Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

13,606 results found
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Amastia

Amastia is a rare congenital condition characterized by the absence of breast tissue, nipple and areola. This may occur unilaterally or bilaterally. Pathology During embryological development, breasts first appear as ectoderm ridges during the 6th week of gestation. This ridge grows thicker an...
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Amaurosis fugax

Amaurosis fugax is the transient monocular loss of vision, normally lasting a few seconds to a few minutes, secondary to vascular ischemia or insufficiency.  Epidemiology It has an incidence of 50,000 per year in the United States.  Clinical presentation Patients present with transient monoc...
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Amazia

Amazia is a rare congenital condition defined by the absence of glandular parenchyma in either one or both of the breasts and a normal nipple and areola complex.  Epidemiology This is a very rare entity and the true prevalence is not known. Although there are strict definition criteria, the di...
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Ambient cistern

The ambient cistern is part of the subarachnoid cisterns, filled with CSF. Gross anatomy The ambient cistern is a thin, sheet-like extension of the quadrigeminal cistern that extends laterally around the midbrain and posterior to the thalami. It acts as the connection between the quadrigeminal...
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Amelia

Amelia refers to a skeletal dysplasia characterized by the complete absence of upper or lower extremity or all four limbs. It may be associated with other congenital anomalies, i.e. omphalocele and diaphragmatic hernias 3. Epidemiology Amelia is a very rare congenital anomaly with an incidence...
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Ameloblastic fibroma

Ameloblastic fibromas appear as unilocular lucent mandibular lesions, most frequently in the posterior mandible, and are usually associated with impacted teeth, centered on the unerupted crown. They, therefore, appear very similar to unilocular ameloblastomas. They are composed of enamel and emb...
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Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma

Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma (AFO) is a rare benign mixed odontogenic tumor that usually arises in the maxilla and mandible. According to the 2005 WHO classification of odontogenic tumors, it is defined as a benign tumor that resembles ameloblastic fibroma but contains enamel and dentin. Epidemi...
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Ameloblastoma

Ameloblastomas are locally aggressive benign tumors that arise from the mandible, or, less commonly, from the maxilla. Usually present as a slowly but continuously growing hard painless lesion near the angle of the mandible in the 3rd to 5th decades of life, which can be severely disfiguring if ...
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American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons classification of periprosthetic hip fractures

The American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons classification of periprosthetic hip fractures divides the femur into three separate regions: level I: proximal femur distally to the lower extent of the lesser trochanter  level II: 10 cm of femur distal to level I  level III: femur distal to level...
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American Board of Radiology

The American Board of Radiology (ABR) is a national certifying board for radiologists in the United States of America. It is a member of the American Board of Specialties. The ABR currently requires two examinations for certification: core exam certifying exam The American Board of Radiology...
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American College of Radiology

The American College of Radiology (ACR) was founded in 1923 by Albert Soiland, an American radiologist 2. Its contemporary core purpose, according to its website, is "To serve patients and society by empowering members to advance the practice, science and professions of radiological care" 1. Hi...
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American College of Radiology published guidelines

The American College of Radiology (ACR) publishes and updates imaging guidelines, sometimes in collaboration with other bodies, on a range of imaging pathologies and reporting issues: adrenal incidentalomas: white paper breast lesions: BI-RADS head and neck cancer: NI-RADS liver lesions: LI-...
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American Dental Association Universal Numbering System

The American Dental Association Universal Numbering System is a tooth notation system primarily used in the United States. Teeth are numbered from the viewpoint of the dental practitioner looking into the open mouth, clockwise starting from the distalmost right maxillary teeth. Permanent teeth...
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American Journal of Neuroradiology (AJNR)

American Journal of Neuroradiology (AJNR) is the premier publication of the American Society of Neuroradiology and was first published in 1980. Its founding editor was Juan M Taveras (1919-2002), the pioneering American neuroradiologist, who was a co-founder of the American Society of Neuroradio...
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American Journal of Roentgenology

The American Journal of Roentgenology, also known as AJR, is a peer-reviewed monthly journal published by the American Roentgen Ray Society (ARRS). Its current editor in chief is Dr Thomas H Berquist. Its global circulation is close to 25,000 paying subscribers 16.  Journal title Like many of ...
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American Roentgen Ray Society

The American Roentgen Ray Society (ARRS) is the first and oldest learned society for radiologists in the United States, it was founded in 1900. Its current President is Philip Costello. Immediate past President: Bernard F King, Jr. ARRS publishes the peer-reviewed journal American Journal of R...
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American Society of Neuroradiology

American Society of Neuroradiology (ASNR) was established in 1962 to ensure that neuroradiologists in the United States could freely exchange ideas and act with a common voice. It publishes the American Journal of Neuroradiology (AJNR). History At the VIth Symposium Neuroradiologicum held in R...
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American X-Ray Journal

The American X-Ray Journal was the first radiology journal in the United States. Its first issue was published in May 1897, its founder and first editor was an American physician Heber Robarts (1852-1922), who took an early keen interest in the new Roentgen rays. In its earliest days the journa...
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Amino acids

Amino acids are the monomeric building blocks of proteins. Amino acids concatenate into chains, which are arbitrarily divided into peptides, polypeptides, or proteins according to chain length. Generally, chains of 10 or fewer amino acids are deemed to be peptides, chain length from 10-100 are p...
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Amiodarone hepatotoxicity

Amiodarone hepatotoxicity is one of the complications that can occur with amiodarone therapy.  Clinical presentation In the majority of patients, it is discovered incidentally during routine testing of liver biochemistry and rarely do the hepatic effects develop into symptomatic liver injury o...
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Amiodarone lung

Amiodarone lung is an interstitial lung disease seen in patients being administered amiodarone and can manifest in a number of histopathologic patterns. Epidemiology The reported prevalence of pulmonary toxicity in patients receiving amiodarone is ~10% (range 2-18%) 8. Patients are usually el...
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Ammonia (N-13)

13NH3 is a PET tracer used for studies of myocardial perfusion imaging. It is produced in a cyclotron by proton irradiation of the enriched water of the oxygen-16. Ammonia (N-13) is administered intravenously, at a dose of 10-20 mCi (370-740 Mbq) in adults; its physical half-life is 10 minutes. ...
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Amniocentesis

Amniocentesis, also known as amniotic fluid testing or AFT, is a diagnostic or therapeutic medical procedure primarily used in prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities and fetal infections. A small amount of amniotic fluid (15-20 ml), which contains fetal tissue, is extracted from the am...
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Amnion

Amnion refers to a membranous structure which covers and protects the embryo. It forms inside the chorion. The amnion usually fuses with the outer chorion by around 14 weeks of gestation. Radiographic features Ultrasound The amnion can be visualized in most pregnancies before the 12th week of...
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Amnioreduction

An amnioreduction is a procedure where an amniocentesis is performed for intentional reduction of amniotic fluid volume. This is sometimes performed in the context of extreme polyhydramnios (particularly in the recipient twin in twin to twin transfusion syndrome).
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Amniotic bands

Amniotic bands refer to free floating blind ending amnion with an intact chorionic membrane. In certain situations, they lead to the amniotic band syndrome. They should not be confused with amniotic shelves which refer to the presence of amnion folding around pre-existing uterine adhesions. Some...
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Amniotic band syndrome

Amniotic band syndrome (ABS) comprises of a wide spectrum of abnormalities, all of which result from entrapment of various fetal body parts in a disrupted amnion. Due to the randomness of entrapment, each affected individual has the potential to form a unique deficit. Epidemiology The phenomen...
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Amniotic fluid discordance

An amniotic fluid discordance is usually defined as a difference in amniotic fluid volumes in a twin pregnancy. It is a predictor of poor fetal outcome in twin pregnancy related complications. Pathology Causes of amniotic fluid discordance include : twin-twin transfusion syndrome placental i...
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Amniotic fluid embolism to lung

Amniotic fluid embolism is a special type of pulmonary embolism where the embolus is comprised of amniotic fluid. It can be a highly fatal complication of pregnancy, with an 80% maternal mortality rate.  Epidemiology It is thought to complicate 1/8000-80,000 pregnancies. Clinical presentation...
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Amniotic fluid index

The amniotic fluid index (AFI) is an estimate of the amniotic fluid volume in a pregnant uterus. It is part of the fetal biophysical profile.  Technique the uterus is divided into four imaginary quadrants with the linea nigra and a mediolateral line running through the umbilicus acting as the ...
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Amniotic fluid in the first trimester

Amniotic fluid in the first trimester has been estimated from weeks 7-12. Although the amniotic fluid index (AFI) is calculated in the second trimester, one can get an idea of whether the amount of amniotic fluid is too much or too little at an earlier time point. The amniotic fluid volume is r...
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Amniotic fluid volume

Amniotic fluid volume (AFV) is a function both of the amount of water transferred to the gestation across the placental membrane, and the flux of water across the amnion. Physiology Change in volume through gestation The AFV undergoes characteristic changes with gestation. It progressively ri...
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Amniotic shelf

Amniotic shelf (also known as an amniotic sheet 4) refers to a sheet like projection that can result from uterine synechiae that has been encompassed by the expanding chorion and amnion. In contrast to amniotic bands, they are not thought to be associated with any fetal deformity.  Epidemiology...
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Amoebic colitis

Amoebic colitis is a type of infectious colitis, more common in tropical and subtropical areas. The causative agent is the trophozoite form of the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica. In most cases of transmission, the cyst form lives in the colon as a commensal and patients remain asymptomatic. Cl...
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Amoebic hepatic abscess

Amoebic hepatic abscesses are a form of hepatic abscess resulting from Entamoeba histolytica infection. Epidemiology Hepatic abscess is the most common extraintestinal form of E. histolytica infection 6. Although the causative pathogen is found worldwide, it is endemic to the Middle East and ...
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Amorphous calcifications (breast)

Amorphous calcifications, previously known as indistinct calcifications, are a morphological descriptor for breast calcifications that are small and/or hazy such that no clearly defined shape/form can be ascribed.  Pathology Many benign and malignant conditions may be seen in association with ...
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Amphiarthroses

Amphiarthroses are a functional class of joint that permit a small amount of movement under normal conditions. Examples symphyses (secondary cartilaginous joints) symphysis pubis intervertebral discs sternomanubrial joint  See also  synarthroses diarthroses
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Ampulla (disambiguation)

Ampulla (plural: ampullae) is an anatomical term used for tubular structures with a short segmental bulbous dilatation: ampulla (fallopian tube) ampulla (lacrimal system) ampulla (esophagus) ampulla (rectum) ampulla (semicircular ducts) ampulla (spleen) ampulla of Vater ampulla (vas defe...
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Ampulla of Vater

The ampulla of Vater is a conical structure at the confluence of the common bile duct (CBD) and the main pancreatic duct that protrudes at the major duodenal papilla into the medial aspect of the descending duodenum. The entire structure is encased by smooth muscle fibers that compose the sphinc...
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Ampullary adenocarcinoma

Ampullary adenocarcinomas are rare biliary tumors arising from the distal biliary epithelium at the ampulla of Vater.  Although classically presenting on imaging with the double duct sign, the tumor itself may be occult or of limited characterization imaging.  Epidemiology These are rare tumo...
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Ampullary ectopic pregnancy

Ampullary ectopic pregnancy is the commonest type of tubal ectopic pregnancy and accounts for ~70% of such cases.  According to one study the disruption of the tubal wall was less than as in isthmic ectopic pregnancy 2.
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Ampullary tumor

The term ampullary tumor generally refers to either benign or malignant neoplasms that arise from the glandular epithelium of the ampulla of Vater, including 1: ampullary adenoma (adenoma of ampulla of Vater) ampullary carcinoma (carcinoma of ampulla of Vater) According to some authors, ampul...
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Amputation (generic)

The term amputation refers to the disconnection of all or part of a limb from the body. Specifically amputation is defined as removal of the structure through a bone. This is in contrast to disarticulation, which is removal of the structure through a joint. When due to trauma, traumatic amputat...
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Amsterdam criteria for HNPCC

The Amsterdam criteria are used in the diagnosis hereditary non polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). Amsterdam Criteria I Initial description in 1991: > or equal to 3 relatives with colorectal cancer (CRC) > or equal to 1 case in a first degree relative > or equal to 2 successive generation...
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Amsterdam wrist rules

The Amsterdam wrist rules are validated clinical decision rules for determining which patients require radiographic imaging (wrist radiography) for acute wrist pain following trauma. The initial study evaluated 882 patients and were published in 2015 1. The decision rules assessed different clin...
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Amyand hernia

Amyand hernia is a rare form of an inguinal hernia in which the vermiform appendix is located within the hernial sac. It is seen in less than 1% of inguinal hernia.  It should not be confused with an appendix-containing femoral hernia, known as De Garengeot hernia. Terminology The term applie...
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Amygdala

The amygdala (plural: amygdalae) is a very well studied part of the limbic system and forms part of the mesial temporal lobe.  Gross anatomy The amygdala is a complex gray matter structure located anterior and superior to the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle and head of the hippocampus. ...
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Amylase

Amylase is widely employed as a marker of acute pancreatitis and a significant elevation is diagnostic. Physiology α-amylase is a digestive enzyme that is predominantly secreted by the acinar cells of the exocrine pancreas. It is also secreted by the salivary glands. Pancreatic amylase is enco...
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Amyloid arthropathy

Amyloid arthropathy results from the extracellular deposition of the fibrous protein amyloid within the skeletal system and is a skeletal manifestation of amyloidosis particularly in patients on long term haemodialysis. It may involve either the axial skeleton (especially the cervical spine) or ...
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Amyloidosis

Amyloidosis (plural: amyloidoses) is a heterogeneous disease, or even considered a constellation of diseases, resulting in the deposition of relatively similar proteins. It has many causes and can affect any organ system. Epidemiology  The disease may have a male predilection. It typically aff...
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Amyopathic dermatomyositis

Amyopathic dermatomyositis (ADM) is recognized as a distinct subtype of dermatomyositis where there is a typical skin rash of classic dermatomyosiytis but without muscle involvement. Sub types This form may be further divided into  anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) antibo...
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Amyoplasia congenita

Amyoplasia congenita is a syndrome characterized by multiple specific congenital joint contractures, associated with substitution of muscular tissue by fibrosis and adipose tissue. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at  1: 10000 live births. There may be a higher prevalence with twin preg...
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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig disease or Charcot disease, is the most common form of motor neuron disease 1,4 resulting in progressive weakness and eventual death due to respiratory insufficiency. Epidemiology ALS typically is diagnosed in middle age. There is a...
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Anemia

Anemia is the presence of reduced hemoglobin in the blood. Formally, the World Health Organization (WHO) defines anemia by the hemoglobin concentration in the blood according to age and sex 1: adult men: <130 g/L adult women: <120 g/L Values for pregnant women and children are different. Pat...
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Anal atresia

Anal atresia, or imperforate anus, refers to a spectrum of anorectal abnormalities ranging from a membranous separation to complete absence of the anus. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is 1 in 5000 live births. Pathology Clinically there is no anal opening. Subtypes can be classified in...
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Anal canal

The anal canal is the terminal part of the gastrointestinal tract. Anatomically, the anal canal is referred to as the terminal alimentary tract between the dentate line and anal verge. However, histologically it extends more proximally and includes the columns of Morgagni and anal sinuses. Surgi...
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Anal canal cancer protocol (MRI)

MRI protocol for anal canal cancer is a group of MRI sequences put together to asses extension and stage anal canal tumors. Note: This article is intended to outline some general principles of protocol design. The specifics will vary depending on MRI hardware and software, radiologist's and ref...
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Anal cancer

Anal cancer is a relatively uncommon, accounting for less than 2% of large bowel malignancies, and most of the cases are made of squamous cell carcinoma.  Epidemiology It accounts for less than 2% of large bowel malignancies and 1-6% of anorectal tumors (~1.5% of all gastrointestinal tract mal...
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Anal cancer (staging)

The most recent version of TNM staging of anal cancer is as follows: Primary tumor (T) TX: primary tumor cannot be assessed T0: no evidence of primary tumor Tis: carcinoma in situ (Bowen disease, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion [HSIL], anal intraepithelial neoplasia II-III (AIN II...
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Anal margin

Anal margin or perianal skin is arbitrarily defined as a skin tissue with a radius of 5 cm from the anal verge, consisting of keratinizing squamous epithelial tissue containing hair follicles. See also anal margin neoplasms
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Anal sphincter

The anal sphincter is divided into an internal and external anal sphincter. It surrounds the anal canal.  Gross anatomy Internal anal sphincter continuation of inner rectal muscle thickened, circular muscle fibers, up to 5 mm thick composed of visceral muscle External anal sphincter Compo...
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Anal triangle

The anal triangle forms the posterior half of the diamond-shaped perineum. The triangle's three corners are defined by the tip of the coccyx posteriorly and both ischial tuberosities anterolaterally. The anterior border is the transverse perineal muscles and the posterolateral borders are the sa...
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Anal verge

The anal verge is part of the anal region and consists of a band of squamous epithelial tissue which lacks hair follicles and extends from the inter-sphincteric groove to the perianal skin. 
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Anaphylaxis

Anaphylaxis (also known as anaphylactic shock or reaction) is an acute severe systemic type I hypersensitivity reaction, commonly presenting with urticaria/angioedema, hypotension and bronchial hyperreactivity. It may be fatal. Terminology Anaphylactoid reactions result from non-immune system ...
Article

Anaplastic astrocytoma

Anaplastic astrocytomas are WHO grade III lesions, with imaging appearances and prognosis between those of diffuse low-grade astrocytomas (WHO grade II) and glioblastomas (WHO IV), and similarly, they are classified on the basis of IDH mutation as IDH-mutant, IDH-wild-type and NOS (when IDH stat...
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Anaplastic ependymoma

Anaplastic ependymomas (WHO grade III ependymomas), in comparison to lower grade ependymomas, are characterized by a higher proliferative rate and a greater tendency to infiltrate surrounding brain or disseminate into cerebrospinal fluid causing drop metastases 1. The relevance of grading ependy...
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Anaplastic ganglioglioma

Anaplastic gangliogliomas are uncommon aggressive variants of the far more common low-grade ganglioglioma (WHO grade I). In the current WHO classification of CNS tumors (2016), no criteria have been agreed upon for a ganglioglioma WHO grade II tumor 1. Pathology In anapestic gangliogliomas, t...
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Anaplastic large cell lymphoma

Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a form of hematological malignancy. It as first described in 1985 as a large-cell neoplasm with anaplastic morphology immunostained by the Ki-1 antibody, which recognizes CD30. There are two main sub types  anaplastic large-cell lymphoma, ALK-positive ...
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Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion oncogene positive non small cell lung cancer

Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion oncogene positive non small cell lung cancer refers to a specific set of non small cell lung cancers that contain an inversion in chromosome 2. They are associated with specific clinical features, including never or light smoking history, younger age, and ...
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Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangements

Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangements are known to occur in association with several tumors. The genes codes for an enzyme called anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) or ALK tyrosine kinase receptor / CD246 which is thought o play a role in the brain development and exerts its effects...
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Anaplastic meningioma

Anaplastic meningiomas (also known as malignant meningiomas) are uncommon, accounting for only ~1% of all meningiomas 1. Along with rhabdoid meningioma and papillary meningioma are considered WHO grade III tumors and demonstrate aggressive local growth and high recurrence rate.  It should be no...
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Anaplastic oligodendroglioma

Anaplastic oligodendroglioma is a WHO grade III diffuse infiltrating glioma that has histological features of anaplasia, and molecular markers consistent with an oligodendroglioma (1p19q co-deletion and IDH mutation) as per the current (2016) WHO classification of CNS tumors 1. They make up 20-5...
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Anaplastic oligodendroglioma NOS

Anaplastic oligodendroglioma NOS (not-otherwise-specified) is a diagnosis in the current (2016) WHO classification of CNS tumors denoting a diffuse infiltrating glioma that has histological features of anaplastic oligodendroglioma, but without 1p19q co-deletion status or IDH mutation status bein...
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Anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma

Anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas are a more aggressive and less common version of pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA).  In the current (2016) WHO classification of CNS tumors, they are considered WHO grade III lesions (whereas pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas are WHO grade II tumors) 1. ...
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Anaplastic rhabdomyosarcoma

An anaplastic rhabdomyosarcoma is a subtype of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, characterized by extensive anaplastic cells seen throughout the tumor 1.
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Anaplastic thyroid cancer (staging)

Anaplastic thyroid cancer staging refers to TNM staging of anaplastic thyroid carcinomas. Papillary, follicular, and medullary thyroid carcinomas are staged separately. The following article reflects the 8th edition manual published by the American Joint Committee on Cancer, which is used for st...
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Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma

Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is a highly aggressive form of thyroid cancer and accounts for ~1-2% of primary thyroid malignancies. Of all the subtypes, this carries the worst prognosis. Epidemiology Typically occurs in the elderly (peak incidence in 6th to 7th decades). A significant proportio...
Article

Anatomical snuff box

The anatomical snuff box is a surface anatomy feature. It appears as a triangular depression on the lateral surface of the wrist on full extension of the thumb. Gross anatomy Boundaries medial: tendons of the extensor pollicis longus lateral: tendons of the extensor pollicis brevis and mor...
Article

Anatomical variants

Anatomical variants represent the deviations from the accepted standard human anatomy as printed in the classic textbooks (e.g. Gray's Anatomy 1), and taught in universities, dissecting rooms and clinical practice. Terminology The term "normal anatomic variants" or just "normal variants" is of...
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Anatomic position

The anatomic position, also referred to as the standard anatomic position, is the consistent position of the human body in which positional reference is made for anatomical nomenclature. It is not reliant on whether the patient is standing, supine, prone, sitting, etc. The position is defined a...
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Anatomy article structure

Articles pertaining to normal anatomy require a different structure, and the following subheadings are recommended: ===================================================================== As with all other articles, the introductory paragraph should introduce the anatomical term and aim to give ...
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Anatomy article structure (bone)

As with all other articles, the introductory paragraph should introduce the anatomical term and aim to give an interesting summary. The first sentence should contain the title of the article in bold.  Summary location: articulations: blood supply and innervation: relations: Gross anatomy ...
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Anatomy article structure (joint)

As with all other articles, the introductory paragraph should introduce the anatomical term and aim to give an interesting summary. The first sentence should contain the title of the article in bold.  Summary location: movement: ligaments and tendons: relations: Gross anatomy Location Mo...
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Anatomy article structure: muscle

As with all other articles, the introductory paragraph should introduce the anatomical term and aim to give an interesting summary. The first sentence should contain the title of the article in bold.  Summary origin: insertion: innervation: action: Gross anatomy Origin Insertion Relatio...
Article

Anatomy article structure (nerve)

As with all other articles, the introductory paragraph should introduce the anatomical term and aim to give an interesting summary. The first sentence should contain the title of the article in bold.  Summary location: origin and course: branches and supply: relations: Gross anatomy Locat...
Article

Anatomy article structure (organ)

As with all other articles, the introductory paragraph should introduce the anatomical term and aim to give an interesting summary. The first sentence should contain the title of the article in bold.  Summary location: function: blood supply and drainage: relations: Gross anatomy Location...
Article

Anatomy article structure (space/region)

As with all other articles, the introductory paragraph should introduce the anatomical term and aim to give an interesting summary. The first sentence should contain the title of the article in bold.  Summary location: boundaries: contents: Gross anatomy Location Boundaries Contents Rel...
Article

Anatomy article structure (vessel)

As with all other articles, the introductory paragraph should introduce the anatomical term and aim to give an interesting summary. The first sentence should contain the title of the article in bold.  Summary location: origin and termination: branches and supply: relations: Gross anatomy ...
Article

Anatomy curriculum

The anatomy curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core anatomy knowledge for radiologists and imaging specialists. General anatomy Neuroanatomy Head and neck anatomy Thoracic anatomy Abdominal and pelvic anatomy Spinal anat...
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Anatomy of an article

The anatomy of an article describes the component parts of any article at Radiopaedia.org. All articles include a title, the main content, references and other attributes. Title The title of the article may seem obvious, but some considerations as to consistency are required. We use sentence c...
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Ancient schwannoma

Ancient schwannomas are long-standing, benign (WHO grade I) slow growing schwannomas with advanced degeneration. The term “ancient” has been traditionally used to describe schwannomas showing degenerative changes and diffuse hypocellular areas 1-3. Pathology These tumors demonstrate nuclear pl...
Article

Anconeus epitrochlearis

The anconeus epitrochlearis is an accessory muscle at the medial aspect of the elbow. It is also known as the accessory anconeus muscle or epitrochleoanconeus muscle and should not be confused with the anconeus muscle which is present at the lateral aspect of the elbow.  Epidemiology The muscl...
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Anconeus muscle

The anconeus muscle is a small muscle in the posterior compartment of the arm at the lateral aspect of the elbow. It has little functional significance but should be differentiated from the variably present anconeus epitrochlearis at the medial aspect of the elbow. Summary origin: lateral epic...

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