Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

16,012 results found
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Arrhythmia

Arrhythmia is depicted as an irregular heartbeat. When it is too fast, it is called tachycardia i.e. more than 100 beats per minute. On the other hand, too slow of a heartbeat is called bradycardia, with less than 60 beats per minute being recorded. Clinical presentation Symptomatology compris...
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Prosthetic valve thrombosis

Prosthetic valve thrombosis, valve thrombosis or leaflet thrombosis refers to thrombus formation of any component of a prosthetic heart valve and is a cause of prosthetic valve dysfunction and a potentially reversible complication of valvular surgery 1,2. Subclinical leaflet thrombosis is an en...
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Peripheral nervous system

The peripheral nervous system (PNS) consists of the nerves (cranial nerves III-XII and spinal) and their related ganglia outside the central nervous system (CNS). The latter comprising the brain and spinal cord. The central nervous system and peripheral nervous system together form the nervous s...
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Neurocranium

The neurocranium (plural: neurocrania) is the name given to the portion of the skull that encloses the brain. It comprises the skull base and the skull vault. The neurocranium and facial bones (viscerocranium) together form the skull.
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Hypervascular head and neck lesions

Hypervascular head and neck lesions are findings that enhance avidly after biphasic injection, on contrast-enhanced CT or MRI of the neck. Anatomical variants ectopic thyroid gland hyperdense soft tissue mass on non contrast-CT intense homogeneous enhancement after contrast injection Vascul...
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Nasolacrimal canal

The nasolacrimal canal is the short bony passage along which the nasolacrimal duct courses in the face.  Gross anatomy lateral wall lacrimal groove of the medial maxilla lacrimal hook of the lacrimal bone medial wall superiorly: lacrimal bone inferiorly: lacrimal process of the inferior n...
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Pincer/split fracture

Pincer or split fractures are coronally oriented vertebral body fractures that involve the superior and inferior vertebral body endplates but do not involve the anterior or posterior cortices.  Clinical Presentation Pincer fractures may present in the setting of trauma, with an axial loading m...
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Contrast level within inferior vena cava

A dependent contrast level within the inferior vena cava is a situation that can be observed in some cases with inferior vena caval contrast reflux. Its presence is usually associated with very poor cardiac output and can be accompanied by dependent layering of venous refluxed contrast within th...
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Inferior vena caval contrast reflux

Reflux of contrast into inferior vena cava can be common findings seen on CT. It is considered a specific but insensitive sign of right-sided heart disease / right heart dysfunction at low contrast injection rates although the usefulness decreases with high injection rates. Conditions associate...
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Distal biceps tendon injury

Distal biceps tendon injuries refer to strains, partial and complete tears of the distal biceps tendon complex. Epidemiology Distal biceps tendon injuries are far less common than injuries to the proximal biceps tendon with an incidence of approximately 1.2/100000 1,2. They typically occur in ...
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Chronic otitis media

Chronic otitis media is a form of otitis media where there is a prolonged phase of inflammation in the middle with resultant tympanic membrane perforation. Pathology There are a few types of chronic otitis media 1-5: benign/inactive chronic otitis media: dry tympanic membrane perforation chr...
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Penile calcification

Penile calcifications are a relatively rare finding. The commonest cause is Peyronie disease. Pathology Etiology Peyronie disease penile calciphylaxis (considered by some to be a form of calcinosis cutis) penile urethral calculus calcinosis cutis of the penis idiopathic calcinosis cutis o...
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Diffuse astrocytoma MYB or MYBL1 altered

Diffuse astrocytoma MYB or MYBL1 altered is a newly recognized pediatric brain tumor type included in the 5th Edition (2021) WHO brain tumor classification 1. Terminology This tumor has been identified as a distinct pediatric entity from "adult-type" IDH-wt/H3-wt diffuse gliomas based on MYB o...
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Delayed posthypoxic leukoencephalopathy

Delayed posthypoxic leukoencephalopathy (DPHL) is a demyelinating syndrome presenting as an acute neurological deterioration shortly after apparent recovery from a hypoxic-ischemic episode. Epidemiology Given its low frequency, there are no large numbers regarding the prevalence and incidence ...
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Carotid cistern

The carotid cistern is one of the basal (subarachnoid) cisterns that surrounds the supraclinoid internal carotid artery. Gross anatomy Relations and/or Boundaries The carotid cistern lies between these brain structures: medially: the optic chiasm and nerve laterally: the mesial temporal lob...
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Percutaneous mitral commissurotomy

Percutaneous mitral commissurotomy (PMC) also known as percutaneous mitral balloon commissurotomy (PMBC), percutaneous mitral valvotomy (PMV) or percutaneous mitral balloon valvuloplasty (PMBV) is a transcatheter procedure for the management of mitral stenosis. History and etymology Percutaneo...
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Cachexia

Cachexia is a syndrome of metabolic dysfunction secondary to an underlying disease in which there is depleted skeletal muscle (sarcopenia) which may or may not be accompanied by an absolute loss of body fat.  Terminology Cancer cachexia is specifically used to refer to the cachexia associated ...
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Tuberculous pleural effusion

A tuberculous pleural effusion is one of the manifestations of pleural tuberculosis. It can have variable presentation ranging from a largely benign pleural effusion, with potential to completely resolve to a complicated effusion with loculations, pleural thickening and potentially progressing t...
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Pleural tuberculosis

Pleural tuberculosis refers to various manifestations of involvement of the pleura by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  It manifests in various forms which include tuberculous pleuritis tuberculous empyema  tuberculous pleural effusion 3
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Desmoplastic myxoid tumor of the pineal region, SMARCB1-mutant

Desmoplastic myxoid tumor of the pineal region, SMARCB1-mutant is a rare and recently described type of pineal parenchymal tumor encountered in adults. Epidemiology Desmoplastic myxoid tumor of the pineal gland SMARCB1-mutant occurs in adolescents and young adults (mean age of diagnosis 40 yea...
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Cameron lesions

Cameron lesions refer to linear ulcers or erosions that occur on the mucosal folds at the diaphragmatic impression of a hiatus hernia. They are usually radiographically occult and diagnosed endoscopically (although still useful for a radiologist to know). Epidemiology Their prevalence has been...
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Ablepharon macrostomia syndrome

Ablepharon macrostomia syndrome is a very rare genetic disorder characterized by macrostomia, wide mouth and microblepharon. Clinical presentation A few of the clinical features of this syndrome are: syndactyly zygomatic hypoplasia  delayed speech  microtia hypoplastic nipples excessive ...
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Central nervous system

The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system that includes the brain and spinal cord. Gross anatomy The main components of the CNS are the brain and spinal cord. In addition, the CNS includes the optic nerves (cranial nerve II), retinas, olfactory nerves (cranial nerve I)...
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Pannus

Pannus describes an abnormal layer of granulation tissue. It is usually seen overlying joint surfaces (usually in the setting of rheumatoid arthritis, though pannus can be a feature of other inflammatory arthropathies), prosthetic heart valves, or overlying the cornea 1.  A key step in the path...
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Diffuse glioneuronal tumor with oligodendroglioma like features and nuclear clusters

Diffuse glioneuronal tumor with oligodendroglial features and nuclear clusters is a novel glioneuronal tumor entity recently identified by a characteristic methylation profile 1. Terminology The exact nature of diffuse glioneuronal tumors with oligodendroglial features and nuclear clusters has...
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Oropharyngeal isthmus

The oropharyngeal isthmus, a.k.a. isthmus of fauces, is the relative constriction of the anterior oropharynx that borders the oral cavity. The isthmus is sometimes described as the passage that transitions between the oral cavity and pharynx, but strictly speaking, it is part of the oropharynx. ...
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Fibrosing inflammatory pseudotumor

Fibrosing inflammatory pseudotumors are an inflammatory process with histology showing a polymorphous infiltrate with plasma cells, lymphocytes and eosinophils as well as a significant reactive fibrovascular component. Pathology Location They can occur at various sites of the body including: ...
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Myxoid glioneuronal tumor

Myxoid glioneuronal tumor is a rare and low-grade tumor (WHO grade 1) that usually involve the septum pellucidum, corpus callosum, subcallosal area, periventricular white matter and septal nuclei 1.  Terminology The histologic features of this tumor are similar to dysembryoplastic neuroepithel...
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Superior hypogastric plexus

The superior hypogastric plexus is a retroperitoneal structure located at the level of the lower third of the 5th lumbar vertebral body and upper third of the first sacral body at the sacral promontory. It is inferior to the bifurcation of the aorta and in close proximity to the bifurcation of t...
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Night sweats

Night sweats, also known as sleep hyperhidrosis, are a common clinical complaint and may herald malignancy, especially lymphoma, or infections. Patients typically report waking up in the night with sweating so severe that their clothes and bed sheets are soaked through ("drenching sweats") and n...
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GABAA receptor antibody encephalitis

GABAA receptor antibody (anti-GABAAR) encephalitis is an autoimmune encephalitis characterized by a severe seizure disorder and distinctive radiographic features. Epidemiology Given the rarity of the condition, epidemiological data pertaining to anti-GABAAR encephalitis is not well established...
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Biceps tendon with accessory head

The accessory head of the biceps brachii muscle is a normal anatomical variant and incidentally seen in some individuals with shoulder problems who were referred for shoulder MRI. Epidemiology The prevalence of the condition has been reported in 9.1-22.9% of the population especially in the As...
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Dent disease

Dent disease is a very rare inherited renal disorder that is characterized by proximal tubule dysfunction. Clinical presentation polyuria hypercalciuria, renal stones and nephrocalcinosis proteinuria, although not presenting with nephrotic syndrome glucosuria aminoaciduria phosphaturia c...
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CT renal mass (protocol)

The renal mass CT protocol is a multi-phasic contrast-enhanced examination for the assessment of renal masses. It is most often comprised of a non-contrast, nephrogenic phase and excretory phase. However, this article will cover the optional, corticomedullary phase too. NB: This article is inte...
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Excretory phase

The excretory phase also known as the urographic phase is a postcontrast injection time range in which there is an optimal enhancement of the renal collecting systems. Technique The acquisition time depends on the intravenous device (central or peripheral), the concentration of the contrast me...
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Modiolus (disambiguation)

The modiolus (plural: modioli) may refer to one of two different anatomical structures, both in the head and neck region: modiolus (cochlea) modiolus (mouth) History and etymology The Latin word, "modiolus" means hub of a wheel, and is well-named, as in both the cochlea and at the angle of t...
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Modiolus (mouth)

The modiolus (plural: modioli), also known as the modiolus anguli oris or commissural modiolus, is a small fibromuscular structure at the corner of the mouth where fibers from multiple facial muscles converge, and helps coordinate the action of these muscles. Gross anatomy The convergence of t...
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Gomphosis

A gomphosis (plural: gomphoses), also known as the dentoalveolar syndesmosis, is the specific name for the fibrous joint between the teeth and the alveolar bone of the maxilla/mandible 1,2.
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Coronary artery bypass graft markers

Coronary artery bypass graft markers are radiopaque markers placed at the proximal origin of coronary artery bypass grafts from the ascending aorta. The purpose of these is to make subsequent coronary angiography easier by indicating the location of the graft origin.  Markers may be metallic ri...
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Incisivus labii inferioris muscle

The incisivus labii inferioris muscle (TA: pars labialis musculi orbicularis oris) is one of the facial muscles. It acts as a supplementary muscle to the orbicularis oris muscle. Terminology The incisivus labii inferioris muscle is often omitted from major anatomical texts or articles on the f...
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Classification system article structure

Articles about classification systems have their own specific structure. Please also see reproduction of classification systems. ================================================================= Formatting of the classification system article title and use of the classification system name th...
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Interstitial lung disease associated with primary biliary cholangitis

Interstitial lung disease associated with primary biliary cholangitis can occur in a variable pattern that can include 1: pulmonary fibrosis lymphoid interstitial pneumonia non-specific interstitial pneumonia bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia Epidemiology It may occur in a...
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The crisscross sign

The crisscross sign is a fetal ultrasound sign that describes the normal relationship between the ventricular outflows tracts of the fetal heart. The left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT); represented by the take-off of the aorta (Ao) from the left ventricle, is perpendicular (90o) to the right ...
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Clermont score

The Clermont or DWI-MaRIA scoring system is used to assess ileocolonic Crohn disease activity on noncontrast MRI enterography. It is based on the earlier Magnetic Resonance Index of Activity (MaRIA) index, however, it does not require intravenous gadolinium by substituting relative contrast enha...
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Parkes weber syndrome

Parkes Weber syndrome is a rare disease, depicted by capillary malformation, venous malformation, arteriovenous malformation and lymphatic malformation in the affected limb, hypertrophy of the bone, as well as soft tissues of the involved limb.  Multiple AV malformation of the affected limb will...
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Contrast phases

Contrast phases are terms used to describe different stages of contrast enhancement to blood vessels, following the introduction of a pressure injected intravenous (IV) contrast agent such as iodine in CT.  Typical phases (time from injection) include:  early arterial phase  15-25 seconds pos...
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CT four-phase liver (protocol)

The four-phase liver CT protocol is a useful examination in the assessment of focal liver lesions, hypervascular liver metastasis and endocrine tumors. It is a triple-phase liver with an initial non-contrast component included before the intravenous contrast medium is given, often requested if ...
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CT triple-phase liver (protocol)

The triple-phase liver CT protocol is a useful examination in the assessment of focal liver lesions, hypervascular liver metastases and endocrine tumors. It involves a dedicated late arterial phase, portal venous phase and delayed phase acquisition. Not to be confused with a four-phase which in...
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Shoulder series (pediatric)

The shoulder series for pediatrics is a two view series containing anteroposterior and lateral radiographs. Depending on the patient's level of distress and severity of the injury, adapting the radiographic technique to suit a child sitting in bed or lying supine may be necessary.  Indications ...
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Blast crisis

A blast crisis or lymphoid blast crisis refers to the transition of chronic or accelerated phase chronic myeloid leukemia to acute leukemia. It is usually characterized by ≥30% blasts in the bone marrow or peripheral blood or development of extramedullary disease outside of the spleen Among p...
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Febrile seizure

Febrile seizures are a largely idiopathic phenomenon which may occur between 6 and 60 months of age, defined by a seizure occurring concomitantly with a temperature over 38C (100.4F). This entity excludes seizures associated with infections of the central nervous system such as bacterial meningi...
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Transcatheter mitral valve intervention

Transcatheter mitral valve interventions (TMVI) or percutaneous mitral valve interventions are less-invasive, highly technical procedures available for the management of selected patients with mitral valve regurgitation and include several transcatheter mitral valve repair (TMVr) and transcathet...
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Meyers and McKeever classification of ACL avulsion fractures

Meyers and McKeever classification of ACL avulsion fractures is the most frequently employed system to describe ACL avulsion fractures. Classification Under the Meyers and McKeever system (with modifications by Zaricznyj) injuries are classified into four main types: type 1: minimally/nondisp...
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Glenohumeral joint effusion

A glenohumeral joint effusion refers to fluid accumulation within the glenohumeral joint. It is considered abnormal and in many instances may be related to: rotator cuff tears osteoarthritis - glenohumeral arthropathy / osteoarthritis of the shoulder  In the context of arthropathy, the volume...
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Adenomyomatous endometrial polyp

An adenomyomatous polyp of the endometrium is a rare form of endometrial polyp and comprises of a pedunculated lesion that contains smooth muscle in addition to the usual components of an endometrial polyp. On outer examination, they may be difficult to differentiate from ordinary endometrial po...
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Claw toe deformity

Claw toe deformities are hyperextension of the metatarsophalangeal joint of the foot with hyperflexion of the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints 1-3. It is considered more severe but less common than hammer toe deformity 1.  Pathology Associations neuromuscular imbalance, e.g Charcot-...
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Lesser toe deformity

Lesser toe deformities are common and include deformities at the metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ), proximal interphalangeal joint (PIPJ) and/or distal interphalangeal joint (DIPJ). Terminology There is variable and crossover terminology 3 in the names given to lesser toe deformities but common...
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Cholecystocolonic fistula

Cholecystocolonic fistulas are most commonly a rare late complication of gallstone disease, resulting from an abnormal communication between the gallbladder and the colon. It is the second most common cholecystoenteric fistula after cholecystoduodenal fistulas 1.  Clinical presentation These m...
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Papillary craniopharyngioma

Papillary craniopharyngiomas are WHO grade 1 tumors of the pituitary region typically presenting as mostly solid masses in adults. They are an entirely separate entity from the far more common adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma that are found at all ages but particularly in children 1,2.  Termi...
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Adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma

Adamantinomatous craniopharyngiomas are WHO grade 1 tumors of the pituitary region typically presenting as cystic masses with peripheral calcifications in children. They are a distinct entity from the far less common papillary craniopharyngioma found in adults 1,4.  Terminology Until the 5th E...
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Diffusion-negative acute ischemic stroke

Diffusion-negative acute ischemic stroke refers to a clinically diagnosed acute ischemic stroke without cerebral restricted diffusion on DWI on brain MRI. Although DWI is highly sensitive for acute ischemic strokes, it fails in a minority of cases in its detection 1,2. Epidemiology It is not ...
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Kemp test

The Kemp test (also known as the quadrant test and extension-rotation test) is a provocative test on clinical examination that has been described as being useful for diagnosing pain related to facet joint pathology, e.g. arthropathy but is of limited diagnostic accuracy 1. The patient performs c...
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Abadie's sign (exopthalmos)

Abadie's sign is a medical sign of hyperthyroidism that is described by exophthalmos of both eyeballs, it is primarily caused by levator palpebrae superioris muscle spasm and appears as a clinically bulging eyes appearance 1. History and etymology Jean Marie Charles Abadie (1842–1932) was a Fr...
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Osseointegrated implant

Osseointegrated implants (OI) are endosteal implants characterized by porous surfaces that allow a direct structural connection between bone and implant without interposed soft tissue and ingrowth and interdigitation of the newly formed lamellar bone. Osseointegration has been defined as direct...
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Technegas

Technegas is an ultrafine aerosolized dispersion of Tc-99m labeled carbon which is one of several agents used during the ventilation phase of a ventilation/perfusion lung scan (V/Q scan). It is one of the technetium agents used in nuclear medicine imaging.  Characteristics photon energy: 140 K...
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Precipitous labor

Precipitous labor, also known as precipitous birth, is labor that happens too quickly, and is formally defined as fetal expulsion three hours or less after the start of regular uterine contractions. Contradictory and somewhat limited data demonstrates a higher risk of pregnancy-related complicat...
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Long COVID-19

Long COVID-19, also known as post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC) or post COVID-19 condition, is a post-viral syndrome affecting people who have recovered from COVID-19 infection. Symptoms are similar to those experienced by patients with chronic inflammatory response syndrome (CIR...
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Ischemic cardiomyopathy

Ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) refers to significant systolic dysfunction with a moderate to severely impaired left ventricular ejection fraction as a consequence of myocardial ischemia and/or myocardial infarction. The condition is not listed or classified as cardiomyopathy in the position state...
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Commissure (disambiguation)

A commissure (TA: commissura) is a location at which two anatomical structures are united. Though the term most commonly refers to the commissures in the brain, there are a number which exist in the human body:  central nervous system corpus callosum anterior commissure posterior commissure ...
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Portable radiography

Portable radiography (also known as mobile radiography) is frequently performed in hospitals when patients are too unwell to transport to the imaging department. However, most health facilities endeavor to perform "departmental films", as image quality tends to be inferior when performed with a ...
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Right atrial appendage

The right atrial appendage, also known as the right auricule (TA) or auricle, is a trapezoidal pouch forming the anterosuperior part of the right atrium. Pacemaker/defibrillator leads are often placed at this site. Gross anatomy The right atrial appendage is delineated from the rest of the rig...
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Cardiac resynchronisation therapy

Cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) refers to simultaneous biventricular or multisite pacing of the heart with a specialized biventricular cardiac pacemaker (CRT-P) with or without an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (CRT-D) and is a treatment option in moderate to severe heart failure...
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Intradiploic encephalocele

Intradiploic encephaloceles are a very rare form of encephalocele where there is herniation of brain tissue into the diploic space but not beyond. They have usually been described post-trauma but have also rarely been described in non-traumatic situations 1. Pathology These result from brain p...
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Accessory ossicles of the elbow

Accessory ossicles of the elbow are rare anatomical variants that may be misdiagnosed as fractures, synovial chondromatosis, or osteochondritis dissecans. Over 7 accessory ossicles are reported in the literature including 1 : os supratrochleare anterius os supratrochleare posterius - os supra...
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Panniculitis

Panniculitis (plural: panniculitides 1) is a non-specific histopathological term referring to inflammation of adipose tissue. It most commonly affects subcutaneous fat, although internal forms, e.g., mesenteric panniculitis, are well-known 1,2. Clinical presentation Most panniculitides present...
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Bernoulli equation (physics)

The Bernoulli equation utilizes the assumptions delineated in the law of conservation of energy to calculate a pressure gradient between two points from a velocity 1. In its simplified form, discussed below, it is often used to quantify severity of valvular derangements in echocardiography. Phy...
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Esophageal temperature probe

Esophageal temperature probes are used to monitor core body temperatures in patients receiving anesthesia. The probe is advanced either through the nasal passage or oral cavity, before following a similar path to a nasogastric tube. Indications Clinically significant changes in core body tempe...
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Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (diagnostic criteria)

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, alternatively Takotsubo syndrome, is a primary acquired cardiomyopathy characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction. Several sets of diagnostic criteria exist and are variably utile in various clinical and research settings. International Takotsubo Diagnosti...
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Perivascular adductor longus muscle injury

A perivascular adductor longus muscle injury is an infrequent type of trauma to the adductor longus muscle, which is poorly and infrequently reported in the literature 1-3, and may as a result remain underdiagnosed and undertreated. Pathology The adductor longus muscle originates from the exte...
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Echocardiography

Echocardiography refers broadly to the use of diagnostic ultrasound as it pertains to the heart and cardiovascular system. The features of the imaging equipment used, as well as the principles underlying image generation, are analogous to other sonographic applications. It is primarily used to n...
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Egyptian eye sign

"Egyptian eye sign" or "sonographic eye sign" refers to the normal appearance of great saphenous vein on ultrasound, in transverse view 1-2. Ultrasound examination of the great saphenous vein shows echogenic fascia surrounding it, with the saphenous fascia superiorly and the muscular fascia inf...
Article

Colo cutaneous fistula

A colo-cutaneous fistula is a form of gut fistula where there is a fistulous communication between the colon and the skin.  Pathology It can occur from varied etiology inclusive of  trauma surgery stoma associated  inflammatory bowel disease - Crohn disease diverticulitis 2,6 appendiciti...
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Atrial volume

The atrial volumes refer to the blood volumes of the left or right atrium and the atrial volume index is the respective atrial volume corrected for the body surface area (BSA). Usage Atrial volumes are measured for the assessment of many congenital and acquired cardiac conditions causing left ...
Article

Adrenal vein thrombosis

Adrenal vein thrombosis refers to the occlusion of the main central adrenal vein with or without extension to the capsular veins, resulting in hemorrhage and coagulative necrosis of the adrenal glands. Epidemiology Adrenal vein thrombosis is a rare condition with no reported incidence rates in...
Article

Arterial input function

Arterial input function (AIF) is commonly defined as the concentration of the contrast medium in an artery measured over time by placing a region of interest. Use in MRI and CT It is important to be precise that on MRI the estimation of the concentration is obtained indirectly from the induced...
Article

Rib-within-a-rib appearance

Rib-within-a-rib appearance refers to a feature that may be present on plain radiographs of the patients with β thalassemia. As the name suggests, the ribs take on an appearance of having another rib superimposed. The phenomenon is usually visible in the anterior and middle segments of the ribs ...
Article

Intercostal lung hernia

An intercostal lung hernia is a form of lung herniation and is defined as a protrusion of pulmonary tissue and pleural membranes beyond the confines of the thoracic cavity through a defect/opening in the chest wall.  Epidemiology Intercostal lung herniations are considered the commonest form o...
Article

Focal ground glass opacification

Focal ground glass opacification refers to relatively contained area of ground glass although these can be multiple and can involve more than one contiguous part of the lungs. These can include: distinct nodules - ground glass density nodules pure ground glass nodules amorphous non nodular g...
Article

Deferoxamine-induced bone dysplasia

Deferoxamine-induced bone dysplasia refers to abnormal bone development that may be present in patients undergoing iron-chelation therapy with deferoxamine. Deferoxamine is often used in patients with β thalassemia major for the prevention and treatment of transfusion-related secondary hemochrom...
Article

Keloid scar

Keloid scars represent abnormal scar tissue growth at a site of injury. Often involving an exuberant fibrotic skin response to injury or inflammation, a hypodermal proliferation of type I and III collagen is typically present on histology. In contradistinction to hypertrophic scars, keloids gene...
Article

Multisystemic smooth muscle dysfunction syndrome

Multisystemic smooth muscle dysfunction syndrome is a rare genetic disorder caused by mutations in the ACTA2 gene, resulting in intracranial steno-occlusive disease and aortic dissection or aneurysm, among other complications. Epidemiology Most cases are diagnosed in childhood 1. Clinical pre...
Article

Magnetic Resonance Index of Activity (MaRIA)

The Magnetic Resonance Index of Activity (MaRIA) scoring system is used to assess ileocolonic Crohn disease activity on contrast-enhanced MRI enterography. The segmental index represents disease severity in one bowel segment, whilst assessing six defined anatomic regions these can be combined in...
Article

Rectal MRI (an approach)

Rectal MRI is a key imaging investigation in the diagnosis, staging and follow up of rectal cancer. An increase in the utility of rectal MRI as been driven by the recognition of the mesorectum as a distinct anatomic compartment containing and limiting the margins of the rectum, and forming a sur...

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