Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

13,606 results found
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Acrania

Acrania is a rare lethal congenital anomaly characterized by an absence of the calvaria. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~1:1000 pregnancies 4.  Pathology  The condition is thought to result from abnormal migration of mesenchymal tissue, which normally covers the cerebral hemisphe...
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Acrania anencephaly sequence

Acrania anencephaly sequence is the progression from a relatively normal-appearing exposed brain due to an absent cranium (acrania) to an amorphous brain mass (exencephaly) to no recognisable brain tissue (anencephaly) 1. Epidemiology The acrania anencephaly sequence begins with acrania, which...
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Acrocephalopolysyndactyly

Acrocephalopolysyndactyly (ACPS) syndrome is comprised of a rare group of disorders collectively characterized by: calvarial anomalies: e.g. craniosynostoses digital anomalies: syndactyly and polydactyly While there can be some overlap in features, they can be primarily classified into the fo...
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Acrocephalosyndactyly

Acrocephalosyndactyly syndromes (ACS) are a rare group of disorders collectively characterized by: calvarial anomalies, e.g. craniosynostoses digital anomalies, e.g. syndactyly Classification While there can be some overlap in features, they can be primarily classified into the following maj...
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Acrodysostosis

Acrodysostosis is a rare skeletal dysplasia characterized by growth retardation, nasal hypoplasia, brachydactyly, midfacial deficiency, intellectual disability and deafness. Pathology Most cases are sporadic. Few cases with autosomal dominant transmission have been reported. It is believed to ...
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Acromegaly

Acromegaly is the result of excessive growth hormone production in skeletally mature patients, most commonly from a pituitary adenoma. The same excess of growth hormone in individuals whose epiphyses have not fused will result in gigantism (excessively tall stature).   Epidemiology Acromegaly ...
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Acromial apophysiolysis

Acromial apohysiolysis is a finding on shoulder MRI that may be encountered in patients with an unfused acromial apophysis. It is associated with athletes in throwing sports. Clinical presentation Presents with superior shoulder tenderness in a patient <25 years old, often in a young throwing ...
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Acromial types

The shape of the acromion had been initially divided into three types (which was known as the Bigliani classification) 3, to which a fourth has been added 2. They are used as a standardized way of describing the acromion, as well as predicting to a degree the incidence of impingement.  Classifi...
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Acromioclavicular injury

Acromioclavicular joint injuries are characterized by damage to the acromioclavicular joint and surrounding structures. Almost invariably traumatic in etiology, they range in severity from a mild sprain to complete disruption. Clinical presentation Acromioclavicular joint injuries usually occu...
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Acromioclavicular joint

The acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) is a plane synovial joint (diarthrodial joint) of the pectoral girdle. Gross anatomy The acromioclavicular joint is between the small facet of the convex distal clavicle and flat medial acromion. The articular surfaces are lined with fibrocartilage (like the s...
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Acromioclavicular joint (AP view)

The acromioclavicular AP view is a single projection assessing the patency of the acromioclavicular joint. See also, acromioclavicular joint injuries. Patient position patient is erect midcoronal plane of the patient is parallel to the image receptor, in other words, the patient's back is ag...
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Acromioclavicular joint (AP weight-bearing view)

The acromioclavicular AP weight-bearing view is an additional interjection often performed to rule out displacement when it is suspected but not confirmed on the AP view See also, acromioclavicular joint injuries. Patient position the patient is erect holding a weight in the affected sides ha...
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Acromioclavicular joint configuration

There is much variation in acromioclavicular joint configuration, which may be confused with pathology. The relationship of the acromion to the distal clavicle at the AC joint can be described in the coronal plane as 1-3: horizontal: normal low-lying: associated with shoulder impingement (unfo...
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Acromioclavicular joint series

The acromioclavicular (AC) joint radiographic series is used to evaluate the acromioclavicular joint and the distal clavicle. Indications AC radiographs are performed for a variety of indications including:  shoulder trauma direct blows to the should region following a fall onto adducted ar...
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Acromioclavicular joint (Zanca view)

The Zanca view is a specialized projection of the acromioclavicular joint, it is used to both demonstrate the AC joint free from superimposition, and aid in the assessment of distal osteophytes. See also, acromioclavicular joint injuries. Patient position patient is erect midcoronal plane of...
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Acromiohumeral interval

Acromiohumeral interval is a useful and reliable measurement on AP shoulder radiographs and when narrowed is indicative of rotator cuff tear or tendinopathy.  Pathology Measurements of the acromiohumeral interval in the following intervals are suggestive of pathology 1,2: >12 mm: shoulder dis...
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Acromion

The acromion (plural: acromia), also known as the acromial process, is a small projection of the scapula that extends anteriorly from the spine of the scapula.  Gross anatomy It forms the acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) with the lateral third of the clavicle and also connects with the coracoid p...
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Acromion fracture

The acromion process is the lateral projection of the scapula spine that extends anteriorly. Fractures of the scapula are uncommon injuries and account for ~3% of all shoulder fractures 1,2 while isolated acromion fractures occur rarely and account for only 9% of all scapular fractures 3. Patho...
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Acro-osteolysis

Acro-osteolysis (plural: acro-osteolyses) refers to resorption of the distal phalanx. The terminal tuft is most commonly affected. It is associated with a heterogeneous group of pathological entities and, some of which can be remembered by using the mnemonic PINCH FO. When there is linear bone ...
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Acro-osteolysis (mnemonic)

The causes of acro-osteolysis can be remembered using the mnemonic: PINCH FO Mnemonic P: psoriasis/pyknodysostosis I: injury, e.g. thermal burn, frost bite N: neuropathy, e.g. diabetes mellitus, leprosy C: collagen vascular disease, e.g. scleroderma, Raynaud disease H: hyperparathyroidism...
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Acroparesthesia

Acroparesthesia refers to tingling, pins-and-needles, burning or numbness or stiffness in the hands and feet, particularly the fingers and toes 1. Occasionally episodic pain is also present, which can be very severe 1.  Is one of the more common manifestations of Fabry disease (more common than...
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ACR Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (ACR TI-RADS)

ACR TI-RADS is a reporting system for thyroid nodules on ultrasound proposed by the American College of Radiology (ACR) 1. This uses a standardized scoring system for reports providing users with recommendations for when to use fine needle aspiration (FNA) or ultrasound follow-up of suspicious ...
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Activation function

In neural networks, activation functions perform a transformation on a weighted sum of inputs plus biases to a neuron in order to compute its output. Using a biological analogy, the activation function determines the “firing rate” of a neuron in response to an input or stimulus. These functions...
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Acute abdominal pain

Acute abdominal pain is a common acute presentation in clinical practice. It encompasses a very broad range of possible etiologies and diagnoses, and imaging is routinely employed as the primary investigative tool in its modern management. Terminology A subgroup of patients with acute abdomina...
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Acute abdominal series

The acute abdominal series is a common set of abdominal radiographs obtained to evaluate bowel gas.  Indications The acute series is used for a variety of indications including:  determine the amount of bowel gas, with possible bowel distention assess air-fluid levels query pneumoperitoneum...
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Acute acalculous cholecystitis

Acute acalculous cholecystitis refers to the development of cholecystitis in a gallbladder either without gallstones or with gallstones where they are not the contributory factor. It is thought to occur most often due to biliary stasis and/or gallbladder ischemia. Epidemiology Acute acalculous...
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Acute airspace opacification with lymphadenopathy (differential)

Acute airspace opacification with lymphadenopathy is a subset of the differential diagnosis for generalized airspace opacification and includes: post-obstructive causes (usually chronic, but 'new' changes can occur) primary lung cancer pulmonary metastases lymphoma/leukemia infection prim...
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Acute aortic syndrome

Acute aortic syndrome (AAS) describes the presentation of patients with one of a number of life threatening aortic pathologies that give rise to aortic symptoms. The spectrum of these aortic emergencies include: aortic dissection aortic intramural hematoma penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer ...
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Acute aspiration pneumonitis

Acute aspiration pneumonitis refers to a form aspiration pneumonia where the time of onset is rapid. Radiographic features Plain radiograph / CT Features can be variable and can range from a pulmonary edema pattern to areas of consolidation. These changes may have a gravity dependent distribu...
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Acute bacterial meningitis complications (mnemonic)

The complications of acute bacterial meningitis can be remembered using the mnemonic: HACTIVE Mnemonic H: hydrocephalus A: abscess C: cerebritis / cranial nerve lesion T: thrombosis I: infarct V: ventriculitis/vasculopathy E: extra-axial collection: empyema and hygroma Related articles...
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Acute basilar artery occlusion

Acute occlusion of the basilar artery may cause brainstem or thalamic ischemia or infarction. It is a true neuro-interventional emergency and, if not treated early, brainstem infarction results in rapid deterioration in the level of consciousness and ultimately death. It is one of the posterior ...
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Acute bilateral airspace opacification (differential)

Acute bilateral airspace opacification is a subset of the larger differential diagnosis for airspace opacification. An exhaustive list of all possible causes of acute bilateral airspace opacities is long, but a useful way to consider the huge list is via the material within the airways: infecti...
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Acute bronchitis

Acute bronchitis (plural: bronchitides) refers to acute-onset, short-term bronchial inflammation. It is usually self-limiting and often the result of a viral infection. Chest radiography is rarely necessary. Epidemiology Acute bronchitis can affect people of all ages, but it is commonest in ch...
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Acute calcific periarthritis

Acute calcific periarthritis is an acutely painful monoarticular condition characterized by the juxta-articular deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite crystals and local inflammation.  Epidemiology Affects both males and females over a wide age range, however, occurs more frequently in females t...
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Acute cerebellitis

Acute cerebellitis and acute cerebellar ataxia represent a spectrum of inflammatory processes characterized by sudden onset cerebellar dysfunction. It usually affects children and is related as a consequence of primary or secondary infection, or much less commonly as a result of a post-vaccinati...
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Acute cholangitis

Acute cholangitis, or ascending cholangitis, is a form of cholangitis and refers to the acute bacterial infection of the biliary tree. It is a condition with high mortality that necessitates emergent biliary decompression.  Clinical presentation The classical presentation is the Charcot triad ...
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Acute cholecystitis

Acute cholecystitis refers to the acute inflammation of the gallbladder. It is the primary complication of cholelithiasis and the most common cause of acute pain in the right upper quadrant (RUQ). Clinical presentation Constant right upper quadrant pain that can radiate to the right shoulder. ...
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Acute cholecystitis (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Acute cholecystitis refers to the acute inflammation of the gallbladder. It is the primary complication of cholelithiasis and the most common cause of acute pain in the right upper quadrant (RUQ). Reference article This i...
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Acute compartment syndrome

Acute compartment syndrome is a limb and life-threatening surgical emergency. It is a painful condition caused by increased intracompartmental pressure, compromising perfusion and resulting in muscle and nerve damage within that compartment. Epidemiology Acute compartment syndrome is more comm...
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Acute coronary syndrome

Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a group of cardiac diagnoses along a spectrum of severity due to the interruption of coronary blood flow to the myocardium, which in decreasing severity are: ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) unstable an...
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Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), as the name would suggest, is featured by a monophasic acute inflammation and demyelination of white matter typically following a recent (1-2 weeks prior) viral infection or vaccination 4,6. Grey matter, especially that of the basal ganglia, is also o...
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Acute eosinophilic pneumonia

Acute eosinophilic pneumonia is a type of eosinophilic lung disease diagnosed when the following combination of clinical and radiographic findings occur 5,7: febrile illness of less than five days' duration hypoxemia diffuse alveolar or mixed alveolar-interstitial opacities on chest radiograp...
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Acute exacerbation of interstitial lung disease

Acute exacerbation of interstitial lung disease (AE-ILD) which sometimes also encompasses acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (AE-IPF) is a situation as an acute, clinically significant deterioration which develops within less than 1 month without an obvious clinical precipitant ...
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Acute fatty liver of pregnancy

Acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) is a rare pregnancy-associated condition that tends to manifest in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy or early postpartum period. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at around 1:7000-20,000 births.  Clinical presentation Patients may present with nausea,...
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Acute gastritis

Acute gastritis is a broad term that encompasses a myriad of causes of gastric mucosal inflammation. Epidemiology  Depends on the etiology (see below). Clinical presentation asymptomatic epigastric pain/tenderness nausea and vomiting loss of appetite Pathology Etiology infection: H. py...
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Acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis

Acute hemorrhagic encephalomyelitis (AHEM), also known as acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis (AHLE), Hurst disease or Weston Hurst syndrome, is a very rare form of demyelinating disease. It occurs sporadically and may be considered as the most severe form of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis...
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Acute hepatitis

Acute hepatitis (plural: acute hepatitides) occurs when the liver suffers an injury with a resulting inflammatory reaction. The cause of the injury can happen in multiple different ways, and imaging findings are often non-specific. Acute hepatitis is a clinical diagnosis and a normal imaging app...
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Acute hypersensitivity pneumonitis

Acute hypersensitivity pneumonitis (a.k.a. acute extrinsic allergic alveolitis) refers to the episodic form of this condition usually happening in just a few hours after the antigen exposure and often recurring with the re-exposure. It represents the most inflammatory side of the spectrum of hyp...
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Acute idiopathic scrotal edema

Acute idiopathic scrotal edema (AISE) is a self-limiting condition characterized by marked edema of the skin and dartos fascia without involvement of the deeper layers, testes, or epididymis. It is an important condition to recognize in order to avoid unnecessary surgical exploration. Epidemiol...
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Acute interstitial pneumonitis

Acute interstitial pneumonitis (AIP), also known as Hamman-Rich syndrome is a rapidly progressive non-infectious interstitial lung disease of unknown etiology. It is considered the only acute process among the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. Epidemiology Truly idiopathic AIP tends to occur...
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Acute invasive fungal sinusitis

Acute invasive fungal sinusitis is the most aggressive form of fungal sinusitis. It is seen particularly in immunocompromised patients and is the source of significant morbidity and mortality. It should be distinguished from the other two forms of invasive fungal sinusitis, chronic invasive fung...
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Acute liver failure

Acute liver failure (ALF), also known as fulminant hepatic failure, refers to sudden severe liver dysfunction from injury without underlying chronic liver disease (CLD), although sometimes it presents as decompensation of an unknown chronic liver disease.  Epidemiology Acute liver failure is r...
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Acute lung transplant rejection

Acute lung transplant rejection is one of the early post lung transplant complications. Epidemiology It can occur as several episodes and the first episode may occur early as 5 days after transplantation. The incidence is thought to peak at approximately 2 months post-transplantation (with sev...
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Acute lupus pneumonitis

Acute lupus pneumonitis is one of the presentations of thoracic manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus. Clinical presentation Acute lupus pneumonitis presents with acute onset of fever, cough, tachypnea, and hypoxia. Radiographic features Plain radiograph  Appearances are non-specif...
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Acute lymphoblastic leukemia

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a malignant disorder of the bone marrow characterized by the proliferation of the lymphoid progenitor cells. Epidemiology ALL is the commonest form of childhood leukemia, accounting for ~80% of pediatric leukemia cases 1. In adults, ALL corresponds to ~20%...
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Acute mastoiditis

Acute mastoiditis refers to a suppurative infection of the mastoid air cells. It is the most common complication of acute otitis media. Terminology In acute otitis media, an inflammatory middle ear effusion is present that can freely move into the mastoid air cells. Consequently, some authors ...
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Acute myeloid leukemia

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML), also referred to as acute myelogenous leukemia, is a hematological malignancy characterized by the abnormal clonal proliferation of immature myeloid precursors (myeloblasts) or poorly differentiated cells of the hematopoietic system. It primary infiltrates the bone ...
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Acute necrotic collection

Acute necrotic collections (ANCs) are an early, local complication of necrotizing pancreatitis. Terminology The following are the latest terms according to the updated Atlanta classification to describe fluid collections associated with acute pancreatitis 1,2: fluid collections in interstitia...
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Acute necrotizing encephalitis of childhood

Acute necrotizing encephalitis of childhood (ANEC) is a rare type of encephalopathy characterized by multiple bilateral brain lesions, mainly involving the thalami, but also the putamina, internal and external capsules, cerebellar white matter, and the brainstem tegmentum. Epidemiology Acute n...
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Acute otitis externa

Acute otitis externa (AOE), also known as "swimmer's ear", is inflammation of the external auditory canal (EAC) that can involve the pinna as well. Bacterial infection, most commonly with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is responsible for the overwhelming majority of cases. It is a common condition. Ep...
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Acute pancreatitis

Acute pancreatitis (plural: pancreatitides) is an acute inflammation of the pancreas and is a potentially life-threatening condition. The diagnosis of acute pancreatitis is made by fulfilling two of the following three criteria 8: acute onset of persistent, severe epigastric pain (i.e. pain co...
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Acute pancreatitis (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Acute pancreatitis refers to acute inflammation of the pancreas and is a potentially life-threatening condition. Reference article This is a summary article; read more in our article on acute pancreatitis. Summary anato...
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Acute pelvic pain

Acute pelvic pain is a common presenting symptom to the emergency department and radiologist. Pelvic ultrasound with transabdominal and endovaginal approaches is usually the first line imaging modality. Clinical presentation non-cyclic pain pain of <3 months duration Patients also often pres...
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Acute peripancreatic fluid collection

Acute peripancreatic fluid collections (APFC) are an early complication of acute pancreatitis that usually develop in the first four weeks. After four weeks, the term pseudocysts is used. The absence of necrosis differentiates APFCs from acute necrotic collections (ANC), that is, APFCs occur in ...
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Acute phlegmonous esophagitis

Acute phlegmonous esophagitis is a very rare form of esophagitis in which there is a diffuse bacterial infection within the submucosa of the esophagus 1. Terminology Usually there is co-infection of the stomach (phlegmonous gastritis), and if both the stomach and esophagus are involved it is c...
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Acute promyelocytic leukemia

Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APML) is a distinct subtype of acute myeloid leukemia. Pathology Genetics It is defined by a balanced translocation between chromosomes 15 and 17 resulting in fusion of the promyelocytic leukemia gene (PML) on chromosome 15 with the retinoic acid receptor alpha g...
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Acute pulmonary schistosomiasis

Acute pulmonary schistosomiasis refers to the acute form of pulmonary schistosomiasis. Pathology The acute form usually occurs at around 6 weeks after the infection and is thought to represent an allergic manifestation to the presence of Schistosoma worm or eggs. Radiographic features Plain ...
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Acute pyelonephritis

Acute pyelonephritis is a bacterial infection of the renal pelvis and parenchyma most commonly seen in young women. It remains common and continues to have significant morbidity in certain groups of patients. Epidemiology The incidence of acute pyelonephritis parallels that of lower urinary tr...
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Acute radiation syndrome

Acute radiation syndrome, also called radiation poisoning or radiation sickness, refers to the signs and symptoms associated with the acute effects of high-dose rates of ionizing radiation (usually over 0.5 Gy) through either whole body or partial body irradiation.  Epidemiology The exact prev...
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Acute respiratory distress syndrome

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a form of acute lung injury (ALI) and occurs as a result of a severe pulmonary injury that causes alveolar damage heterogeneously throughout the lung. It can either result from a direct pulmonary source or as a response to systemic injury. Pathology...
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Acute right heart syndrome

Acute right heart syndrome (ARHS) is defined as a sudden deterioration in right ventricular (RV) function and failure of the RV to deliver adequate blood flow to the pulmonary circulation. This can result in systemic hypoperfusion. Pathology ARHS can occur in several settings 1 in the setting...
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Acute sinusitis

Acute sinusitis (rare plural: sinusitides) is an acute inflammation of the paranasal sinus mucosa that lasts less than four weeks and can occur in any of the paranasal sinuses. If the nasal cavity mucosa is also involved then the term rhinosinusitis may be used. Clinical presentation Fever, he...
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Acute spinal cord ischemia syndrome

Acute spinal cord ischemia syndrome is uncommon, but usually presents with profound neurological signs and symptoms, and the prognosis is poor.  Epidemiology Acute spinal cord ischemia syndrome represents only 5-8% of acute myelopathies 4,5 and <1% of all strokes 7. The demographic of affected...
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Acute stroke symptoms (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics to remember the symptoms of acute stroke are: FAST BE-FAST Mnemonics FAST F = face (look uneven?) A = arm (drift down?) S = speech (sound strange or difficulty speaking) T = time (brain cells die every second) BE-FAST B = balance (sudden loss of balance) E = eye (sudd...
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Acute superior mesenteric artery occlusion

Acute superior mesenteric artery (SMA) occlusion, which can then result in acute mesenteric ischemia, can be a life-threatening event related to the artery supplying the majority of the small bowel and right side of the colon.  Epidemiology  An acute occlusion is an uncommon event that typical...
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Acute superior mesenteric vein thrombosis

Acute superior mesenteric vein thrombosis is one of the less common causes of intestinal ischemia. Often despite thrombosis of the SMV, small bowel necrosis does not occur, presumably due to persistent arterial supply and some venous drainage via collaterals.   For a general discussion refer to...
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Acute tubular necrosis

Acute tubular necrosis is a common type of acute kidney injury, particularly in hospitalized patients.  Pathology Acute tubular necrosis is characterized by renal tubular cell damage and death and is usually caused by ischemic or nephrotoxic insults. Deposition of cellular debris within the tu...
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Acute unilateral airspace opacification (differential)

Acute unilateral airspace opacification is a subset of the differential diagnosis for airspace opacification.   Differential diagnosis The exhaustive list of all possible causes would be huge, but a useful framework includes: pus, i.e. infection bacterial pneumonia fungal pneumonia viral p...
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Acute vs chronic ischemic stroke

Differentiating between acute and chronic infarction on a CT brain is an important skill for many health professionals particularly in the emergency setting: pathology acute: cytotoxic edema chronic: encephalomalacia; Wallerian degeneration hypoattenuation acute: more dense than CSF chroni...
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Acyanotic congenital heart disease

Acyanotic congenital heart disease comprises numerous etiologies, which can be divided into those with increased pulmonary vascularity (pulmonary plethora) and those with normal vascularity: increased pulmonary vascularity ventricular septal defect (VSD) atrial septal defect (ASD) atrioventr...
Article

Adamantinoma

Adamantinomas are rare primary malignant bone tumors that in the vast majority of cases occur in the tibia of young patients. Terminology In the past, ameloblastomas, which are benign, locally aggressive bone tumors of the mandible, were also known as adamantinomas of the mandible. The two ent...
Article

Adams forward bend test

The Adams forward bend test is clinical test to assess the presence of a scoliosis. Technique Exclusion of a limb length discrepancy is considered important prior to performing the test. The patient is asked to bend forward with feet together, arms hanging and knees extended until the back bec...
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Adams-Oliver syndrome

The Adams-Oliver syndrome (AOS) is a rare disorder characterized by aplasia cutis congenita (missing hair and/or skin) and variable degrees of terminal transverse limb defects. Associations polymicrogyria: can be associated with a variant of Adams-Oliver syndrome 3
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ADC pseudonormalization

ADC pseudonormalization is a normal phase encountered in the subacute stage of ischemic stroke and represents an apparent return to normal healthy brain values on ADC maps which does not, however, represent true resolution of ischemic damage. ADC pseudonormalization is seen typically around 1 w...
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Adding an image to an article

Adding images to an article is an important way of illustrating various imaging examples of that condition. Ideally, there should only be one image per case (usually the 'best' image) per article unless you wish to highlight a specific point, or it is a rare condition with only one case availabl...
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Additive manufacturing

Additive manufacturing is a process, such as stereolithography, in which objects are created by adding layer after layer from the ground up. This process can be contrasted with subtractive manufacturing, a process in which unneeded material is removed to create the desired object in the same way...
Article

Adductor brevis muscle

The adductor brevis is a muscle in the medial compartment of the thigh that lies immediately deep to the pectineus and adductor longus. Summary origin: external surface of body of pubis and inferior pubic ramus insertion: posterior surface of proximal femur, linea aspera, medial supracondylar...
Article

Adductor canal

The adductor canal (also known as the Hunter canal or subsartorial canal)  is a muscular tunnel in the thigh. It commences at the inferior end of the femoral triangle and terminates at the adductor hiatus.  Gross anatomy Boundaries from apex of the femoral triangle to the adductor hiatus  an...
Article

Adductor canal syndrome

Adductor canal syndrome (also known as adductor canal compression syndrome) is a rare, non-atherosclerotic cause of arterial occlusion and limb ischemia 1. There is compression of the superficial femoral artery (SFA) in the adductor canal. Epidemiology External compression of the superficial f...
Article

Adductor hallucis muscle

The adductor hallucis muscle arises by two heads, an oblique and transverse head. It is responsible for adducting the big toe. Summary origin transverse head: ligaments associated with metatarsophalangeal joints of lateral three toes oblique head: bases of metatarsals II to IV and from sheat...
Article

Adductor longus muscle

The adductor longus is a muscle in the medial compartment of the thigh that lies anterior to the adductor magnus. Summary origin: external surface of body of pubis (triangular depression inferior to pubic crest and lateral to pubic symphysis) insertion: linea aspera on middle one-third of sh...
Article

Adductor magnus muscle

The adductor magnus is the largest and deepest of the muscles in the medial compartment of the thigh. Like the adductor longus and brevis muscles, the adductor magnus is a triangular or fan shaped muscle anchored by its apex to the pelvis and attached by its expanded base to the femur. Summary ...
Article

Adductor minimus muscle

The adductor minimus is a small, variably present muscle in the medial compartment of the thigh.   Summary origin: ischiopubic ramus insertion: medial lip of linea aspera, adductor tubercle  action: adducts, extends and laterally rotates thigh at hip joint arterial supply: medial femoral ci...

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