Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

16,075 results found
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Fosbury flop tear of the rotator cuff

Fosbury flop tears of the rotator cuff are full-thickness rotator cuff tears with a reversed superomedial or flipped orientation of the torn tendon stump. Epidemiology Fosbury flop tears are uncommon with a prevalence of ~2.5% of all rotator cuff tears 1-3. Diagnosis The diagnosis is suggest...
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Elsberg syndrome

Elsberg syndrome is an established but rarely recognized cause of cauda equina syndrome and lower thoracic myelitis, associated with a presumed infectious etiology.  Epidemiology Elsberg syndrome is likely responsible for 10% of combined cauda equina syndrome and myelitis 1. Clinical presenta...
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Pembrolizumab induced pneumonitis

Pembrolizumab induced pneumonitis is a form of drug-induced lung disease occurring as a result of a response to the use of the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1) inhibitor pembrolizumab. It may have variable pattern 2.  Pembrolizumab is also reported to have a high risk of inducing lung inju...
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Scapular medial rotation

Scapular medial rotation describes the rotation of the scapula (scapulothoracic joint) such that the glenoid fossa faces downwards - thus it may also be called downward rotation. It is the opposite of scapular lateral rotation - similarly, this motion requires motion at the sternoclavicular and ...
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Scapular lateral rotation

Scapular lateral rotation describes the rotation of the scapula (scapulothoracic joint) such that the glenoid fossa faces upwards - thus it may also be called upward rotation. This motion allows elevation of the humerus as seen in abduction of the arm. It is almost always associated with scapula...
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Scapular retraction

Scapular retraction describes the backward movement of the scapula about the thoracic wall (scapulothoracic joint). As the scapula moves towards the midline it can also be referred to as scapular adduction. The opposite motion is scapular protraction. The muscles that act as primary movers are ...
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Scapular protraction

Scapular protraction describes the forward movement of the scapula about the thoracic wall (scapulothoracic joint). As the scapula moves away from the midline it can also be referred to as scapular abduction. This motion usually occurs in conjunction with some scapular lateral rotation. This mov...
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Parastremmatic dysplasia

Parastremmatic dysplasia is a rare skeletal dysplasia that is characterized by shortening of the trunk, joint contractures, limb deformities, a short stiff neck, malformation of the pelvis, kyphosis of thoracic spine and urinary incontinence. Pathology Parastremmatic dysplasia belongs to a gro...
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Cerebellar restricted diffusion

Cerebellar restricted diffusion refers to a hyperintense signal involving the cerebellum on DWI images with a corresponding low signal on ADC images. Vascular thrombo-occlusive disease cerebellar arterial infarction  1 AICA infarction PICA infarction superior cerebellar arterial infarct ce...
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Scapular depression

Scapular depression refers to the caudal motion of the scapula (scapulothoracic joint). In most instances, depression of the scapula is a passive process (due to gravity) that is facilitated by movement at the acromioclavicular joint. Occasionally some muscular attachments serve as active depres...
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Scapular elevation

Scapular elevation refers to the cranial motion of the scapula (scapulothoracic joint), commonly described as “shrugging the shoulders”. This movement is facilitated by several muscles and it is useful to distinguish these as primary movers and stabilizers. It is important to note that no one mo...
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Pulmonary zygomycosis

Pulmonary zygomycosis was previously used term for an umbrella of pulmonary fungal species causing pulmonary fungal infection which is now superseded by terms such as pulmonary mucormycosis according to more recent publications. Previously some publications have used two terms as synonymous.
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Intraosseous schwannoma

Intraosseous schwannomas are a group of rare benign osseous lesions that account for about 0.2% of all primary bone tumors. It is the most common benign peripheral nerves tumor arising from Schwann cells of the neural sheaths, and its intraosseous manifestation is very rare 1. Epidemiology It ...
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Subseptate uterus

A subseptate uterus is a mild form congenital uterine anomaly (often considered as a normal variant) where there is a presence of a partial septum within the uterus not extending to the cervix and with the central point of the septum at an acute (<90°) angle. The external uterine contour is unif...
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Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma

Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma is a subtype renal cell carcinoma. Epidemiology Generally uncommon but thought to be the fourth most common histologic type of renal cell carcinoma at the time of new classification (c. 2016) 1. Pathology This subtype is characterized by low-grade, c...
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Apical rocking

Apical rocking is a radiographic sign that might be seen either on echocardiography or cine imaging on cardiac MRI in the four-chamber view and refers to a movement of the cardiac apex in cardiac dyssynchrony. It is characterized by the following 1-3: short-timed movement of the apex towards th...
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Fluid-fluid levels in liver lesions

Fluid-fluid levels in liver lesions are a rare appearance of both benign and malignant conditions. Differential diagnosis benign complicated hepatic cyst 2 hepatic abscess 2 chronic hepatic hematoma 3 biliary cystadenoma 3 hepatic hemangioma (very rare) 2 malignant cystic/necrotic hepat...
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Cardiac dyssynchrony

Cardiac dyssynchrony refers to deviations in timing and/or disturbance of the normal sequence of activation and contraction between the atria and ventricles of the heart, the right and left ventricle or among the ventricular wall segments. Dysynchrony can be subdivided into electrical and mechan...
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LumiFlow

LumiFlow is a postprocessing technique for color or power Doppler ultrasound, which produces a relief-like visualization of the depicted vasculature.  Physics Lumiflow can be applied to both color and power Doppler imaging. It applies a shading with an artifical light source to create a three-...
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Deep artery of the penis

The deep artery of the penis, also known as cavernosal artery, is one of the two terminal branches of the internal pudendal artery. Gross anatomy Origin The internal pudendal artery bifurcates terminally into the deep artery of the penis and the dorsal artery of the penis at the anterior marg...
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Dorsal artery of the penis

The dorsal artery of the penis is one of the two terminal branches of the internal pudendal artery.  Gross anatomy Origin The internal pudendal artery bifurcates into the deep artery of the penis and the dorsal artery of the penis at the anterior margin of the perineal membrane 1. Terminatio...
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Artery to the bulb

The artery to the bulb of the penis (male) or vestibule (female) is a branch of the internal pudendal artery. It differs slightly in males and females.   Artery to the bulb of the penis Origin: internal pudendal artery, distal to the perineal artery1. a common penile artery, serving as the or...
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Downsloping lateral acromion

A downsloping lateral acromion is a variation in acromion shape where the lateral margin of acromion extends to project inferiorly.  Radiographic assessment  This can be assessed on plain film, CT or MRI and shows a low lateral acromial angle. See also acromion types low lying acromion
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Lymphangiomatosis

Lymphangiomatosis is a rare mesenchymal disorder that is characterized by developmental "malformation" of multiple lymphatic channels (usually with dilatation). Terminology If lymphatic channels are purely dilated and not malformed the term lymphangiectasia is usually used. If lymphangiomatosi...
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Not elsewhere classified (NEC)

Not elsewhere classified (NEC) is a term used in a variety of classification systems to denote an entity that has been fully characterized but whose features are contradictory and/or do not fit into established classifications.  Not elsewhere classified (NEC) should not, however, be confused wi...
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Not otherwise specified (NOS)

Not otherwise specified (NOS) is a term used in a variety of classification systems to denote an entity that has been only incompletely characterized; enough for a general diagnosis but not to the point of a complete diagnosis.  The definition and use will vary between different classification ...
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Neonatal aortic thrombosis

Neonatal aortic thrombosis is a rare life-threatening condition that can affect neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Epidemiology The incidence of neonatal aortic thrombosis is 0.2% of neonates admitted to the NICU. Risk factors umbilical arterial catheters (UAC): ~8...
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Pes anserinus (disambiguation)

The pes anserinus (rare plural: pedes anserini) is the name given to two different anatomical structures: pes anserinus (facial nerve): a.k.a. parotid plexus pes anserinus (knee) Both structures are so named due to their similarity to a goose's foot, which is what 'pes anserinus' means in Lat...
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Marginal mandibular nerve

The marginal mandibular nerve (TA: ramus marginalis mandibularis nervi facialis) is a branch of the extratemporal (terminal) segment of the facial nerve. It supplies the depressor anguli oris, depressor labii inferioris and mentalis muscles. It is of greater clinical importance than the other fa...
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Odynophagia

Odynophagia is the term given for painful swallowing.  Pathology It can arise from a number of causes which include esophageal inflammation - esophagitis esophageal infection substernal dysphagia tonsillitis pharyngitis esophageal spasm See also dysphagia: difficulty swallowing.
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Mentalis muscle

The mentalis muscles (TA: musculus mentalis) are paired muscles, one on each side of the mouth, important as elevators of the chin and lower lip; the muscles are one of the facial muscles.  Summary origin: incisive fossa of the mandible insertion: skin of the chin​ innervation: facial nerve ...
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Mitrofanoff procedure

The Mitrofanoff procedure, also known as appendicovesicostomy, is a surgical procedure where a conduit is created using the appendix to form a connection between the urinary bladder and skin surface. Intermittent catheterization is performed through the surgically constructed conduit, thus provi...
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Glycosaminoglycans

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), formerly known as mucopolysaccharides, are biomolecules produced by almost all mammalian cells, as well as in many vertebrates and invertebrates, but have not been described in plants 1. They are constituent elements of proteoglycans and are found within the cells in t...
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Common iliac lymph nodes

The common iliac lymph nodes are found surrounding the common iliac artery and vein which is located above the bifurcation of the external and internal iliac vessels and distal to the aortic bifurcation (in a majority of patients at the L4 level and a minority at the L3 or L5 level) and medial t...
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Antebrachial fascia

The antebrachial fascia or deep fascia of the forearm is a thick connective tissue fascia investing the muscles of the forearm. It also formes the lateral intermuscular septum which divides the forearm muscle into the two following compartments of the forearm together with the radius, ulna and i...
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Vestibular paroxysmia

Vestibular paroxysmia describes a clinical syndrome of sudden and stereotyped episodes of vertigo-type symptoms which usually last for less than one minute, often attributed to being a nerve compression syndrome affecting the vestibular nerve. Epidemiology Vestibular paroxysmia most commonly m...
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Omodysplasia

Omodysplasia is an extremely rare short-limb skeletal dysplasia characterized by 1: frontal bossing depressed nasal bridge anteverted nares low-set ears long philtrum rhizomelia short Humerus with hypoplastic distal humeri elbow dislocation radio-ulnar diastasis flared metaphyses shor...
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Nestin

Nestin is an intermediate filament protein found primarily in central nervous system stem cells. It is the target of antibodies for immunohistochemistry for the assessment of neuropathological histology specimens. 
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Perineal artery

The perineal artery arises from the internal pudendal artery and supplies some of the perineal musculature and external genitalia. Summary Origin: branches off the internal pudendal artery, arising at the level of the posterior angle of the perineal membrane Branches: it has two branches: a ...
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Middle genicular artery

The middle genicular artery (MGA) is one of the arteries of the knee joint and is a major supplicant of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments. Summary location: knee origin: popliteal artery supply: cruciate ligaments Gross anatomy The middle genicular artery originates from the an...
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Axial spondyloarthritis

Axial spondyloarthrititis (SpA) is a clinical subset of the seronegative spondyloarthritides that present primarily with back pain and morning stiffness. There is a long delay, on average 14 years, between symptoms onset and diagnosis 1. Epidemiology The prevalence of axial SpA is ~1% 1. Age o...
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Carcinoma of the Littré glands

Carcinoma of the Littré glands is rare. The Littré (urethral) glands of the penis may be the origin of cancers of the penis, usually adenocarcinomas 1. Epidemiology There are only a few scattered case reports of true Littré gland malignancy, although it is probably under-reported due to the fa...
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Pediatric thumb (AP/PA view)

The anteroposterior (AP) or posteroanterior (PA) view of the thumb in pediatrics is part of a two view series and is orthogonal to the lateral view. Often the decision to choose between the AP or PA thumb depends on what the child can manage and how agitated they are. An AP thumb is ideal as the...
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Incompetent ileocecal valve

An incompetent ileocecal valve is a situation where there can be reflux of backward flow of food content from the large bowel (cecum) through to the small bowel (terminal ileum) and through the ileocecal valve. A low degree of incompetence is not an uncommon finding 3. In some states, patients m...
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Uploading DICOM images to Radiopaedia

Uploading DICOM images to Radiopaedia is possible through the case creation page with full client-side anonymisation.  Here is what occurs:  drag and drop: drag and drop the DICOM folder into the case upload area (this will not be uploaded at this stage) anonymisation: the files will be proce...
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Cystic vein

The cystic veins (TA: venae cysticae) are the main venous drainage of the gallbladder. They subsequently drain into the portal vein. Gross anatomy The cystic veins begin as venules running over the surface of the fundus and body of the gallbladder which merge proximate to the neck of the gallb...
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Development of the heart

The heart is one of the first organs in the developing embryo to form and function. By the start of week 4, a primitive heart has begun to pump blood and by week 7 most of the gross development of the heart is complete. Its development is complex, with several events occurring simultaneously. T...
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Superior medial genicular artery

The superior medial genicular artery (SMGA) is the medial counterpart of the superior lateral genicular artery and participates in the supply of the superomedial structures of the knee and the vascularization of the patella. Summary location: knee origin: popliteal artery branches: anterior ...
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Superior lateral genicular artery

The superior lateral genicular artery (SLGA) is the lateral counterpart of the superior medial genicular artery and supplies the superolateral structures of the knee and participates in the vascularization of the patella. Summary location: knee origin: popliteal artery branches: anterior and...
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Auricular perichondritis

Auricular perichondritis, also known as perichondritis of the ear or pinna, is an infection or inflammation of the cartilage-bearing part of the external ear. Terminology The term perichondritis, strictly speaking, refers to inflammation involving the perichondrium. However, a distinction is o...
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Inferior medial genicular artery

The inferior medial genicular artery (IMGA) is the medial counterpart of the inferior lateral genicular artery and supplies the inferomedial structures of the knee including the medial tibial condyle and participates in the supply of the patella. Summary location: knee origin: popliteal arter...
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Inferior lateral genicular artery

The inferior lateral genicular artery (ILGA) is the lateral counterpart of the inferior medial genicular artery and supplies the inferolateral structures of the knee and the patella. Summary location: knee origin: popliteal artery branches: cutaneous perforating branches supply: inferolater...
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Sphincter (disambiguation)

A sphincter (TA: musculus sphincter) is a term used in anatomy to refer a ring of muscle which narrows a tube or closes off a bodily orifice 1. anal sphincter ​external anal sphincter internal anal sphincter hepatic sphincter esophageal sphincter lower esophageal sphincter upper esophagea...
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Buccolabial muscles

The buccolabial muscles form a subgroup of the facial muscles.  Elevators, retractors and evertors of the upper lip: levator labii superioris alaeque nasalis (LLSAN) muscle levator labii superioris muscle zygomaticus major muscle zygomaticus minor muscle malaris muscle levator anguli oris...
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Crural fascia

The crural fascia or deep fascia of the lower leg is a thick connective tissue fascia that invests the muscles of the lower leg and divides them into the four compartments of the lower leg 1,2: anterior compartment lateral or peroneal compartment deep posterior compartment superficial poster...
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Practical radiography: A Hand-Book of the Applications of the X-Rays

The book Practical radiography: A Hand-Book of the Applications of the X-Rays was the first ever textbook on x-rays anywhere in the world. It was written by H Snowden Ward and first published in May 1896 by Dawbarn & Ward. This is a mere six months after Wilhelm Roentgen's discovery of x-rays. ...
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Thyrolinguofacial trunk

A thyrolinguofacial trunk is a very rare pattern of branching of the anterior branches of the external carotid artery. Rather than the facial artery, lingual artery, and superior thyroid artery having their own distinct origins, all three vessels originate from a common trunk of the external car...
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Linguofacial trunk

A linguofacial trunk is a rare variation of the anterior branches of the external carotid artery. The lingual artery and facial artery share a common trunk rather than branching independently from the external carotid artery 1. Unlike the thyrolingual or thyrolinguofacial variations in which the...
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Thyrolingual trunk

A thyrolingual trunk is an anatomical variant in which the superior thyroid artery and lingual artery share a common trunk 1. This is in contrast to the typical pattern of both vessels emerging independently from the external carotid artery. Other variations of origin include a linguofacial trun...
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Acromial spur

Acromial spurs have been associated with rotator cuff tears and impingement syndrome although a direct causative link is controversial 4. Terminology If the spur extends inferior, it can be called a subacromial spur. Pathology Acromial spurs usually occur at the lateral part.  In that situat...
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Submental artery

The submental artery is the largest branch of the facial artery. The vessel supplies the floor of the mouth and sublingual gland while also connecting the circulation of the tongue and the floor of the mouth 1,3.  Summary origin: facial artery 2 course: emerges from the facial artery at the s...
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Submasseteric space

The submasseteric space, also known as the masseteric space, is the inferolateral subcompartment of the masticator space located between the mandible and masseter muscle. Gross anatomy Relations and/or Boundaries The submasseteric space has the following boundaries 1: medially: mandible (ram...
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Pterygomandibular space

The pterygomandibular space is the inferomedial subcompartment of the masticator space located between the mandible and pterygoid muscles. Gross anatomy Contents The pterygomandibular space contains loose areolar tissue, the sphenomandibular ligament, and the following named neurovascular str...
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Progressive muscular atrophy

Progressive muscular atrophy is one of the motor neuron diseases, sometimes considered a variant of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, confined to the lower motor neurons.
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Coronary microcirculation

The coronary microcirculation comprises several anatomically and functionally different coronary vascular compartments with a small diameter (<500 µm) that play a crucial role in the regulation of myocardial perfusion. Summary location: epicardium, myocardium, endocardium blood supply: epicar...
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Scapula method

The scapula method is used to assess posterior humeral head subluxation in patients with glenohumeral osteoarthritis as part of the work-up for shoulder arthroplasty.  Method First, the scapular axis (medial border of the scapular body to center of the glenoid) is drawn on an axial image that ...
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Dual stream language processing models

The dual stream language processing models (dorsal and ventral) have replaced the historic model that only included the Broca's and Wernicke's areas and the arcuate fasciculus 1.  Function The dorsal stream is responsible for phonological processing and language production (sound/sign to actio...
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Levator anguli oris muscle

The levator anguli oris muscle, also known as caninus or triangularis labii superioris muscles, is a buccolabial muscle, a subdivision of the facial muscles. Gross anatomy Summary origin: canine fossa of the maxilla​ insertion: modiolus and merges with depressor anguli oris muscle innervati...
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Ram's horn sign

The Ram's horn sign, also known as Shofar sign, is the tubular, conical appearance of the stomach antrum seen on a barium meal. The stomach is less distensible and the curved conical appearance resembles the horn of a ram. This is seen in granulomatous disease, typically Crohn disease, but also...
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Patellar tendinopathy

Patellar tendinopathy refers to tendinopathic changes affecting the patellar tendon and can affect part of all of the tendon depending on various clinical scenarios. Some forms can be associated with specific situations which include Jumper's knee:  chronic insertional injury of the posterior...
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Cryoablation

Cryoablation refers to the use of thermal energy in the form of very low temperatures to achieve targeted destruction of tumor cells. It is an image-guided technique, currently widely employed in the management of renal 1, hepatic 2 and lung tumors 3. Historically, a rudimental form of cryosurg...
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Inferior gluteal neuropathy

Inferior gluteal neuropathy or inferior gluteal nerve injury can be the result of nerve compression or traction injury of the inferior gluteal nerve. Epidemiology Inferior gluteal nerve neuropathy like superior gluteal nerve neuropathy is rather uncommon and often associated with iatrogenic in...
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Superior gluteal neuropathy

Superior gluteal neuropathy or superior gluteal nerve injury can be the result of nerve compression or traction injury of the superior gluteal nerve under the roof of the greater sciatic foramen. Epidemiology Superior gluteal nerve neuropathy is uncommon and often associated with iatrogenic in...
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Sciatic neuropathy

Sciatic neuropathy can be the result of nerve compression or traction injury of the sciatic nerve which might occur at several levels along its course. The peroneal division of the nerve is more commonly affected than the tibial division due to the more superficial location and two different fix...
Article

Wrist arthrocentesis (ultrasound-guided)

Wrist arthrocentesis refers to the aspiration of an effusion in the radiocarpal joint. It serves primarily as a diagnostic modality to determine fluid composition, and may function secondarily to reduce pain associated with capsular stretch. The dynamic, ultrasound-guided technique will be descr...
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Tubercle of Assaki

The tubercle of Assaki, also known as the tubercle of Asskay 3, is a small bony protuberance of the central part of the glenoid fossa with accompanying thinning of articular cartilage in this location 1. Pathology It is presumably caused by the constant pressure of the humeral head exerted on ...
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Hip spine syndrome

Hip spine syndrome is one term used to describe the clinical association between hip osteoarthritis and degenerative lumbar spinal canal stenosis due to overlapping pain distribution.  Clinical presentation Patients with hip spine syndrome have hip and lumbar spine degeneration and present wit...
Article

Hepatic small vessel neoplasm

Hepatic small vessel neoplasms (HSVN) are low-grade vascular lesions of uncertain malignant potential.  Terminology Although also referred to as hepatic small vessel hemangiomas 3, this term may wrongly mislead HSVN to represent a subtype of hepatic hemangiomas and, therefore, will be avoided ...
Article

Lesser palatine artery

The lesser palatine artery is a small branch of the descending palatine artery (branch of the 3rd part of the maxillary artery). The vessel supplies the soft palate with small branches to the palatine tonsils 1,2. The vessel emerges through the lesser palatine foramen before traveling posterior ...
Article

Descending palatine artery

The descending palatine artery is a branch of the maxillary artery that supplies both the soft palate and hard palate as well as the palatine tonsils 1.  Summary origin: 3rd part of the maxillary artery course: descending through the pterygopalatine fossa before its branches enter either the ...
Article

Saphenous neuropathy

Saphenous neuropathy or saphenous nerve entrapment can be the result of nerve compression or traction injury of the saphenous nerve a pure sensory nerve terminal branch and the longest cutaneous branch from the femoral nerve that supplies the medial thigh, lower leg and foot 1-3. Epidemiology ...
Article

CT paranasal sinus (protocol)

The CT paranasal sinus protocol serves as an examination for the assessment of the study of the mucosa and bone system of the sinonasal cavities. It is usually performed as a non-contrast study. In certain situations, it might be combined or simultaneously acquired with a Note: This article aim...
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Ascending palatine artery

The ascending palatine artery is a branch of the facial artery that supplies part of the soft palate. In addition, the vessel also supplies the tensor veli palatini, uvular muscle, palatine tonsils, and palatopharyngeus 1,2. The posterior branch supplies the posterior and inferior soft palate es...
Article

Sural neuropathy

Sural neuropathy, also known as sural nerve entrapment, can be the result of nerve compression or traction injury of the sural nerve. This nerve is a purely sensory branch, usually formed by a confluence of branches from the tibial nerve and common peroneal nerve that supplies the lateral aspect...
Article

Aerodigestive tract

The aerodigestive tract is a non-TA descriptive collective term for the respiratory tract and proximal portion of the digestive tract. As it is a non-standard term, its precise components vary somewhat with the context in which the term is being employed. Terminology Definitions of what precis...
Article

Trefoil appearance of spinal canal

A trefoil appearance of spinal canal (sometimes termed as a cloverleaf spinal canal appearance) is a particular appearance that is of congenital or acquired etiology. This is mainly described in the lumber region and can result in narrowing of the lateral recesess as well as at times involvement...
Article

Frontalis muscle

The frontalis muscle (TA: musculus frontalis) is a paired muscle extending from the supraorbital region to the level of the coronal suture. Flat and quadrilateral in shape, it is one of the facial muscles. Along with the occipitalis muscle, it forms the occipitofrontalis muscle due to a common t...
Article

Lumbar spinal stenosis (grading)

Lumbar spinal stenosis grading refers to systems for classifying the severity of central spinal canal narrowing around the cauda equina nerve roots.  Usage The two most popular systems, both applied to visual assessment of MRI, are the Lee grading system, and the Schizas grading system. Both t...
Article

Anterior instrumentation and fusion (scoliosis)

Anterior instrumentation and fusion is a surgical procedure used in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis to correct vertebral curvature. This technique is preferred to posterior instrumentation and fusion in skeletally immature patients with a Lenke 5C thoracolumbar or lumbar adolescent...
Article

Anterior tarsal tunnel

The anterior tarsal tunnel is a fibro-osseous canal found in the anterior aspect of the ankle. Gross anatomy Boundaries The anterior tarsal tunnel is beneath the inferior extensor retinaculum of the foot and bordered by the following structures 1,2: roof: inferior extensor retinaculum media...
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Deep peroneal nerve entrapment

Deep peroneal nerve entrapment or compression syndrome anterior is a nerve compression syndrome of the deep peroneal nerve and might occur within the anterior tarsal tunnel beneath the inferior extensor retinaculum as anterior tarsal tunnel syndrome. Epidemiology Deep peroneal nerve entrapment...
Article

Superficial peroneal nerve entrapment

Superficial peroneal nerve entrapment or compression syndrome is a nerve compression syndrome of the superficial peroneal nerve a mixed motor and sensory nerve providing the motor innervation of the peroneus longus and peroneus brevis muscles and sensory innervation of the dorsum of the foot and...
Article

Solitary fibrous tumor of the orbit

The solitary fibrous tumor of the orbit is a rare spindle-cell neoplasm originating from mesenchymal fibroblast-like cells histologically identical to solitary fibrous tumors found elsewhere Epidemiology Solitary fibrous tumors occur in a wide age range reported from 9 to 76 years without a co...

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