Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

16,075 results found
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Glasgow-Blatchford score

The Glasgow-Blatchford score (GBS) is a widely-used and well-validated scoring system for upper GI bleeding and the need for intervention. Score The scoring system relies upon knowing the patient's urea, hemoglobin, systolic blood pressure, and several other criteria. Each criterion is scored,...
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Pediatric clavicle (AP view)

The anteroposterior clavicle view for pediatrics is part of a two view series examining the entirety of the clavicle and the sternoclavicular and acromioclavicular joints. This view is ideally performed erect, but supine may be necessary depending on the patient's level of distress and severity ...
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Colorectal cancer (TNM staging 7th edition)

The 7th edition of the TNM classification of colorectal carcinomas was proposed in 2010, and has now been updated and replaced by the 8th edition, published in 2016. Primary tumor staging (T) Tx: primary tumor cannot be assessed T0: no evidence of primary tumor Tis: carcinoma in situ T1: in...
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Feeding artery sign (endometrial polyp)

Feeding artery sign (a.k.a. pedicle artery sign) refers to the presence of a single feeding artery to endometrial lesion using color/power Doppler on ultrasonography. It is often seen in endometrial polyps 1. The feeding vessel indicates the stalk attachment of the polyp to the uterus. Endometr...
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Impacted teeth

Impacted teeth are common with the third molars most common. Other impacted teeth (e.g. maxillary canines, maxillary second molar, mandibular second premolar, and mandibular second molar) are less common 1,2.  Radiographics features CBCT Cone beam CT (CBCT) allows for 1,3: impacted tooth loc...
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Tetanus

Tetanus is a rare vaccine-preventable disease caused by Clostridium tetani, a ubiquitous soil bacterium which contaminates open wounds. It secretes a powerful neurotoxin which degrades neuromuscular junction function, producing muscle spasms and, despite intensive intervention, is often fatal. ...
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Notch sign (primary CNS lymphoma)

The notch sign refers to an abnormally deep depression at the tumor margin in contrast-enhanced MRI in primary CNS lymphoma 1. It is not an uncommon sign in primary CNS lymphoma and can be seen in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. It suggests an irregular growth pattern as wel...
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Metanephric stromal tumor

Metanephric stromal tumor (MST) is a very rare, benign renal neoplasm that predominantly affect children.  Epidemiology  Metanephric stromal tumor is characterized by pure stromal morphology, hyper-differentiation, and no metastasis. The median age of diagnosis was 2 years. Less than fifty cas...
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Pseudoendoleak

Pseudoendoleak is a recently described color Doppler ultrasound phenomenon caused by spurious color signal in the aneurysm sac following endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR).  Radiographic features Pseudoendoleak is defined as flow signal on color Doppler in the aneurysm sac following EVAR. The...
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Tronzo classification of trochanteric fractures

The Tronzo classification of trochanteric fractures is a classification system used when assessing intertrochanteric fractures. The Tronzo classification is proposed to provide a guide to the management of these fractures. Due to its simplicity, the Tronzo classification has become the preferr...
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Vinyl chloride toxicity

Vinyl chloride toxicity (and polyvinyl chloride) may rarely result from occupational exposure, most notably manifesting as chronic liver disease and rare hepatic malignancies. However due to strict regulation of the industrial manufacturing and processing of vinyl chloride since the 1970s, signi...
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Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction

Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is a type of heart failure due to left ventricular dysfunction (left heart failure) classified by a left ventricular ejection fraction of 40% or less. Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction occurs when the left ventricle is unable to con...
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Effman Classification of urethral duplication

The Effman classification is a widely adopted system to classify the several distinct types of urethral duplication. It's considered to be the most complete classification from a clinical and functional point of view, but it's only based on male forms and does not distinguish sagittal from coron...
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Desmoplastic small round cell tumor of the pleura

Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) of the pleura is a rare primary pleural malignancy comprising of mesenchymal cells. Epidemiology Tend to occur in younger patients (mean ~ 25.5 years) and with a slightly greater male predilection.  Treatment and prognosis DSRCT tend to be aggressi...
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Herbert classification of scaphoid fractures

The Herbert classification of scaphoid fractures, also known as the Herbert and Fisher classification, is one of the most frequently used classification systems when assessing scaphoid fractures. The Herbert classification is proposed to provide a guide to the management of these fractures. Cl...
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Ventricular tachycardia

Ventricular tachycardia is a type of ventricular arrhythmia with at least three consecutive ventricular beats occurring at greater than 100 beats per minute. If left untreated, ventricular tachycardia can lead to ventricular fibrillation and cardiac arrest. Epidemiology  Ventricular tachycardi...
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Branch retinal artery occlusion

Branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) refers to the acute obstruction of an arteriolar branch of the central retinal artery, which can lead to retinal ischemia and transient or permanent visual loss. The distribution affecting a branch distinguishes this disease from central retinal artery occl...
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Ground glass (disambiguation)

The term ground glass may be used to refer to: ground glass opacity (lungs) ground glass matrix of fibrous dysplasia
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Matrix (bone)

The matrix (plural: matrices) of the bone is used in a general pathological context to refer to the extracellular material in which the cellular components of the bone lie. Indeed the term extracellular matrix, often shortened to matrix, is used for the secreted extracellular components of any t...
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Traction esophageal diverticulum

A traction esophageal diverticulum is a true esophageal diverticulum (i.e. includes all layers of the esophageal wall) which occurs secondary to pulling forces (traction) on the esophageal wall. Causes pulmonary or mediastinal scarring, fibrosis inflammatory processes in the mediastinum (for ...
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Trigeminal radiofrequency ablation

Trigeminal radiofrequency ablation, also known as trigeminal radiofrequency rhizotomy, is a percutaneous interventional procedure used to treat trigeminal neuralgia. It is the most popular technique for trigeminal ablation. Indications trigeminal neuralgia resistant to traditional medical trea...
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Mickey Mouse sign (anencephaly)

The Mickey Mouse sign in obstetric ultrasound denotes the characteristic "floating appearance" of the fetal cerebral lobes due to the absence of the cranium due to anencephaly.  Radiographic features The sign is best seen in the coronal plane (in relation to the fetal head), where the cerebral...
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Frog eye sign

The frog eye sign is seen when the orbital structures show a characteristic protrusion due to fetal anencephaly. The term is particularly used in point of care ultrasound (POCUS) 1.  Radiographic features On obstetric ultrasound the frog eye sign is best appreciated in the coronal plane (in re...
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Non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy

Non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) is a form of ischemic optic neuropathy. Epidemiology It is considered the most common acute optic neuropathy in patients over 50 years of age (especially in those with vasculopathy risk factors (e.g. diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and ...
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Bone Reporting and Data System (Bone-RADS)

The Bone Reporting and Data System (Bone-RADS) is an algorithm developed and proposed by the Practice Guidelines and Technical Standards Committee of the Society of Skeletal Radiology for the diagnostic workup of incidentally encountered solitary bone lesions in adults on MRI and/or CT 1. It has...
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Subperiosteal hematoma

A subperiosteal hematoma occurs between the periosteum and the cortex of a bone and is therefore geographically limited to the affected bone. Clinical presentation Clinical presentation varies with location. Subperiosteal hematomas have been described in the calvarium, iliac bone, humerus, fem...
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Chiari-Frommel syndrome

Chiari-Frommel syndrome is a rare disease of young females that is exhibited by a lack of ovulation, lactation, and amenorrhea in post-partum patients for a period of greater than six months. Additional symptomatology comprises headache, abdominal pain, vision impairment, obesity, and emotional ...
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Human metapneumovirus pulmonary infection

Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) pulmonary infection is a recently detected condition reported to cause mild to severe respiratory tract infection, particularly in children, immunocompromised patients, and the elderly 6. Pathology Human metapneumovirus (HMPV), is an RNA virus and was first describ...
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Pudendal nerve entrapment syndrome

Pudendal nerve entrapment (PNE) syndrome is a rare and under-diagnosed condition associated with chronic pain, sexual dysfunction and impaired sphincter control due to compression of the pudendal nerve.   Anatomy The pudendal nerve arises from S2-S4 roots of the sacral plexus, carrying both s...
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Practical classification of forearm fractures

The practical classification of forearm fractures is a simple descriptive classification system commonly used when assessing forearm fractures, especially in the pediatric population. Although simple, the classification provides a good guide to the management. These characteristics allow for a ...
Article

Depressor labii inferioris muscle

The depressor labii inferioris muscle, also known as quadratus labii inferioris muscle, is one of the facial muscles. Summary origin: oblique line of the mandible, medial to the mental foramen insertion:  ​modiolus at the angle of the mouth ascends to medially insert into lower lip innerva...
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Miliary lung nodules (mnemonic)

The list of differential diagnoses for miliary lung nodules can be recalled with the mnemonic: TEMPEST Mnemonic TEMPEST T: tuberculosis E: eosinophilic granuloma M: metastases (especially thyroid) P: pneumoconiosis E: extrinsic allergic alveolitis (now known as hypersensitivity pneumonit...
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Carotid artery tortuosity

Carotid artery tortuosity is the elongation of the extracranial carotid arteries with redundancy and/or altered course, which may present on imaging as kinking, coiling, and/or looping 1,2. Clinical presentation Carotid artery tortuosity is mostly (~80%) asymptomatic. When symptomatic (~12.5%,...
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Harris ring

A Harris ring is a ring-like shadow observed at the base of the odontoid process on a lateral radiograph of the cervical spine. It is formed by the superimposition of the lateral masses of the C2 vertebra (axis) on its body. Disruption of the Harris ring is seen in type III, and less commonly, ...
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Superior triangle sign (right lower lobe collapse)

The superior triangle sign is seen with complete right lower lobe (RLL) collapse alone or combined with right middle lobe collapse on PA chest x-rays. This sign can be a useful indirect sign of right lower lobe collapse where typical features are absent. Radiographic features Plain radiograph ...
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Free standing bronchiectasis

Free-standing bronchiectasis or non-traction bronchiectasis is a descriptive term for bronchiectasis that is not related to regional fibrotic effects (e.g. traction bronchiectasis). Amongst other causes, this form may occur in recurrent chronic infective-inflammatory states such as in those with...
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Ankle extensor compartment injury

Ankle extensor compartment injuries are infrequently reported in the medical literature in contrast to the other ankle pathology.  Epidemiology The incidence of ankle extensor tendon abnormalities is unclear ref. Pathology The ankle extensor compartment contains (from medial to lateral) ref:...
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V sign of interphalangeal joint dislocation

The V sign is characterized on a lateral radiograph of the digit by the separation of the dorsal base of the dislocated phalanx and the head of the phalanx proximal to the incongruent joint 1,2. Before reduction, the V sign might be assessed to identify more subtle dorsal subluxations 1. If th...
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Lateral collateral ligament calcification

Lateral collateral ligament calcification is rare that can cause acute knee pain. Clinical presentation Most patients with lateral collateral ligament calcification are asymptomatic while a small proportion will have lateral knee pain. Radiographic features Plain radiograph Calcification is...
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Virtual grid

Virtual grid softwares are a relatively new innovation utilizing no physical grid at all. Instead, the original purpose of a grid is replicated by an algorithm 1 based on fundamental mathematics (i.e. Laplace transformation, wavelet transformation and Gaussian decomposition) which iteratively re...
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Scaphoid abdomen

Scaphoid abdomen is the term given to an inward concavity of the anterior abdominal wall. It is used both for the clinical appearance and its radiological equivalent.  In children it maybe a sign of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. In both adult and pediatric patients, it raises the possibility...
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Area postrema syndrome

Area postrema syndrome is a disorder of the chemoreceptor trigger zone (area postrema) which is located on the medial posteroinferior surface of the medulla oblongata. It is usually a demyelinating disorder, as one of the core clinical characteristics of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder 1,...
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Arhinencephaly

Arhinencephaly, sometimes spelled arrhinencephaly, refers to congenital absence of the olfactory bulbs and tracts. It causes congenital anosmia and can be found in: isolated arhinencephaly Kallmann syndrome holoprosencephaly septo-optic dysplasia CHARGE syndrome Waardenburg-Shah syndrome
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Karnofsky performance status

The Karnofsky performance status (KPS) is a standardized measure of a patient’s ability to perform a variety of ordinary tasks. It is a score that ranges from 0 to 100 with a higher score indicating higher (less impaired) function. It is widely used in trials and allows for patient groups to be ...
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Scapulothoracic bursa

Scapulothoracic bursae refer to a number of bursae that allow for the gliding movement of the scapulothoracic joint. Two major bursae have been reliably described 1,3: infraserratus (scapulothoracic) bursa: between the serratus anterior muscle and the chest wall supraserratus (subscapularis) ...
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Green and O'Brien classification of thumb metacarpal fractures

The Green and O'Brien classification of thumb metacarpal fractures is a commonly used classification system when assessing thumb metacarpal fractures. However, since most types of fractures coincide with famous eponymous fractures, the system itself isn't usually used properly, giving preferenc...
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Superior cervical ganglion

The superior cervical ganglion (plural: ganglia) is the largest ganglion of the cervical sympathetic trunk, providing innervation to the head and neck region 1. Gross anatomy The superior cervical ganglion is formed by embryologically fused C1 to C4 sympathetic ganglia. It is elongated, cylind...
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CT angiography of the circle of Willis (protocol)

CT angiography of the circle of Willis (CTA COW) is a technique that allows visualization of the intracranial arteries; specifically the circle of Willis. While digital subtraction angiography (DSA) remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of intracranial aneurysms especially, CTA is a less i...
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Supraclavicular brachial plexus block (ultrasound)

A Supraclavicular brachial plexus block is indicated for establishing sensory and motor blockade of the upper extremity, including the humerus, elbow, forearm, wrist and hand.  Indications necessity to provide analgesia of the upper extremity for: abscess incision and drainage elbow dislocat...
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Subperiosteal abscess

Subperiosteal abscesses refer to the subperiosteal spread of infection characterized by purulent encapsulated fluid collections within the subperiosteal space. Epidemiology Subperiosteal abscesses are more often seen in children than in adults 1,2. Associations Subperiosteal abscesses have b...
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Orbital apex syndrome

Orbital apex syndrome, also known as Jacod syndrome, is a constellation of clinical findings, presenting as a result of several potential pathologies that compress or otherwise affect structures passing through the orbital apex. Clinical presentation Presentation is according to the structures...
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Spinnbarkeit

Spinnbarkeit is a property of viscoelastic fluids that describes their capacity to be drawn out into an unbroken strand 1. Synonymous terms include spinnability and fibrosity. Human bodily fluids that can exhibit a degree of spinnbarkeit include mucus (especially cervical mucus), saliva and syno...
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Hypoglossal nerve palsy

Hypoglossal nerve palsies, or twelfth nerve palsies, result in weakness of the muscles supplied by the hypoglossal nerve, namely the intrinsic and extrinsic tongue muscles, except for palatoglossus. Clinical presentation The hypoglossal nucleus receives a major component of contralateral corti...
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N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate pulmonary embolism

N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate pulmonary embolism is a potentially life-threatening complication that can arise following the use of the tissue glue, butyl-cyanoacrylate, for endoscopic sclerotherapy to treat variceal bleeding. Epidemiology Sclerosis with biological glue (butyl cyanoacrylate) is curr...
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Striated testis

The striated testis is an imaging finding that is seen in symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. In geriatric people, the most common cause is interstitial fibrosis. In adolescent individuals, a few of the causes include trauma, neoplasm including non Hodgkin lymphoma, infection and testicula...
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Pulmonary hypertension associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Pulmonary hypertension associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (PH-COPD) can be a common complication of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and usually manifests as mild to moderate pulmonary hypertension in those with advanced COPD. Pulmonary arterial pressures in this situatio...
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Ciliary muscle

The ciliary muscle (TA: musculus ciliaris) is located within the ciliary body of the eye. It acts to facilitate lens accommodation for near vision, and receives parasympathetic innervation from short ciliary nerves, arising from the oculomotor nerve via the ciliary ganglion. Gross anatomy The ...
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Dilator pupillae muscle

The dilator pupillae muscle is a ring of contractile cells within the iris. These cells are arranged radially, such that their contraction facilitates pupillary dilation (mydriasis). The dilator pupillae muscle receives innervation from the sympathetic nervous system. Gross anatomy The dilator...
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Ulcer (soft tissue)

An ulcer refers to the break in the skin, epithelium, or mucous membrane resulting in the discontinuity in the surface tissue, necrosis, and often pus formation 1. Risk factors immunocompromised (e.g. diabetics) 1 immobile patients 1,2 advanced age 2 poor nutrition 2 increased moisture 2 ...
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Coandă effect (physics)

The Coanda effect refers to the phenomenon by which a narrow jet of liquid (or air) passing through an orifice directly in sequence with a solid (especially convex) surface will deviate from its path and adhere to this curved surface, following its shape in parallel. The mechanism is thought to...
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Fascia iliaca compartment block (ultrasound)

The fascia iliaca compartment block is a nerve block used to provide anesthesia to the lower extremity commonly in the perioperative period. It is most commonly used for analgesia of the hip, thigh, and knee. It involves the deposition of a local anesthetic beneath the fascia iliaca, targeting t...
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Clitoral ultrasound

Clitoral ultrasound is a modality for imaging clitoral pathology, which can be the etiology of female sexual dysfunction. It can also be performed before and after gynecologic surgery to assess clitoral anatomy and blood flow. The exam involves a transperineal component. Normal ultrasound anato...
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Sphincter pupillae muscle

The sphincter pupillae muscle is a circular ring of smooth muscle within the iris responsible for constriction of the pupil (miosis). The structure is stimulated by the parasympathetic nervous system causing the muscle to decrease in diameter as it contracts. Gross anatomy The sphincter pupill...
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Birbeck granules

Birbeck granules refer to unusual rod-shaped structures specific to Langerhans cells. Their origin and function remain undetermined. Langerin is a crucial component within Birbeck granules. History and etymology Birbeck granules were first described by Michael S Birbeck in 1961 3. Related pat...
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Water-soluble contrast challenge

A water-soluble contrast challenge (more widely known as a Gastrografin challenge) is a combined diagnostic study and therapeutic intervention utilized in the evaluation and management of small bowel obstruction. It is used when clinical or imaging features determine there to be small bowel obst...
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Bronchocentricity

Bronchocentricity (or bronchocentric distribution) describes a process in the lungs that is centered around bronchi (or bronchioles). The term centrilobular is commonly used for peribronchiolar disease. Because of the parallel relationship of bronchi and pulmonary arteries these processes are al...
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Pharyngeal muscles

There are multiple pharyngeal muscles that make up the structure of the pharynx. They comprise circular and longitudinal muscles whose overall function is to propel food into the esophagus. Gross anatomy Outer/circular muscles These muscles comprise the outer layer of musculature and act to c...
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Clavicle series (pediatrics)

The clavicle series for pediatrics is a two view series containing an anteroposterior and a cranially angled axial radiograph. Depending on the patient's level of distress and severity of the injury, adapting the radiographic technique to suit a child sitting in bed or lying supine may be necess...
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Fibrotic hypersensitivity pneumonitis

Fibrotic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (fHP) is is a chronic, often progressive fibrosing form of hypersensitivity pneumonitis and is also often categorized at a form of interstitial lung disease. Manifestations previously categorized as chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis now fall under this ca...
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Persistent primitive olfactory artery

A persistent primitive olfactory artery (PPOA) is a rare variant of the proximal anterior cerebral artery 1,2. It is proposed to be more prone to aneurysms due to its sharp hairpin-like turn. Embryologically, the persistent primitive olfactory artery is the rostral division of the primitive inte...
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Intraosseous abscess

Intraosseous abscess refers to the pus-filled cavity within the bone with the surrounding rim of granulation tissue 1. Terminology The term intraosseous abscess should be used for fluid-signal cavities within the bone showing peripheral rim enhancement or show a penumbra sign or diffusion rest...
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Planar wort

Planar worts or plantar verruca refer to superficially based benign epithelial lesions occurring in the dermal / subdermal layers of the skin.  Pathology They are thought to be caused by infection by human papillomavirus types 1, 2, 4, 60, or 63 and sometimes by types 57, 65, 66, nd 156. Radi...
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Clival fracture

Clival fractures are uncommon skull base fractures resulting from high-energy cranial trauma and are usually associated with other skull vault fractures and brain injuries. For a general discussion, please refer to the article on basilar fractures of the skull. Epidemiology Most fractures of ...
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Mayo classification of olecranon fractures

The Mayo classification of olecranon fractures is one of the most frequently used classification systems when assessing olecranon fractures. The Mayo classification can be used to aid in treatment choice. Mayo type II and III fractures usually require operative treatment. Classification The M...
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Rapidly progressive pneumoconiosis

Rapidly progressive pneumoconiosis (RPP) is termed a form of pneumoconiosis when the condition shows an increase in chest radiograph profusion by one ILO subcategory in less than 5 years 1. Conditions than can fall into this category include  accelerated silicosis  
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O-arm

The O-arm is a movable CT  imaging structure developed for intraoperative 3D fluoroscopic imaging. It is utilized during surgery for the identification of bony details in complex procedures such as spinal fixation or microdiscectomy. See also C-arm
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C-arm

C-arm is a term used to refer to image intensifiers used in the operating theater. The machine is similar to the letter ''C'' in its appearance with the x-ray tube on one end and the image intensifier on another.  
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Pulmonary cladophialophora infection

Pulmonary cladophialophora infections are a form of rare pulmonary fungal infection caused by Cladophialophora spp. such as Cladophialophora boppi Cladophialophora bantiana Pathology Cladophialophora is a genus of fungi in the family Herpotrichiellaceae with around 35 species described.  Th...
Article

Intracochlear schwannoma

An intracochlear schwannoma is a subtype of an intralabyrinthine schwannoma which is a schwannoma arising in relation to the 8th cranial nerve.  Clinical presentation Patients may present with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Pathology Schwannomas that are confined exclusively to the c...
Article

Mowat-Wilson syndrome

Mowat-Wilson syndrome is a rare disorder with a broad spectrum of congenital anomalies. It is caused by an abnormality in the ZFHX1B gene. Anomalies that may be recognized at birth or 1st year of life include: CNS seizures intellectual disability distinct facial profile  genitourinary abnor...
Article

Dead pixel artifact

Dead pixel artifact is an artifact seen in digital radiography systems where a detector element fails to receive a proper signal and therefore appears as a bright white dot in an x-ray image.  A defective pixel on the display monitor can also lead to a white dot appearance but it won't be seen ...
Article

Double emulsion film

Double emulsion film is a type of x-ray film that contains emulsion on both sides of the base. They have a thin layer of emulsion on both sides to absorb light from the front and back of the intensifying screen with which they are meant to be used. Both emulsions contribute to the overall radiog...
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Periodontitis

Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease affecting the supporting tissues of the teeth. It is a common cause of tooth loss, particularly in the adult population. Terminology Different forms of periodontitis are recognized. The terms 'chronic periodontitis' and 'aggressive periodontitis' have b...
Article

Canal wall down mastoidectomy

A canal-wall-down mastoidectomy comprises a group of mastoidectomies which is more open and extensive than a canal-wall-up mastoidectomy. In addition to traditional forms, various modified forms are now performed (see modified canal wall down mastoidectomy). They initially comprise the similar ...
Article

Devitalised soft tissue

Devitalised soft tissue occurs in diabetic feet or peripheral vascular disease, particularly deep to and around ulcers. Terminology Devitalised soft tissue is preferred to necrotic or ischemic soft tissue as the current understanding (c. 2022) is whether MRI appearances truly reflect necrosis ...
Article

Sinus tract

Sinus tracts are an abnormal connection between a fluid collection with a mucous mucosal surface and/or skin 1,2. It can result from acute or chronic processes and occasionally extend into the joints and bones 1. Terminology The term sinus tract is non-specific; however, when used in soft tiss...
Article

Dragonfly sign

Dragonfly sign describes the appearance of the cerebellum on coronal images, which is seen secondary to cerebellar atrophy in pontocerebellar hypoplasia 1. The sign is so called as the whole cerebellum resembles the shape of a dragonfly if one imagines the vermis is the body of the insect and t...
Article

Floating knee

A floating knee refers to ipsilateral fractures of both femoral and tibial shafts. These are relatively rare injuries with reported poor outcomes. Clinical presentation The usual presentation is a combined closed midshaft femoral fracture and open midshaft tibial fracture. Vascular injury is p...
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Neurographics (journal)

Neurographics is a bimonthly review journal publication by the American Society of Neuroradiology and was first published in 2011. In 2011, at the behest of Mauricio Castillo, Editor of Chief of AJNR, a new review journal, Neurographics, was published, initially quarterly, now bimonthly, by the...
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Radiology journals

Many radiology journals are currently published globally: American Journal of Neuroradiology (AJNR) American Journal of Roentgenology (AJR) BJR|case reports BJR|Open British Journal of Radiology (BJR) Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal Clinical Radiology Dentomaxillofacial Radi...
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Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate​

Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate​ (HoLEP) is a minimally invasive treatment for an enlarged prostate usually performed for benign prostatic hyperplasia. The procedure uses a laser to remove tissue that is obstructing urine flow through the prostate. A separate instrument is then used t...
Article

Costello syndrome

Costello syndrome is a rare condition that involves multiple organs of the body and comprises cutis laxa that is extra skin loosening of the neck, palms and soles of the feet and developmental delays.  Multiple papillomata in the face, around the anal region, cardiac abnormalities and short stat...
Article

Collagen vascular disease related interstitial pneumonitis

Collagen vascular disease-related interstitial pneumonitis (CVD-IP) refers to a subgroup of interstitial lung disease that is associated with collagen vascular disease. Epidemiology Some estimate that up to 15% of patients presenting for evaluation of interstitial lung disease may have an unde...

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