Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

16,075 results found
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Oropharyngeal isthmus

The oropharyngeal isthmus, a.k.a. isthmus of fauces, is the relative constriction of the anterior oropharynx that borders the oral cavity. The isthmus is sometimes described as the passage that transitions between the oral cavity and pharynx, but strictly speaking, it is part of the oropharynx. ...
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Fibrosing inflammatory pseudotumor

Fibrosing inflammatory pseudotumors are an inflammatory process with histology showing a polymorphous infiltrate with plasma cells, lymphocytes and eosinophils as well as a significant reactive fibrovascular component. Pathology Location They can occur at various sites of the body including: ...
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Myxoid glioneuronal tumor

Myxoid glioneuronal tumor is a rare and low-grade tumor (WHO grade 1) that usually involve the septum pellucidum, corpus callosum, subcallosal area, periventricular white matter and septal nuclei 1.  Terminology The histologic features of this tumor are similar to dysembryoplastic neuroepithel...
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Superior hypogastric plexus

The superior hypogastric plexus is a retroperitoneal structure located at the level of the lower third of the 5th lumbar vertebral body and upper third of the first sacral body at the sacral promontory. It is inferior to the bifurcation of the aorta and in close proximity to the bifurcation of t...
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Night sweats

Night sweats, also known as sleep hyperhidrosis, are a common clinical complaint and may herald malignancy, especially lymphoma, or infections. Patients typically report waking up in the night with sweating so severe that their clothes and bed sheets are soaked through ("drenching sweats") and n...
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GABAA receptor antibody encephalitis

GABAA receptor antibody (anti-GABAAR) encephalitis is an autoimmune encephalitis characterized by a severe seizure disorder and distinctive radiographic features. Epidemiology Given the rarity of the condition, epidemiological data pertaining to anti-GABAAR encephalitis is not well established...
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Biceps tendon with accessory head

The accessory head of the biceps brachii muscle is a normal anatomical variant and incidentally seen in some individuals with shoulder problems who were referred for shoulder MRI. Epidemiology The prevalence of the condition has been reported in 9.1-22.9% of the population especially in the As...
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Dent disease

Dent disease is a very rare inherited renal disorder that is characterized by proximal tubule dysfunction. Clinical presentation polyuria hypercalciuria, renal stones and nephrocalcinosis proteinuria, although not presenting with nephrotic syndrome glucosuria aminoaciduria phosphaturia c...
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CT renal mass (protocol)

The renal mass CT protocol is a multi-phasic contrast-enhanced examination for the assessment of renal masses. It is most often comprised of a non-contrast, nephrogenic phase and excretory phase. However, this article will cover the optional, corticomedullary phase too. NB: This article is inte...
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Excretory phase

The excretory phase also known as the urographic phase is a postcontrast injection time range in which there is an optimal enhancement of the renal collecting systems. Technique The acquisition time depends on the intravenous device (central or peripheral), the concentration of the contrast me...
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Modiolus (disambiguation)

The modiolus (plural: modioli) may refer to one of two different anatomical structures, both in the head and neck region: modiolus (cochlea) modiolus (mouth) History and etymology The Latin word, "modiolus" means hub of a wheel, and is well-named, as in both the cochlea and at the angle of t...
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Modiolus (mouth)

The modiolus (plural: modioli), also known as the modiolus anguli oris or commissural modiolus, is a small fibromuscular structure at the corner of the mouth where fibers from multiple facial muscles converge, and helps coordinate the action of these muscles. Gross anatomy The convergence of t...
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Gomphosis

A gomphosis (plural: gomphoses), also known as the dentoalveolar syndesmosis, is the specific name for the fibrous joint between the teeth and the alveolar bone of the maxilla/mandible 1,2.
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Coronary artery bypass graft markers

Coronary artery bypass graft markers are radiopaque markers placed at the proximal origin of coronary artery bypass grafts from the ascending aorta. The purpose of these is to make subsequent coronary angiography easier by indicating the location of the graft origin.  Markers may be metallic ri...
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Incisivus labii inferioris muscle

The incisivus labii inferioris muscle (TA: pars labialis musculi orbicularis oris) is one of the facial muscles. It acts as a supplementary muscle to the orbicularis oris muscle. Terminology The incisivus labii inferioris muscle is often omitted from major anatomical texts or articles on the f...
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Classification system article structure

Articles about classification systems have their own specific structure. Please also see reproduction of classification systems. ================================================================= Formatting of the classification system article title and use of the classification system name th...
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Interstitial lung disease associated with primary biliary cholangitis

Interstitial lung disease associated with primary biliary cholangitis can occur in a variable pattern that can include 1: pulmonary fibrosis lymphoid interstitial pneumonia non-specific interstitial pneumonia bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia Epidemiology It may occur in a...
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The crisscross sign

The crisscross sign is a fetal ultrasound sign that describes the normal relationship between the ventricular outflows tracts of the fetal heart. The left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT); represented by the take-off of the aorta (Ao) from the left ventricle, is perpendicular (90o) to the right ...
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Clermont score

The Clermont or DWI-MaRIA scoring system is used to assess ileocolonic Crohn disease activity on noncontrast MRI enterography. It is based on the earlier Magnetic Resonance Index of Activity (MaRIA) index, however, it does not require intravenous gadolinium by substituting relative contrast enha...
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Parkes weber syndrome

Parkes Weber syndrome is a rare disease, depicted by capillary malformation, venous malformation, arteriovenous malformation and lymphatic malformation in the affected limb, hypertrophy of the bone, as well as soft tissues of the involved limb.  Multiple AV malformation of the affected limb will...
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Contrast phases

Contrast phases are terms used to describe different stages of contrast enhancement to blood vessels, following the introduction of a pressure injected intravenous (IV) contrast agent such as iodine in CT.  Typical phases (time from injection) include:  early arterial phase  15-25 seconds pos...
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CT four-phase liver (protocol)

The four-phase liver CT protocol is a useful examination in the assessment of focal liver lesions, hypervascular liver metastasis and endocrine tumors. It is a triple-phase liver with an initial non-contrast component included before the intravenous contrast medium is given, often requested if ...
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CT triple-phase liver (protocol)

The triple-phase liver CT protocol is a useful examination in the assessment of focal liver lesions, hypervascular liver metastases and endocrine tumors. It involves a dedicated late arterial phase, portal venous phase and delayed phase acquisition. Not to be confused with a four-phase which in...
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Shoulder series (pediatric)

The shoulder series for pediatrics is a two view series containing anteroposterior and lateral radiographs. Depending on the patient's level of distress and severity of the injury, adapting the radiographic technique to suit a child sitting in bed or lying supine may be necessary.  Indications ...
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Blast crisis

A blast crisis or lymphoid blast crisis refers to the transition of chronic or accelerated phase chronic myeloid leukemia to acute leukemia. It is usually characterized by ≥30% blasts in the bone marrow or peripheral blood or development of extramedullary disease outside of the spleen Among p...
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Febrile seizure

Febrile seizures are a largely idiopathic phenomenon which may occur between 6 and 60 months of age, defined by a seizure occurring concomitantly with a temperature over 38C (100.4F). This entity excludes seizures associated with infections of the central nervous system such as bacterial meningi...
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Transcatheter mitral valve intervention

Transcatheter mitral valve interventions (TMVI) or percutaneous mitral valve interventions are less-invasive, highly technical procedures available for the management of selected patients with mitral valve regurgitation and include several transcatheter mitral valve repair (TMVr) and transcathet...
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Meyers and McKeever classification of ACL avulsion fractures

Meyers and McKeever classification of ACL avulsion fractures is the most frequently employed system to describe ACL avulsion fractures. Classification Under the Meyers and McKeever system (with modifications by Zaricznyj) injuries are classified into four main types: type 1: minimally/nondisp...
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Glenohumeral joint effusion

A glenohumeral joint effusion refers to fluid accumulation within the glenohumeral joint. It is considered abnormal and in many instances may be related to: rotator cuff tears osteoarthritis - glenohumeral arthropathy / osteoarthritis of the shoulder  In the context of arthropathy, the volume...
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Adenomyomatous endometrial polyp

An adenomyomatous polyp of the endometrium is a rare form of endometrial polyp and comprises of a pedunculated lesion that contains smooth muscle in addition to the usual components of an endometrial polyp. On outer examination, they may be difficult to differentiate from ordinary endometrial po...
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Claw toe deformity

Claw toe deformities are hyperextension of the metatarsophalangeal joint of the foot with hyperflexion of the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints 1-3. It is considered more severe but less common than hammer toe deformity 1.  Pathology Associations neuromuscular imbalance, e.g Charcot-...
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Lesser toe deformity

Lesser toe deformities are common and include deformities at the metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ), proximal interphalangeal joint (PIPJ) and/or distal interphalangeal joint (DIPJ). Terminology There is variable and crossover terminology 3 in the names given to lesser toe deformities but common...
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Cholecystocolonic fistula

Cholecystocolonic fistulas are most commonly a rare late complication of gallstone disease, resulting from an abnormal communication between the gallbladder and the colon. It is the second most common cholecystoenteric fistula after cholecystoduodenal fistulas 1.  Clinical presentation These m...
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Papillary craniopharyngioma

Papillary craniopharyngiomas are WHO grade 1 tumors of the pituitary region typically presenting as mostly solid masses in adults. They are an entirely separate entity from the far more common adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma that are found at all ages but particularly in children 1,2.  Termi...
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Adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma

Adamantinomatous craniopharyngiomas are WHO grade 1 tumors of the pituitary region typically presenting as cystic masses with peripheral calcifications in children. They are a distinct entity from the far less common papillary craniopharyngioma found in adults 1,4.  Terminology Until the 5th E...
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Diffusion-negative acute ischemic stroke

Diffusion-negative acute ischemic stroke refers to a clinically diagnosed acute ischemic stroke without cerebral restricted diffusion on DWI on brain MRI. Although DWI is highly sensitive for acute ischemic strokes, it fails in a minority of cases in its detection 1,2. Epidemiology It is not ...
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Kemp test

The Kemp test (also known as the quadrant test and extension-rotation test) is a provocative test on clinical examination that has been described as being useful for diagnosing pain related to facet joint pathology, e.g. arthropathy but is of limited diagnostic accuracy 1. The patient performs c...
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Abadie's sign (exopthalmos)

Abadie's sign is a medical sign of hyperthyroidism that is described by exophthalmos of both eyeballs, it is primarily caused by levator palpebrae superioris muscle spasm and appears as a clinically bulging eyes appearance 1. History and etymology Jean Marie Charles Abadie (1842–1932) was a Fr...
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Osseointegrated implant

Osseointegrated implants (OI) are endosteal implants characterized by porous surfaces that allow a direct structural connection between bone and implant without interposed soft tissue and ingrowth and interdigitation of the newly formed lamellar bone. Osseointegration has been defined as direct...
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Technegas

Technegas is an ultrafine aerosolized dispersion of Tc-99m labeled carbon which is one of several agents used during the ventilation phase of a ventilation/perfusion lung scan (V/Q scan). It is one of the technetium agents used in nuclear medicine imaging.  Characteristics photon energy: 140 K...
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Precipitous labor

Precipitous labor, also known as precipitous birth, is labor that happens too quickly, and is formally defined as fetal expulsion three hours or less after the start of regular uterine contractions. Contradictory and somewhat limited data demonstrates a higher risk of pregnancy-related complicat...
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Long COVID-19

Long COVID-19, also known as post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC) or post COVID-19 condition, is a post-viral syndrome affecting people who have recovered from COVID-19 infection. Symptoms are similar to those experienced by patients with chronic inflammatory response syndrome (CIR...
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Ischemic cardiomyopathy

Ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) refers to significant systolic dysfunction with a moderate to severely impaired left ventricular ejection fraction as a consequence of myocardial ischemia and/or myocardial infarction. The condition is not listed or classified as cardiomyopathy in the position state...
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Commissure (disambiguation)

A commissure (TA: commissura) is a location at which two anatomical structures are united. Though the term most commonly refers to the commissures in the brain, there are a number which exist in the human body:  central nervous system corpus callosum anterior commissure posterior commissure ...
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Portable radiography

Portable radiography (also known as mobile radiography) is frequently performed in hospitals when patients are too unwell to transport to the imaging department. However, most health facilities endeavor to perform "departmental films", as image quality tends to be inferior when performed with a ...
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Right atrial appendage

The right atrial appendage, also known as the right auricule (TA) or auricle, is a trapezoidal pouch forming the anterosuperior part of the right atrium. Pacemaker/defibrillator leads are often placed at this site. Gross anatomy The right atrial appendage is delineated from the rest of the rig...
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Cardiac resynchronisation therapy

Cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) refers to simultaneous biventricular or multisite pacing of the heart with a specialized biventricular cardiac pacemaker (CRT-P) with or without an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (CRT-D) and is a treatment option in moderate to severe heart failure...
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Intradiploic encephalocele

Intradiploic encephaloceles are a very rare form of encephalocele where there is herniation of brain tissue into the diploic space but not beyond. They have usually been described post-trauma but have also rarely been described in non-traumatic situations 1. Pathology These result from brain p...
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Accessory ossicles of the elbow

Accessory ossicles of the elbow are rare anatomical variants that may be misdiagnosed as fractures, synovial chondromatosis, or osteochondritis dissecans. Over 7 accessory ossicles are reported in the literature including 1 : os supratrochleare anterius os supratrochleare posterius - os supra...
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Panniculitis

Panniculitis (plural: panniculitides 1) is a non-specific histopathological term referring to inflammation of adipose tissue. It most commonly affects subcutaneous fat, although internal forms, e.g., mesenteric panniculitis, are well-known 1,2. Clinical presentation Most panniculitides present...
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Bernoulli equation (physics)

The Bernoulli equation utilizes the assumptions delineated in the law of conservation of energy to calculate a pressure gradient between two points from a velocity 1. In its simplified form, discussed below, it is often used to quantify severity of valvular derangements in echocardiography. Phy...
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Esophageal temperature probe

Esophageal temperature probes are used to monitor core body temperatures in patients receiving anesthesia. The probe is advanced either through the nasal passage or oral cavity, before following a similar path to a nasogastric tube. Indications Clinically significant changes in core body tempe...
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Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (diagnostic criteria)

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, alternatively Takotsubo syndrome, is a primary acquired cardiomyopathy characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction. Several sets of diagnostic criteria exist and are variably utile in various clinical and research settings. International Takotsubo Diagnosti...
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Perivascular adductor longus muscle injury

A perivascular adductor longus muscle injury is an infrequent type of trauma to the adductor longus muscle, which is poorly and infrequently reported in the literature 1-3, and may as a result remain underdiagnosed and undertreated. Pathology The adductor longus muscle originates from the exte...
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Echocardiography

Echocardiography refers broadly to the use of diagnostic ultrasound as it pertains to the heart and cardiovascular system. The features of the imaging equipment used, as well as the principles underlying image generation, are analogous to other sonographic applications. It is primarily used to n...
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Egyptian eye sign

"Egyptian eye sign" or "sonographic eye sign" refers to the normal appearance of great saphenous vein on ultrasound, in transverse view 1-2. Ultrasound examination of the great saphenous vein shows echogenic fascia surrounding it, with the saphenous fascia superiorly and the muscular fascia inf...
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Colo cutaneous fistula

A colo-cutaneous fistula is a form of gut fistula where there is a fistulous communication between the colon and the skin.  Pathology It can occur from varied etiology inclusive of  trauma surgery stoma associated  inflammatory bowel disease - Crohn disease diverticulitis 2,6 appendiciti...
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Atrial volume

The atrial volumes refer to the blood volumes of the left or right atrium and the atrial volume index is the respective atrial volume corrected for the body surface area (BSA). Usage Atrial volumes are measured for the assessment of many congenital and acquired cardiac conditions causing left ...
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Adrenal vein thrombosis

Adrenal vein thrombosis refers to the occlusion of the main central adrenal vein with or without extension to the capsular veins, resulting in hemorrhage and coagulative necrosis of the adrenal glands. Epidemiology Adrenal vein thrombosis is a rare condition with no reported incidence rates in...
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Arterial input function

Arterial input function (AIF) is commonly defined as the concentration of the contrast medium in an artery measured over time by placing a region of interest. Use in MRI and CT It is important to be precise that on MRI the estimation of the concentration is obtained indirectly from the induced...
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Rib-within-a-rib appearance

Rib-within-a-rib appearance refers to a feature that may be present on plain radiographs of the patients with β thalassemia. As the name suggests, the ribs take on an appearance of having another rib superimposed. The phenomenon is usually visible in the anterior and middle segments of the ribs ...
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Intercostal lung hernia

An intercostal lung hernia is a form of lung herniation and is defined as a protrusion of pulmonary tissue and pleural membranes beyond the confines of the thoracic cavity through a defect/opening in the chest wall.  Epidemiology Intercostal lung herniations are considered the commonest form o...
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Focal ground glass opacification

Focal ground glass opacification refers to relatively contained area of ground glass although these can be multiple and can involve more than one contiguous part of the lungs. These can include: distinct nodules - ground glass density nodules pure ground glass nodules amorphous non nodular g...
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Deferoxamine-induced bone dysplasia

Deferoxamine-induced bone dysplasia refers to abnormal bone development that may be present in patients undergoing iron-chelation therapy with deferoxamine. Deferoxamine is often used in patients with β thalassemia major for the prevention and treatment of transfusion-related secondary hemochrom...
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Keloid scar

Keloid scars represent abnormal scar tissue growth at a site of injury. Often involving an exuberant fibrotic skin response to injury or inflammation, a hypodermal proliferation of type I and III collagen is typically present on histology. In contradistinction to hypertrophic scars, keloids gene...
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Multisystemic smooth muscle dysfunction syndrome

Multisystemic smooth muscle dysfunction syndrome is a rare genetic disorder caused by mutations in the ACTA2 gene, resulting in intracranial steno-occlusive disease and aortic dissection or aneurysm, among other complications. Epidemiology Most cases are diagnosed in childhood 1. Clinical pre...
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Magnetic Resonance Index of Activity (MaRIA)

The Magnetic Resonance Index of Activity (MaRIA) scoring system is used to assess ileocolonic Crohn disease activity on contrast-enhanced MRI enterography. The segmental index represents disease severity in one bowel segment, whilst assessing six defined anatomic regions these can be combined in...
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Rectal MRI (an approach)

Rectal MRI is a key imaging investigation in the diagnosis, staging and follow up of rectal cancer. An increase in the utility of rectal MRI as been driven by the recognition of the mesorectum as a distinct anatomic compartment containing and limiting the margins of the rectum, and forming a sur...
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Ring-shaped lateral ventricular nodules

Ring-shaped lateral ventricular nodules (RSLVNs) are small nodular ring-shaped lesions attached generally to the ependyma of the roof and body of the lateral ventricles. They are incidental findings and are of no reported clinical significance 1. Epidemiology These nodules are rare and their ...
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Wearable biosensors

Wearable biosensors are portable electronic devices that enable real-time monitoring and feedback to the user on various biological and physiological indicators. It has been suggested that they could revolutionise personalised healthcare and home management of patients by enabling continuous mon...
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SMART-CT severity index

A SMART-CT severity index is a recent tool and an expansion of the original modified CT severity index of acute pancreatitis. This novel index that is nomogram based, predicts the clinical consequence with modest accuracy. Two components are mainly evaluated, the first ones are the components of...
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Osteomeniscal impact edema

Osteomeniscal impact edema (OMIE) refers to a bone marrow edema pattern in the knee adjacent to a displaced meniscal flap tear. Clinical presentation Patients can present with focal medial knee pain. Pathology This occurs secondary to a displaced meniscal flap tear with peripheral, focal ede...
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Os cuboideum secundarium

An os cuboideum secundarium is an accessory tarsal bone, located along the plantar aspect of the foot, adjacent to the calcaneocuboid joint, inferior to the posterior margin of the cuboid and anterior margin of the calcaneus. Epidemiology It is one of the rarest accessory tarsal bones and its ...
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Trochlea (eye)

The trochlea is a cartilaginous structure acting as a pulley for the superior oblique muscle of the eye.  Gross anatomy The trochlea inserts on the trochlear fovea and spine located on the anteromedial part of the orbital roof. The tendon of superior oblique muscle passes through it 1. Functi...
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AO/OTA classification of pelvic ring fractures

The AO/OTA classification is one of the systems for classifying pelvic ring fractures. Like other fractures, they are divided into three groups subject to the severity and complexity of the respective injury 1: type A: intact posterior arch A1: a pelvic or innominate bone avulsion fracture A1...
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Northern lights phenomenon

The northern lights phenomenon represents an echogenic band slowly descending distal to the ultrasound transducer, and is exclusively seen during high mechanical index (MI) B-mode scanning after the administration of ultrasonic contrast media. It is not to be confused with prolonged heterogeneou...
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Pelvic organ prolapse

Pelvic organ prolapse refers to a pathological downward herniation of various pelvic organ structures into or through the perineum. It usually results from a pelvic floor weakness by impairment of various ligaments, fasciae, and muscles that support the pelvic organs. In its most severe form it...
Article

High-grade astrocytoma with piloid features

High-grade astrocytoma with piloid features is a recently described rare tumor most commonly encountered in the posterior fossa of adults, especially those with neurofibromatosis type 1. It appears heterogeneous and has a dismal prognosis.  Epidemiology Due to the small number of patients so f...
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Os intercuneiforme

An os intercuneiforme is a supernumerary tarsal bone located between the first and second cuneiforms, anterior to the navicular bone.  Epidemiology It's a rare ossicle with an estimated prevalence of 1-2% 1 Gross pathology It's a triangular-shaped bone appearing to be an isolated proximal co...
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AO/OTA classification of proximal femoral fractures

The AO/OTA classification is one of the most frequently used systems for classifying proximal femoral fractures or proximal femoral end segment fractures. Like other fractures, they are divided into three groups subject to the severity and complexity of the respective injury 1: type A: trochant...
Article

Pseudoneuroma sign (plantar plate tear)

The pseudoneuroma sign is an indirect sign of plantar plate tears at the metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) on MRI. This sign refers to pericapsular ill-defined and eccentric to the intermetatarsal space soft tissue thickening and is helpful for raising the accurate diagnosis of a plantar plate te...
Article

Non-pulsatile tinnitus

Non-pulsatile tinnitus is a form of tinnitus where there is a continuous ringing sensation of the ears. It is thought to have a considerable subjective component in many individuals. Pathology Many factors have been postulated, inclusive of 1-4: cerumen impaction middle ear infection medica...
Article

Auriculocondylar syndrome

Auriculocondylar syndrome is a rare congenital syndrome primarily characterized by malformed ears and mandibular condyle aplasia/hypoplasia. Pathology This is an autosomal dominant genetic disease resulting from GNAI3 or PLCB4 gene defects. This affects facial development especially the 1st an...
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AO classification of distal femur fractures

The AO classification of distal femoral fractures is one of the commonly used fracture classification systems in orthopedics. Each long bone has a single number with the parts of the bone denoted numerically, the proximal end is 1, diaphysis is 2, and the distal end is 3.  The distal femur sys...
Article

Gunal-Seber-Basaran syndrome

Gunal-Seber-Basaran syndrome is an exceedingly rare presentation of multiple bone islands, i.e. osteopoikilosis. It is characterized by dacryocystitis due to lacrimal canal stenosis with osteopoikilosis 1-3. This syndrome has an autosomal dominant inheritance 2,3. History and etymology The com...
Article

Radius and ulnar shaft fractures

Radius and ulnar shaft fractures, if treated inadequately, can result in significant dysfunction of the upper limb. This is due to the important role that the forearm plays in positioning of the hand through pronation and supination (at the proximal and distal radioulnar joint) as well as throug...
Article

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a type of heart failure with normal or near-normal ejection fraction and objective evidence of diastolic dysfunction. Terminology Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction was initially termed ‘diastolic heart failure' and was repl...
Article

Dolichocolon

Dolichocolon refers to an abnormally elongated redundant colon. It is considered a developmental variant.  Clinical presentation The main symptoms and signs of dolichocolon are: constipation abdominal pain abdominal distension volvulus However, dolichocolon is a contentious entity, and so...
Article

Tibial shaft fracture

Tibial shaft fractures are the most common long bone fractures and the second most common type of open fractures (second only to open phalanx fractures) 1.  Pathology Mechanism  Typically involve high-energy mechanisms such as road traffic accidents (incidence 43%) or sports 1. These are usua...
Article

Os talotibiale

An os talotibiale is a small accessory ossicle of the foot located at the anterior aspect of the tibiotalar joint. As of 2021, there are no published case reports about this ossicle and the knowledge in the literature is still insufficient 1. Epidemiology It is a rare ossicle with a reported i...
Article

Symmetrical cerebral T2 hyperintensities

Symmetrical cerebral T2/FLAIR hyperintensities are seen in a broad range of pathologies. The differential depends essentially on the location of the lesions. Symmetrical corticospinal tract lesions amyotrophic lateral sclerosis symmetrical T2/FLAIR hyperintensities along the corticospinal tra...
Article

Interstitial cells of Cajal

The interstitial cells of Cajal are mesenchymal cells closely apposed to neural and smooth muscle cells of the gut. They form a heterogeneous group with differing ultrastructure and functions. One cell type has an ancillary neural function as a gastrointestinal pacemaker, generating electrical s...
Article

Full stop

Full stops, known as periods in American English, are generally used on Radiopaedia as they would be elsewhere in life. In particular, as per our style guide, please ensure that: there is one character space only between the full stop at the end of one sentence and the start of a new sentence ...

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