Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

14,938 results found
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Anal triangle

The anal triangle forms the posterior half of the diamond-shaped perineum. The triangle's three corners are defined by the tip of the coccyx posteriorly and both ischial tuberosities anterolaterally. The anterior border is the transverse perineal muscles and the posterolateral borders are the sa...
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Anal verge

The anal verge is part of the anal region and consists of a band of squamous epithelial tissue which lacks hair follicles and extends from the inter-sphincteric groove to the perianal skin. 
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Anaphylaxis

Anaphylaxis (also known as anaphylactic shock or reaction) is an acute severe systemic type I hypersensitivity reaction, commonly presenting with urticaria/angioedema, hypotension and bronchial hyperreactivity. It may be fatal. Terminology Anaphylactoid reactions result from non-immune system ...
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Anaplastic astrocytoma

Anaplastic astrocytomas are WHO grade III lesions, with imaging appearances and prognosis between those of diffuse low-grade astrocytomas (WHO grade II) and glioblastomas (WHO IV), and similarly, they are classified on the basis of IDH mutation as IDH-mutant, IDH-wild-type and NOS (when IDH stat...
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Anaplastic ependymoma

Anaplastic ependymomas (WHO grade III ependymomas), in comparison to lower grade ependymomas, are characterized by a higher proliferative rate and a greater tendency to infiltrate surrounding brain or disseminate into cerebrospinal fluid causing drop metastases 1. The relevance of grading ependy...
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Anaplastic ganglioglioma

Anaplastic gangliogliomas are uncommon aggressive variants of the far more common low-grade ganglioglioma (WHO grade I). In the current WHO classification of CNS tumors (2016), no criteria have been agreed upon for a ganglioglioma WHO grade II tumor 1. Pathology In anapestic gangliogliomas, t...
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Anaplastic large cell lymphoma

Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a form of hematological malignancy. It as first described in 1985 as a large-cell neoplasm with anaplastic morphology immunostained by the Ki-1 antibody, which recognizes CD30. There are two main sub types  anaplastic large-cell lymphoma, ALK-positive ...
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Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion oncogene positive non small cell lung cancer

Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion oncogene positive non small cell lung cancer refers to a specific set of non small cell lung cancers that contain an inversion in chromosome 2. They are associated with specific clinical features, including never or light smoking history, younger age, and ...
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Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangements

Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangements are known to occur in association with several tumors. The genes codes for an enzyme called anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) or ALK tyrosine kinase receptor / CD246 which is thought o play a role in the brain development and exerts its effects...
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Anaplastic meningioma

Anaplastic meningiomas (also known as malignant meningiomas) are uncommon, accounting for only ~1% of all meningiomas 1. Along with rhabdoid meningioma and papillary meningioma are considered WHO grade III tumors and demonstrate aggressive local growth and high recurrence rate.  It should be no...
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Anaplastic oligodendroglioma

Anaplastic oligodendroglioma is a WHO grade III diffuse infiltrating glioma that has histological features of anaplasia, and molecular markers consistent with an oligodendroglioma (1p19q co-deletion and IDH mutation) as per the current (2016) WHO classification of CNS tumors 1. They make up 20-5...
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Anaplastic oligodendroglioma NOS

Anaplastic oligodendroglioma NOS (not-otherwise-specified) is a diagnosis in the current (2016) WHO classification of CNS tumors denoting a diffuse infiltrating glioma that has histological features of anaplastic oligodendroglioma, but without 1p19q co-deletion status or IDH mutation status bein...
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Anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma

Anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas are a more aggressive and less common version of pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA).  In the current (2016) WHO classification of CNS tumors, they are considered WHO grade III lesions (whereas pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas are WHO grade II tumors) 1. ...
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Anaplastic rhabdomyosarcoma

An anaplastic rhabdomyosarcoma is a subtype of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, characterized by extensive anaplastic cells seen throughout the tumor 1.
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Anaplastic thyroid cancer (staging)

Anaplastic thyroid cancer staging refers to TNM staging of anaplastic thyroid carcinomas. Papillary, follicular, and medullary thyroid carcinomas are staged separately. The following article reflects the 8th edition manual published by the American Joint Committee on Cancer, which is used for st...
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Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma

Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is a highly aggressive form of thyroid cancer and accounts for ~1-2% of primary thyroid malignancies. Of all the subtypes, this carries the worst prognosis. Epidemiology Typically occurs in the elderly with the peak incidence in the 6th and 7th decades. A significa...
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Anastamoses between internal and external carotid arteries

Multiple, highly-variable anastamoses exist between the internal and external carotid arteries. These anastamoses may not be evident on non-invasive imaging or even catheter angiography, and may only be demonstrable with elevated intra-arterial pressures or high-flow states. ICA-ECA collaterals ...
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Anatomical snuff box

The anatomical snuff box is a surface anatomy feature. It appears as a triangular depression on the lateral surface of the wrist on full extension of the thumb. Gross anatomy Boundaries medial: tendons of the extensor pollicis longus lateral: tendons of the extensor pollicis brevis and mor...
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Anatomical variants

Anatomical variants represent the deviations from the accepted standard human anatomy as printed in the classic textbooks (e.g. Gray's Anatomy 1), and taught in universities, dissecting rooms and clinical practice. Terminology The term "normal anatomic variants" or just "normal variants" is of...
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Anatomical variants of the ilium

​Anatomical variants of the ilium are variants of the ilium that should be recognized, to avoid misinterpretation as a pathological finding.  foramina in the ilia preauricular groove pelvic digit spurring of muscle attachments at the ilium
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Anatomical variants of the sacrum

Anatomical variants of the sacrum are incidental findings during radiological investigations but are clinically important for caudal epidural block.  angel-wing sacrum accessory sacroiliac joints complete agenesis of the dorsal wall of the sacral canal 2 developmental defects in the ala of t...
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Anatomic nomenclature

The correct usage of anatomic nomenclature is fundamental to good radiological, and more generally clinical medical, practice. Since 1998, the Terminologia Anatomica (TA) has set the global standard for what constitutes correct anatomical terminology; its second edition was published in 2019. Th...
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Anatomic position

The anatomic position also referred to as the standard anatomic position, is the consistent position of the human body in which positional reference is made for anatomical nomenclature. It is not reliant on whether the patient is standing, supine, prone, sitting, etc. The position is defined as...
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Anatomy article structure

Anatomy articles require a different structure, and the following subheadings are recommended. ================================================================================ As with all other articles, the introductory paragraph should introduce the anatomical term and aim to give an interes...
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Anatomy article structure (bone)

As with all other articles, the introductory paragraph should introduce the anatomical term and aim to give an interesting summary. The first sentence should contain the title of the article in bold.  Summary location: articulations: blood supply and innervation: relations: Gross anatomy ...
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Anatomy article structure (joint)

As with all other articles, the introductory paragraph should introduce the anatomical term and aim to give an interesting summary. The first sentence should contain the title of the article in bold.  Summary location: movement: ligaments and tendons: relations: Gross anatomy Location Mo...
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Anatomy article structure (muscle)

As with all other articles, the introductory paragraph should introduce the anatomical term and aim to give an interesting summary. The first sentence should contain the title of the article in bold.  Summary origin: insertion: innervation: action: Gross anatomy Origin Insertion Relatio...
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Anatomy article structure (nerve)

As with all other articles, the introductory paragraph should introduce the anatomical term and aim to give an interesting summary. The first sentence should contain the title of the article in bold.  Summary location: origin and course: branches and supply: relations: Gross anatomy Locat...
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Anatomy article structure (organ)

As with all other articles, the introductory paragraph should introduce the anatomical term and aim to give an interesting summary. The first sentence should contain the title of the article in bold.  Summary location: function: blood supply and drainage: relations: Gross anatomy Location...
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Anatomy article structure (space/region)

As with all other articles, the introductory paragraph should introduce the anatomical term and aim to give an interesting summary. The first sentence should contain the title of the article in bold.  Summary location: boundaries: contents: Gross anatomy Location Boundaries Contents Rel...
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Anatomy article structure (vessel)

As with all other articles, the introductory paragraph should introduce the anatomical term and aim to give an interesting summary. The first sentence should contain the title of the article in bold.  Summary location: origin and termination: branches and supply: relations: Gross anatomy ...
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Anatomy curriculum

The anatomy curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core anatomy knowledge for radiologists and imaging specialists. General anatomy Neuroanatomy Head and neck anatomy Thoracic anatomy Abdominal and pelvic anatomy Spinal anat...
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Anatomy of an article

The anatomy of an article describes the component parts of any article at Radiopaedia.org. All articles include a title, the main content, references and other attributes. Title The title of the article may seem obvious, but some considerations as to consistency are required. We use sentence c...
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Ancient schwannoma

Ancient schwannomas are long-standing, benign (WHO grade I) slow growing schwannomas with advanced degeneration. The term “ancient” has been traditionally used to describe schwannomas showing degenerative changes and diffuse hypocellular areas 1-3. Pathology These tumors demonstrate nuclear pl...
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Ancillary (general)

The term ancillary is used in medicine to refer to diagnostic or therapeutic procedures which are supplementary to the main tests or treatments. By extension it is also employed for secondary clinical/radiological signs that support a diagnosis. It is also used in the sense of ancillary staff, ...
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Anconeus epitrochlearis

The anconeus epitrochlearis is an accessory muscle at the medial aspect of the elbow. It is also known as the accessory anconeus muscle or epitrochleoanconeus muscle and should not be confused with the anconeus muscle which is present at the lateral aspect of the elbow.  Epidemiology The muscl...
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Anconeus muscle

The anconeus muscle is a small muscle in the posterior compartment of the arm at the lateral aspect of the elbow. It has little functional significance but should be differentiated from the variably present anconeus epitrochlearis at the medial aspect of the elbow. Summary origin: lateral epic...
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Anderson and D'Alonzo classification of odontoid process fracture

The Anderson and D'Alonzo classification is the most commonly used classification of fractures of the odontoid process of C2. Classification type I rare fracture of the upper part of the odontoid peg (generally oblique) above the level of the transverse band of the cruciform ligament usual...
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Anderson and Montesano classification of occipital condyle fractures

The Anderson and Montesano classification of occipital condyle fractures is the most widely used scheme for describing occipital condyle fractures and divides injuries into three types based on morphology and mechanism of injury 1,2,3. Classification type I - comminuted (3-15%) impaction frac...
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Andersson lesion

An Andersson lesion, also known as rheumatic spondylodiskitis, refer to an inflammatory involvement of the intervertebral discs by spondyloarthritis. Epidemiology Rheumatic spondylodiskitis is a non-infectious condition that has been shown to occur in about 8% of patients with ankylosing spond...
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Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT)

Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), also called androgen suppression therapy or is a form of treatment in prostate cancer, which basically aims to slow prostate cancer growth by blocking the effect of androgens e.g. testosterone. Such therapy is mainly used for treating men with intermediate- a...
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Androgen insensitivity syndrome

Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), also known as the testicular feminization syndrome, results from end-organ resistance to androgens, particularly testosterone. AIS may be complete or incomplete with variable imaging findings.  Epidemiology The incidence may vary depending on whether it i...
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Anembryonic pregnancy

Anembryonic pregnancy is a form of a failed early pregnancy, where a gestational sac develops, but the embryo does not form. The term blighted ovum is synonymous with this but is falling out of favor and is best avoided.  Clinical presentation The patient may be asymptomatic, presenting for an...
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Anembryonic pregnancy in the exam

Getting a film with anembryonic pregnancy in the radiology fellowship examination is one of the many exam set-pieces that the candidate must be prepared for.  Description Transabdominal and transvaginal pelvic ultrasound shows a uterus with an intrauterine gestational sac. MSD is at least 25 m...
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Anencephaly

Anencephaly is the most severe form of cranial neural tube defect (NTD) and is characterized by an absence of cortical tissue (although the brainstem and cerebellum may be variably present) as well as an absence of the cranial vault. The morphological spectrum within anencephaly ranges from holo...
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Aneuploidy

Aneuploidy refers to an abnormal number of chromosomes, and is a type of chromosomal abnormality.There are large number potential aneuploidic anomalies. The most common three in obstetric practice are: trisomy 21: commonest aneuploidic anomaly trisomy 18 trisomy 13
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Aneurysm

Aneurysms are focal abnormal dilatation of a blood vessel. They typically occur in arteries, venous aneurysms are rare. Aneurysms may also occur in the heart. Pathology Pathological types true aneurysm false aneurysm (or pseudoaneurysm) Etiology Atherosclerotic atherosclerosis Non-athero...
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Aneurysmal bone cyst

Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABC) are benign expansile tumor-like bone lesions of uncertain etiology, composed of numerous blood-filled channels, and mostly diagnosed in children and adolescents. Epidemiology Aneurysmal bone cysts are primarily seen in children and adolescents, with 80% occurring in...
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Angina

Angina or angina pectoris is cardiac chest pain that occurs as the result of myocardial ischemia. Clinical presentation Angina is classically described as substernal chest discomfort that is of a typical quality and duration (heavy, tight, ‘bandlike’ pain that lasts for minutes at a time). Ang...
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Angiocentric glioma

Angiocentric gliomas are rare superficial slow-growing brain tumors typically presenting in young patients with intractable partial epilepsy 1-6. They were first introduced in the 2007 (4th) edition of the WHO brain tumor classification, and are classified as WHO grade I tumors 1.  For a genera...
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Angiofibroma of soft tissue

Angiofibromas of soft tissue are benign fibroblastic soft tissue neoplasms permeated by a vascular network that might be found in the periarticular and articular areas of the lower extremities that have been included as a separate entity into the WHO classification of soft tissue tumors in 2020....
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Angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma

Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) (previously known as angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy with dysproteinemia (AILD)) is a rare, aggressive (fast-growing) form of peripheral T-cell lymphoma. It only accounts for around 1-2% of all non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It is one of the more common subtyp...
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Angioinvasive aspergillosis

Angioinvasive aspergillosis is the most severe and aggressive form of invasive aspergillosis. It is a life-threatening condition that requires prompt treatment. Fortunately, it is not seen in the general population and only occurs in profoundly immunocompromised patients.  Epidemiology Angioin...
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Angioleiomyoma

Angioleiomyoma also known as angiomyoma or vascular leiomyoma is a benign pericytic or perivascular soft tissue tumor.   Epidemiology Angioleimyomas are rare and have been observed in a wide age range with a peak in the 4th to 6th decades of life. Generally, women are more commonly affected 1-...
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Angiolipoma

Angiolipomas (also sometimes known as haemangiolipomas, vascular lipomas, and fibromyolipomas) are rare soft tissue tumors composed of mature adipocytes and vessels. They can occur essentially anywhere and can be subclassified into infiltrating and non-infiltrating variants 1.  Please refer to ...
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Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma

Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytomas (AFH) or angiomatoid fibrous malignant histiocytomas are neoplasms of intermediate biologic potential and are classified as soft tissue tumors of uncertain differentiation. Epidemiology Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytomas a rare and account for about 0.3% of all...
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Angiomatous meningioma

Angiomatous meningiomas are a rare histological variant of WHO grade I meningiomas and account for only 2.1% of all meningiomas 1,3.  The epidemiology and clinical presentation of these tumors do not clearly deviate from that of more common histological variants of meningiomas and is thus not r...
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Angiomyofibroblastoma

Angiomyofibroblastomas are benign mesenchymal neoplasms usually found in the pelvis or perineum especially the vulva. Epidemiology Angiomyofibroblastomas are uncommon tumors predominantly found in adult women usually between menarche and menopause. Approximately 10% of these tumors have been d...
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Angiomyofibroblastoma-like tumor of scrotum

Angiomyofibroblastoma-like tumor of the scrotum is a rare, well-defined, slow growing mesenchymal extratesticular nonepididymal tumor rarely seen in the perineum or scrotum of older male patients. A similar tumor can occur in females in the vulval region. Epidemiology  In males, they are seen ...
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Angiomyolipoma

Angiomyolipomas (AMLs)  refer to hamartomatous lesions composed of abnormal, thick-walled vessels (i.e. angio) and varying amounts of smooth muscle–like cells (i.e. myo) and adipose tissue (i.e. lipoma) They predominantly occur in the kidney (renal angiomyolipoma) but occasionally occur in other...
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Angioplasty

Angioplasty, also called balloon angioplasty or percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), is a minimally invasive interventional procedure in which an inflatable balloon-tipped catheter is introduced through the skin into the vascular lumen to open a stenotic segment of the vessel. Angioplast...
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Angiosarcoma

 Angiosarcomas (like hemangiopericytomas and hemangioendotheliomas) are tumors that arise from vascular structures. They are typically difficult to distinguish from one another on imaging alone. Angiosarcomas, are the most aggressive of the three, frequently having metastases at the time of dia...
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Angiosarcoma - bone

Angiosarcoma of bone is a malignant vascular tumor of bone. These are rare and account for less than 1% of malignant bone tumors. The majority of these tumors arising in bone are primary; however, a tiny percentage are either radiation-induced or associated with bone infarction Epidemiology Mo...
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Angiosarcoma involving the lung

Angiosarcoma involving the lung includes: metastatic angiosarcoma to lung 1  commoner usual primary sites include the heart and breast 2 primary pulmonary angiosarcoma: very rare See also angiosarcoma
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Angiosarcoma of breast

Breast angiosarcomas are a rare vascular breast malignancy. Epidemiology As primary tumors of the breast, they account for ~0.04% 2 of all breast cancers and tend to occur in younger women, in their 3rd to 4th decades. Secondary angiosarcoma, related to prior therapy of breast cancer, has an ...
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Angiosarcoma of the spleen

Angiosarcomas of the spleen are rare malignant splenic neoplasms. The term is usually given to describe a primary angiosarcoma of the spleen although angiosarcoma elsewhere can also rarely metastasize to the spleen. Despite its absolute rarity, a splenic angiosarcoma is considered the most commo...
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Angiotensin converting enzyme

Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is a central component of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) which assists in blood pressure control by regulating the volume of fluids in the body. Normal individuals may have a small volume of the angiotensin converting enzyme circulating in their blood. M...
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Angle of the longitudinal arch (foot)

The angle of the longitudinal arch (calcaneal–fifth metatarsal angle) is one of the angles drawn on the weight-bearing lateral foot radiograph. The angle is formed between the calcaneal inclination axis and a line drawn along the inferior edge of the 5th metatarsal: pes planus: >170° normal: ...
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Angular artery (disambiguation)

Angular artery (facial artery) Angular artery (MCA branch) History and etymology Angular is derived from the Latin root in angulus (for corner).
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Angular artery (facial artery branch)

The angular artery is the terminal branch of the facial artery. It becomes the angular artery after the lateral nasal artery branch from the facial artery. It courses superiorly along the lateral border of the external nose to the medial canthus. It is accompanied by the angular vein which drai...
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Angular artery (MCA branch)

The angular artery (branch of the middle cerebral artery (MCA)) is an M4 branch of the middle cerebral artery (it is not the same as the facial artery angular artery branch). The artery arises from the posterior part of the Sylvian fissure and runs posteriorly. On lateral angiogram it forms a d...
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Angular gyrus

The angular gyrus is a portion of the parietal lobe of the brain. It is one of the two parts of the inferior parietal lobule, the other part being the supramarginal gyrus. It plays a part in language and number processing, memory and reasoning 1. Gross anatomy Relations It lies as a horseshoe...
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Angular interface sign

The angular interface sign is used to characterize an exophytic renal mass, in which the exophytic renal mass has an angular interface with the renal parenchyma. In other words, the exophytic lesion has a tapered pyramidal contour or definite apex within the renal parenchyma. Due to its high se...
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Angular pregnancy

Angular pregnancies are those in which implantation occurs eccentrically along the fundus of the endometrial cavity, along with the lateral upper angle or cornua of the uterus. In contrast to interstitial tubal pregnancy, angular pregnancies have a more medial location and are considered an int...
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Angular vein

The angular vein drains the anterior region of the scalp 1. It is formed by the union of the supratrochlear and supraorbital veins and becomes the facial vein 1,2,3. Gross Anatomy The angular vein is formed at the medial canthus as the supratrochlear vein and supraorbital vein unite 1,2. The a...
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Anhydramnios

Anhydramnios is a term where there is a complete or near-complete lack of amniotic fluid (sometimes referred to as "liquor volume"). Pathology Anhydramnios can result in a number of situations: fetal renal tract anomalies Potter syndrome (bilateral renal agenesis): most common  large ureter...
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Animal and animal produce inspired signs

Animal and animal produce inspired signs may sound a little silly, but the radiology literature is replete with such signs, some more fanciful than others. Fish and marine life cluster of black pearls sign endosteal scalloping: medullary cavity masses, e.g. multiple myeloma fish vertebra (al...
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Aniridia

Aniridia refers to either the clinical sign of a complete/partial absence of the iris, or more specifically to the disease entity classic aniridia. Rarely other genetic conditions may cause this sign. Epidemiology Classic aniridia is inherited as an autosomal dominant condition and is seen in ...
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Anisocoria

Anisocoria is present when an individual's pupils differ in size. If a person's pupils are symmetric there is said to be isocoria. Epidemiology The prevalence of transient physiological anisocoria of >0.4 mm is found in up to 20% population. However persistent anisocoria seems to be rarer, in ...
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Anisotropy

Anisotropy is an artefact encountered in ultrasound, notably in muscles and tendons during a musculoskeletal ultrasound. In musculoskeletal applications, the artefact may prompt an incorrect diagnosis of tendinosis or tendon tear. When the ultrasound beam is incident on a fibrillar structure as...
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Ankle and foot radiography

Ankle and foot radiography is the plain radiographic investigation of the distal tibia and fibula, the tarsal bones and metatarsals. Radiographic examination of the foot and ankle are often requested together, however, there is a plethora of literature to aid in the correct request of x-ray exam...
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Ankle (AP view)

The ankle AP view is part of a three view series, and visualizes the distal tibia, distal fibula, proximal talus and proximal fifth metatarsal. Indications The true anteroposterior view of the ankle is often performed in the setting of ankle trauma and suspected ankle fractures in addition to ...
Article

Ankle brachial index

Ankle brachial index (ABI) is a means of detecting and quantifying peripheral arterial disease (PAD). It can be performed in conjunction with ultrasound for better results. Indications Many (20-50%) patients with PAD may be asymptomatic but they may also present with limb pain / claudication ...
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Ankle fractures

Ankle fractures account for ~10% of fractures encountered in trauma, preceded only in incidence by proximal femoral fractures in the lower limb. They have a bimodal presentation, involving young males and older females. Ankle injuries play a major part in post multitrauma functional impairment t...
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Ankle (horizontal beam lateral view)

The ankle horizontal beam lateral view is a modified lateral view part of a three view ankle series. Indications This projection is used to assess the distal tibia and fibula, talus, navicular, cuboid, the base of the 5th metatarsal and calcaneus. It is a highly adaptable projection that can b...
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Ankle impingement syndromes

There are several ankle impingement syndromes. They are characterized by a limited range of motion and pain on attempting specific movements about the joint and often in a load-bearing position. They have variable etiology and pathogenesis. They are best classified according to location. The ke...
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Ankle injection (disambiguation)

Ankle injection is a general term which can refer to an intra-articular ankle injection but also other injections, particularly by patients, which include:​ Achilles hydrodilation and microtenotomy ankle joint injection MRI arthrogram CT arthrogram anesthetic arthrogram extensor tendon she...
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Ankle joint

The ankle joint (also known as the tibiotalar joint or talocrural joint) forms the articulation between the foot and the leg. It is a primary hinge synovial joint lined with hyaline cartilage. Gross anatomy The ankle joint is comprised of the tibia, fibula and talus as well as the supporting l...
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Ankle (lateral view)

The ankle lateral view is part of a three view ankle series; this projection is used to assess the distal tibia and fibula, talus, navicular, cuboid, the base of the 5th metatarsal and calcaneus. Indications This projection aids in evaluating fractures, dislocations and joint effusions surroun...
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Ankle (mortise view)

The ankle AP mortise (mortice is equally correct) view is part of a three view series of the distal tibia, distal fibula, talus and proximal 5th metatarsal. Indications This projection is the most pertinent for assessing the articulation of the tibial plafond and two malleoli with the talar do...
Article

Ankle protocol (MRI)

The MRI ankle protocol encompasses a set of MRI sequences for the routine assessment of the ankle joint. Note: This article aims to frame a general concept of an MRI protocol for the assessment of the ankle. Protocol specifics will vary depending on MRI scanner type, specific hardware and softw...
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Ankle radiograph (an approach)

Ankle radiographs are frequently performed in emergency departments, usually, after trauma, the radiographic series is comprised of three views: an anteroposterior, mortise, and a lateral. They may be performed to assess degenerative or inflammatory arthritis as well as to look for the sequela o...
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Ankle radiograph (checklist)

The ankle radiograph checklist is just one of the many pathology checklists that can be used when reporting to ensure that you always actively exclude pathology that is commonly missed; this is particularly helpful in the examination setting, e.g. the FRCR 2B rapid-reporting. Radiograph The ma...

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