatty atrophy with a positive sign implicated with a poorer outcome after supraspinatus tendon tear repair. On a sagittal oblique plane, a line is drawn between the upper surface of the scapular spine and the upper sur...
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Tanner stages of normal breast development

Breast development occurs in two phases, one during fetal life and the second during puberty. In fetal life a rudimentary organ with simple ducts develop under maternal stimulus. During puberty, further complex branching of ducts and glandular tissue forms which is divided into five stages. Tan...
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Tanner-Whitehouse method

The Tanner-Whitehouse (TW) method is a way of assessing the bone age of children. There are several variations of this method, but all use a DP radiograph of the left hand and wrist to assess the relative maturity of the bones of the patient. The TW2 (Tanner-Whitehouse 2) methods 1: RUS (radiu...
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Tanycytes

Tanycytes are one of the three types of ependymal cells, themselves a type of glial cell. They are found lining the floor of the third ventricle overlying the median eminence of the hypothalamus 1.   It is believed that these specialized cells are involved in the feedback mechanisms on the ante...
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Tanycytic ependymoma

Tanycytic ependymomas are histological variants of ependymomas, usually found in the spinal cord 1. Their name reflects the morphological similarlity of these tumor cells to the tanycytes. They do not arise from tanycytes which are located primarily in the floor of the third ventricle. 
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Tardus parvus

Tardus parvus refers to a pattern of Doppler ultrasound spectral waveform resulting from arterial stenosis. The phenomenon is observed downstream to the site of stenosis, and is due to reduced magnitude of blood flow through the narrowed vessel during ventricular systole 7. This characteristic ...
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Target sign (choledocholithiasis)

The target sign of choledocholithiasis is a finding seen on contrast-enhanced CT and comprises: central density within the bile duct: stone surrounding low density: bile or mucosa
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Target sign (disambiguation)

There are many bull's eye signs, also referred to as target signs: island of red bone marrow with central yellow marrow on MRI peripheral plexiform neurofibromas on MRI intussusception: see target sign of intussusception choledocholithiasis: see target sign of choledocholithiasis cerebral m...
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Target sign (intussusception)

The target sign of intestinal intussusception, also known as the doughnut sign or bull's eye sign. The appearance is generated by concentric alternating echogenic and hypoechoic bands. The echogenic bands are formed by mucosa and muscularis whereas the submucosa is responsible fo the hypoechoi...
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Target sign (peripheral nerve sheath tumor)

The target sign of peripheral nerve sheath tumor (PNST) is a lesional pattern of T2 signal on MRI consisting of a central area of low intensity surrounded by a T2 hyperintense rim. It is most commonly associated with localized neurofibroma, having been shown to correspond histopathologically wit...
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Target sign (pyloric stenosis)

The target sign of pyloric stenosis is a sign seen due to hypertrophied hypoechoic muscle surrounding echogenic mucosa, seen in pyloric stenosis. This is likened to that of a target. See also antral nipple sign cervix sign of pyloric stenosis shoulder sign of pyloric stenosis
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Target sign (tuberculosis)

The target sign of tuberculosis refers to the bull's eye appearance of some parenchymal tuberculomas involving the brain (see: CNS tuberculosis) and solid abdominal organs (see: hepatic and splenic tuberculosis) on cross-sectional imaging.  Radiographic features Ultrasound hypoechoic nodules ...
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Tarlov cyst

Tarlov cysts, also called perineural cysts, are CSF-filled dilatations of the nerve root sheath at the dorsal root ganglion (posterior nerve root sheath). These are type II spinal meningeal cysts that are, by definition, extradural but contain neural tissue. Most Tarlov cysts are asymptomatic, ...
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Tarsal bones

The tarsal bones are the seven bones of the foot excluding the metatarsals and phalanges. They are collectively known as the tarsus. The seven bones are: talus calcaneus navicular cuboid lateral cuneiform intermediate cuneiform medial cuneiform There are several mnemonics for the tarsals.
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Tarsal bones (mnemonic)

Mnemonics of the tarsal bone are numerous and useful for memorizing the order and location of tarsal bones. They usually describe the position of the tarsal bones from superior to inferior, medial to lateral in a right foot: The Cab in New Mexico Is Land Cruiser The Cure of Nemaline Myopathy I...
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Tarsal coalition

Tarsal coalition describes the complete or partial union between two or more bones in the midfoot and hindfoot. Tarsal coalition refers to developmental fusion rather than fusion that is acquired secondary to conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, trauma or post-surgical. Epidemiology It occ...
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Tarsal fracture

Tarsal fractures are fractures of the tarsal bones of the foot, which are further divided by anatomic site: calcaneal fracture (most common) calcaneal tuberosity avulsion fracture lover's fracture talar fractures talar head fracture talar neck fracture aviator fracture lateral talar (sno...
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Tarsal plate

The tarsal plates of the eye are formed by dense fibrous tissue representing thickened extensions of the orbital septum, molded to the curvature of the eyeball. Each eye has a superior tarsal plate and an inferior tarsal plate.  The plates anchor the roots of the eyelashes and contain tarsal (M...
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Tarsal sinus

The tarsal sinus (or sinus tarsi) is a cylindrical cavity located between the talus and calcaneus on the lateral aspect of the foot. MRI is the investigation of choice for evaluating the tarsal sinus structures. Gross anatomy The tarsal sinus is situated on the lateral side of the foot; distal...
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Tarsal tunnel

The tarsal tunnel is a fibro-osseous canal found in the medial aspect of the ankle. Gross anatomy Boundaries roof: flexor retinaculum from the tip of the medial malleolus to the medial calcaneal process and plantar aponeurosis floor: medial surfaces of the tibia, talus and calcaneus 1, 2 C...
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Tarsal tunnel syndrome

Tarsal tunnel syndrome refers to an entrapment neuropathy of the tibial nerve or of its branches within the tarsal tunnel. This condition is analogous to carpal tunnel syndrome. Clinical presentation The most common symptoms are pain and paresthesia in the toes, sole, or heel and the main find...
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Tattoo sign (mammogram)

The tattoo sign is a feature given to describe dermal calcifications seen on mammography 1. The basis of this sign is that dermal calcifications maintain fixed relationships to one another that are reproducible with similar projections at different times. This is in contrast to intramammary calc...
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Tauopathy

Tauopathies are a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative diseases characterized by abnormal metabolism of misfolded τ (tau) proteins leading to intracellular accumulation and formation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFT). These neurofibrillary tangles are deposited in the cytosol of neurons and g...
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Tau sign

The tau sign represents the appearance of a persistent primitive trigeminal artery on the sagittal plane of an angiogram or on sagittal MRI images. It resembles the Greek letter τ, pronounced 'tau', and is equivalent to the modern day 'T' in the Latin alphabet. The persistent trigeminal artery ...
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Taussig-Bing anomaly

Taussig-Bing anomaly is a rare congenital heart malformation and is one of the variants of double outlet right ventricle. It consists of transposition of the aorta to the right ventricle and malposition of the pulmonary artery with subpulmonary ventricular septal defect. History and etymology ...
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Taylor dysplasia

Taylor dysplasia is a type of focal cortical dysplasia and a common cause of refractory epilepsy. Under both the Palmini classification and the more recent Blumcke classification of focal cortical dysplasia, Taylor dysplasia is classified as type II.  For further discussion of the radiographic ...
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Tay-Sachs disease

Tay-Sachs disease is a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder resulting from excess storage of GM2 ganglioside within the lysosomes of cells.  Epidemiology The incidence of the disease is estimated to be 1 in 3,600 in Ashkenazi Jews with a carrier frequency of 1 in 30 and 1 in 360,000 in other ...
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Tc-99m DMSA

Tc-99m DMSA (2,3 dimercaptosuccinic acid) is a technetium radiopharmaceutical used in renal imaging to evaluate renal structure and morphology, particularly in pediatric imaging for detection of scarring and pyelonephritis. DMSA is an ideal agent for assessment of the renal cortex as it binds to...
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Tc-99m DTPA

Tc-99m DTPA (diethylene-triamine-pentaacetate) is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals used in renal imaging and primarily used to measure the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Characteristics photon energy: 140 KeV physical half-life: 6 hours biological half-life: 2.5 hours normal di...
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Tc-99m DTPA (aerosol)

Tc-99m DTPA (diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid) (aerosol) is one of the technetium agents and is used in VQ imaging. Characteristics photon energy: 140 KeV physical half life: 6 hours biological half life: 1 hour normal distribution: lungs pharmacokinetics: aerosol deposited in bronhoal...
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Tc-99m HMPAO labeled WBC

Tc-99m HMPAO (hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime) labeled WBC is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals used in WBC imaging. There are three potential radiochemical impurities in the 99mTc-HMPAO: a hydrophilic secondary complex, the free pertechnetate and the reduced 99mTc-hydrolyzate. 1The min...
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Tc99m IDA (iminodiacetic acid) analogs

Tc99m IDA (iminodiacetic acid) analogs are hepatobiliary agents in nuclear medicine, used in cholescintigraphy. These include: Tc99m-DISIDA: diisopropyl IDA, aka Hepatolite Tc99m-Mebrofenin: trimethyl bromo IDA, aka Choletec Tc99m-PIPIDA: paraisopropyl iminodiacetic acid The use of IDA alon...
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Tc-99m labeled RBC

Tc-99m labeled RBC is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals used in the assessment of GI bleeding. Characteristics photon energy: 140 KeV physical half-life: 6 hours biological half-life:  normal distribution: heart, vessels, spleen miscellaneous facts: threshold for detection is 0.0...
Article

Tc-99m MAA

Tc-99m MAA (macroaggregated albumin) is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals used in lung perfusion imaging. Characteristics photon energy: 140 KeV physical half life: 6 hours biological half life: 2-3 hours normal distribution: lungs, liver, spleen, kidneys pharmacokinetics: >90% p...
Article

Tc-99m MAG3

Tc-99m MAG3 (mercaptoacetyltriglycine) is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals used in renal imaging. Due to favourable energy and dosimetric characteristics, MAG3 radiolabeled with technetium has replaced the iodide-131 Hippuran for the study of renal function (tubular secretion physiolog...
Article

Tc-99m pertechnetate

Tc-99m pertechnetate (Na+ 99mTc O4-) is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals used in imaging of thyroid, colon, bladder and stomach. Technetium (99mTc) has eight oxidation states 6, from -1 to +7; specifically, the oxidation state of technetium in the pertechnetate anion (99mTcO4-) is +7....
Article

Tc-99m sestamibi

Tc-99m sestamibi (sestamibi is a shortening of sesta-methoxyisobutylisonitrile) is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals. Characteristics photon energy: 140 KeV physical half-life: 6 hours lipophilic cation normal distribution: thyroid, parathyroid, heart (myocardium) excretion: hepat...
Article

Tc-99m sulfur colloid

Technetium-99m sulfur colloid is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals. Characteristics photon energy: 140 keV physical half-life: 6 hours biological half-life normal distribution: liver: 85% spleen: 10% bone marrow: 5% excretion: hepatic target organ: liver, spleen pharmacokinet...
Article

T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia

T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) is a rare and unusual hematological malignancy. Epidemiology It represents around 2% of all mature lymphocytic leukaemias in adults over the age of 30 1. It usually affects older adults with an average age at presentation being around 65 years. There may ...
Article

TDP-43 proteinopathy

The TDP-43 proteinopathies are a set of neurodegenerative disorders characterized pathologically by cytoplasmic inclusions composed of TDP-43. The pathology has been implicated in three major diseases: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (vast majority of cases) frontotemporal lobar degeneration (sl...
Article

Teardrop (disambiguation)

A teardrop or teardrop sign is found in several regions of the body: teardrop sign (ankle) teardrop sign (intracapsular breast implant rupture) teardrop sign (superior mesenteric vein) extension teardrop fracture of the cervical spine flexion teardrop fracture of the cervical spine pelvic ...
Article

Teardrop sign (ankle)

The ankle teardrop sign is one of the radiological signs of an ankle joint effusion. It represents the presence of excess fluid in the inferior part of the anterior compartment of the ankle. Pathology Etiology trauma gout rheumatoid arthritis synovitis septic arthritis Radiographic featu...
Article

Teardrop sign (intracapsular breast implant rupture)

The teardrop sign indicates an uncollapsed intracapsular breast implant rupture and is seen as a small focal invagination of the implant shell caused by a minimal concealed leak of droplets of silicone outside the shell where the two membranes contact each other. It is best appreciated by MRI. ...
Article

Teardrop sign (superior mesenteric vein)

The teardrop sign of the superior mesenteric vein is one of the important signs in the local staging of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Its importance lies in its diagnostic, as well as prognostic, significance. This sign is used in assessing the resectability of pancreatic cancer. Radiographic feat...
Article

Technetium 99m-methyl diphosphonate

Technetium 99m-methyl diphosphonate (99mTc MDP) is a radiotracer used in nuclear medicine especially for bone scans. Any disease process which results in extracellular fluid expansion will lead to accumulation of this tracer. Radionuclide profile photon energy: 140 keV physical half life: 6 h...
Article

Technetium agents

Technetium agents based on the technetium-99m (Tc-99m) radioisotope are frequently used agents in medical imaging. A radiopharmaceutical labeled with Tc-99m constitutes a coordination complex in which ligands bond to a central atom of Tc-99m by coordinate covalent bonds 4 . The radioactive tech...
Article

Technique of masking

Masking is very important when viewing mammograms, especially with high-density breasts. It helps the adaptation of the eye to the luminance of the mammograms on the viewbox.                     The technique of masking allows the comparative study of small areas of both breasts and is a featur...

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