Fosbury flop tears of the rotator cuff are full-thickness rotator cuff tears with a reversed superomedial or flipped orientation of the torn tendon stump.
Fosbury flop tears are uncommon with a prevalence of ~2.5% of all rotator cuff tears 1-3.
The diagnosis is suggest...
Elsberg syndrome is an established but rarely recognized cause of cauda equina syndrome and lower thoracic myelitis, associated with a presumed infectious etiology.
Elsberg syndrome is likely responsible for 10% of combined cauda equina syndrome and myelitis 1.
Pembrolizumab induced pneumonitis is a form of drug-induced lung disease occurring as a result of a response to the use of the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1) inhibitor pembrolizumab. It may have variable pattern 2.
Pembrolizumab is also reported to have a high risk of inducing lung inju...
Scapular medial rotation describes the rotation of the scapula (scapulothoracic joint) such that the glenoid fossa faces downwards - thus it may also be called downward rotation. It is the opposite of scapular lateral rotation - similarly, this motion requires motion at the sternoclavicular and ...
Scapular lateral rotation describes the rotation of the scapula (scapulothoracic joint) such that the glenoid fossa faces upwards - thus it may also be called upward rotation. This motion allows elevation of the humerus as seen in abduction of the arm. It is almost always associated with scapula...
Scapular retraction describes the backward movement of the scapula about the thoracic wall (scapulothoracic joint). As the scapula moves towards the midline it can also be referred to as scapular adduction. The opposite motion is scapular protraction.
The muscles that act as primary movers are ...
Scapular protraction describes the forward movement of the scapula about the thoracic wall (scapulothoracic joint). As the scapula moves away from the midline it can also be referred to as scapular abduction. This motion usually occurs in conjunction with some scapular lateral rotation. This mov...
Parastremmatic dysplasia is a rare skeletal dysplasia that is characterized by shortening of the trunk, joint contractures, limb deformities, a short stiff neck, malformation of the pelvis, kyphosis of thoracic spine and urinary incontinence.
Parastremmatic dysplasia belongs to a gro...
Cerebellar restricted diffusion refers to a hyperintense signal involving the cerebellum on DWI images with a corresponding low signal on ADC images.
Vascular thrombo-occlusive disease
cerebellar arterial infarction 1
superior cerebellar arterial infarct
Scapular depression refers to the caudal motion of the scapula (scapulothoracic joint). In most instances, depression of the scapula is a passive process (due to gravity) that is facilitated by movement at the acromioclavicular joint. Occasionally some muscular attachments serve as active depres...
Scapular elevation refers to the cranial motion of the scapula (scapulothoracic joint), commonly described as “shrugging the shoulders”. This movement is facilitated by several muscles and it is useful to distinguish these as primary movers and stabilizers. It is important to note that no one mo...
Pulmonary zygomycosis was previously used term for an umbrella of pulmonary fungal species causing pulmonary fungal infection which is now superseded by terms such as pulmonary mucormycosis according to more recent publications. Previously some publications have used two terms as synonymous.
Intraosseous schwannomas are a group of rare benign osseous lesions that account for about 0.2% of all primary bone tumors. It is the most common benign peripheral nerves tumor arising from Schwann cells of the neural sheaths, and its intraosseous manifestation is very rare 1.
A subseptate uterus is a mild form congenital uterine anomaly (often considered as a normal variant) where there is a presence of a partial septum within the uterus not extending to the cervix and with the central point of the septum at an acute (<90°) angle. The external uterine contour is unif...
Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma is a subtype renal cell carcinoma.
Generally uncommon but thought to be the fourth most common histologic type of renal cell carcinoma at the time of new classification (c. 2016) 1.
This subtype is characterized by low-grade, c...
Apical rocking is a radiographic sign that might be seen either on echocardiography or cine imaging on cardiac MRI in the four-chamber view and refers to a movement of the cardiac apex in cardiac dyssynchrony. It is characterized by the following 1-3:
short-timed movement of the apex towards th...
Fluid-fluid levels in liver lesions are a rare appearance of both benign and malignant conditions.
complicated hepatic cyst 2
hepatic abscess 2
chronic hepatic hematoma 3
biliary cystadenoma 3
hepatic hemangioma (very rare) 2
Cardiac dyssynchrony refers to deviations in timing and/or disturbance of the normal sequence of activation and contraction between the atria and ventricles of the heart, the right and left ventricle or among the ventricular wall segments. Dysynchrony can be subdivided into electrical and mechan...
LumiFlow is a postprocessing technique for color or power Doppler ultrasound, which produces a relief-like visualization of the depicted vasculature.
Lumiflow can be applied to both color and power Doppler imaging. It applies a shading with an artifical light source to create a three-...
The deep artery of the penis, also known as cavernosal artery, is one of the two terminal branches of the internal pudendal artery.
The internal pudendal artery bifurcates terminally into the deep artery of the penis and the dorsal artery of the penis at the anterior marg...
The dorsal artery of the penis is one of the two terminal branches of the internal pudendal artery.
The internal pudendal artery bifurcates into the deep artery of the penis and the dorsal artery of the penis at the anterior margin of the perineal membrane 1.
The artery to the bulb of the penis (male) or vestibule (female) is a branch of the internal pudendal artery. It differs slightly in males and females.
Artery to the bulb of the penis
Origin: internal pudendal artery, distal to the perineal artery1.
a common penile artery, serving as the or...
A downsloping lateral acromion is a variation in acromion shape where the lateral margin of acromion extends to project inferiorly.
This can be assessed on plain film, CT or MRI and shows a low lateral acromial angle.
low lying acromion
Lymphangiomatosis is a rare mesenchymal disorder that is characterized by developmental "malformation" of multiple lymphatic channels (usually with dilatation).
If lymphatic channels are purely dilated and not malformed the term lymphangiectasia is usually used. If lymphangiomatosi...
Not elsewhere classified (NEC) is a term used in a variety of classification systems to denote an entity that has been fully characterized but whose features are contradictory and/or do not fit into established classifications.
Not elsewhere classified (NEC) should not, however, be confused wi...
Not otherwise specified (NOS) is a term used in a variety of classification systems to denote an entity that has been only incompletely characterized; enough for a general diagnosis but not to the point of a complete diagnosis.
The definition and use will vary between different classification ...
Neonatal aortic thrombosis is a rare life-threatening condition that can affect neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).
The incidence of neonatal aortic thrombosis is 0.2% of neonates admitted to the NICU.
umbilical arterial catheters (UAC): ~8...
The pes anserinus (rare plural: pedes anserini) is the name given to two different anatomical structures:
pes anserinus (facial nerve): a.k.a. parotid plexus
pes anserinus (knee)
Both structures are so named due to their similarity to a goose's foot, which is what 'pes anserinus' means in Lat...
The marginal mandibular nerve (TA: ramus marginalis mandibularis nervi facialis) is a branch of the extratemporal (terminal) segment of the facial nerve. It supplies the depressor anguli oris, depressor labii inferioris and mentalis muscles. It is of greater clinical importance than the other fa...
Odynophagia is the term given for painful swallowing.
It can arise from a number of causes which include
esophageal inflammation - esophagitis
dysphagia: difficulty swallowing.
The mentalis muscles (TA: musculus mentalis) are paired muscles, one on each side of the mouth, important as elevators of the chin and lower lip; the muscles are one of the facial muscles.
origin: incisive fossa of the mandible
insertion: skin of the chin
innervation: facial nerve
The Mitrofanoff procedure, also known as appendicovesicostomy, is a surgical procedure where a conduit is created using the appendix to form a connection between the urinary bladder and skin surface. Intermittent catheterization is performed through the surgically constructed conduit, thus provi...
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), formerly known as mucopolysaccharides, are biomolecules produced by almost all mammalian cells, as well as in many vertebrates and invertebrates, but have not been described in plants 1. They are constituent elements of proteoglycans and are found within the cells in t...
The common iliac lymph nodes are found surrounding the common iliac artery and vein which is located above the bifurcation of the external and internal iliac vessels and distal to the aortic bifurcation (in a majority of patients at the L4 level and a minority at the L3 or L5 level) and medial t...
The antebrachial fascia or deep fascia of the forearm is a thick connective tissue fascia investing the muscles of the forearm. It also formes the lateral intermuscular septum which divides the forearm muscle into the two following compartments of the forearm together with the radius, ulna and i...
Vestibular paroxysmia describes a clinical syndrome of sudden and stereotyped episodes of vertigo-type symptoms which usually last for less than one minute, often attributed to being a nerve compression syndrome affecting the vestibular nerve.
Vestibular paroxysmia most commonly m...
Omodysplasia is an extremely rare short-limb skeletal dysplasia characterized by 1:
depressed nasal bridge
short Humerus with hypoplastic distal humeri
Nestin is an intermediate filament protein found primarily in central nervous system stem cells. It is the target of antibodies for immunohistochemistry for the assessment of neuropathological histology specimens.
The perineal artery arises from the internal pudendal artery and supplies some of the perineal musculature and external genitalia.
Origin: branches off the internal pudendal artery, arising at the level of the posterior angle of the perineal membrane
Branches: it has two branches:
The middle genicular artery (MGA) is one of the arteries of the knee joint and is a major supplicant of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments.
origin: popliteal artery
supply: cruciate ligaments
The middle genicular artery originates from the an...
Axial spondyloarthrititis (SpA) is a clinical subset of the seronegative spondyloarthritides that present primarily with back pain and morning stiffness. There is a long delay, on average 14 years, between symptoms onset and diagnosis 1.
The prevalence of axial SpA is ~1% 1. Age o...
Carcinoma of the Littré glands is rare. The Littré (urethral) glands of the penis may be the origin of cancers of the penis, usually adenocarcinomas 1.
There are only a few scattered case reports of true Littré gland malignancy, although it is probably under-reported due to the fa...
The anteroposterior (AP) or posteroanterior (PA) view of the thumb in pediatrics is part of a two view series and is orthogonal to the lateral view. Often the decision to choose between the AP or PA thumb depends on what the child can manage and how agitated they are. An AP thumb is ideal as the...
An incompetent ileocecal valve is a situation where there can be reflux of backward flow of food content from the large bowel (cecum) through to the small bowel (terminal ileum) and through the ileocecal valve. A low degree of incompetence is not an uncommon finding 3. In some states, patients m...
Uploading DICOM images to Radiopaedia is possible through the case creation page with full client-side anonymisation.
Here is what occurs:
drag and drop: drag and drop the DICOM folder into the case upload area (this will not be uploaded at this stage)
anonymisation: the files will be proce...
The cystic veins (TA: venae cysticae) are the main venous drainage of the gallbladder. They subsequently drain into the portal vein.
The cystic veins begin as venules running over the surface of the fundus and body of the gallbladder which merge proximate to the neck of the gallb...
The heart is one of the first organs in the developing embryo to form and function. By the start of week 4, a primitive heart has begun to pump blood and by week 7 most of the gross development of the heart is complete. Its development is complex, with several events occurring simultaneously.
The superior medial genicular artery (SMGA) is the medial counterpart of the superior lateral genicular artery and participates in the supply of the superomedial structures of the knee and the vascularization of the patella.
origin: popliteal artery
branches: anterior ...
The superior lateral genicular artery (SLGA) is the lateral counterpart of the superior medial genicular artery and supplies the superolateral structures of the knee and participates in the vascularization of the patella.
origin: popliteal artery
branches: anterior and...
Auricular perichondritis, also known as perichondritis of the ear or pinna, is an infection or inflammation of the cartilage-bearing part of the external ear.
The term perichondritis, strictly speaking, refers to inflammation involving the perichondrium. However, a distinction is o...
The inferior medial genicular artery (IMGA) is the medial counterpart of the inferior lateral genicular artery and supplies the inferomedial structures of the knee including the medial tibial condyle and participates in the supply of the patella.
origin: popliteal arter...
The inferior lateral genicular artery (ILGA) is the lateral counterpart of the inferior medial genicular artery and supplies the inferolateral structures of the knee and the patella.
origin: popliteal artery
branches: cutaneous perforating branches
A sphincter (TA: musculus sphincter) is a term used in anatomy to refer a ring of muscle which narrows a tube or closes off a bodily orifice 1.
external anal sphincter
internal anal sphincter
lower esophageal sphincter
The buccolabial muscles form a subgroup of the facial muscles.
Elevators, retractors and evertors of the upper lip:
levator labii superioris alaeque nasalis (LLSAN) muscle
levator labii superioris muscle
zygomaticus major muscle
zygomaticus minor muscle
levator anguli oris...
The crural fascia or deep fascia of the lower leg is a thick connective tissue fascia that invests the muscles of the lower leg and divides them into the four compartments of the lower leg 1,2:
lateral or peroneal compartment
deep posterior compartment
The book Practical radiography: A Hand-Book of the Applications of the X-Rays was the first ever textbook on x-rays anywhere in the world. It was written by H Snowden Ward and first published in May 1896 by Dawbarn & Ward. This is a mere six months after Wilhelm Roentgen's discovery of x-rays.
A thyrolinguofacial trunk is a very rare pattern of branching of the anterior branches of the external carotid artery. Rather than the facial artery, lingual artery, and superior thyroid artery having their own distinct origins, all three vessels originate from a common trunk of the external car...
A linguofacial trunk is a rare variation of the anterior branches of the external carotid artery. The lingual artery and facial artery share a common trunk rather than branching independently from the external carotid artery 1. Unlike the thyrolingual or thyrolinguofacial variations in which the...
A thyrolingual trunk is an anatomical variant in which the superior thyroid artery and lingual artery share a common trunk 1. This is in contrast to the typical pattern of both vessels emerging independently from the external carotid artery. Other variations of origin include a linguofacial trun...
Acromial spurs have been associated with rotator cuff tears and impingement syndrome although a direct causative link is controversial 4.
If the spur extends inferior, it can be called a subacromial spur.
Acromial spurs usually occur at the lateral part. In that situat...
The submental artery is the largest branch of the facial artery. The vessel supplies the floor of the mouth and sublingual gland while also connecting the circulation of the tongue and the floor of the mouth 1,3.
origin: facial artery 2
course: emerges from the facial artery at the s...
The submasseteric space, also known as the masseteric space, is the inferolateral subcompartment of the masticator space located between the mandible and masseter muscle.
Relations and/or Boundaries
The submasseteric space has the following boundaries 1:
medially: mandible (ram...
The pterygomandibular space is the inferomedial subcompartment of the masticator space located between the mandible and pterygoid muscles.
The pterygomandibular space contains loose areolar tissue, the sphenomandibular ligament, and the following named neurovascular str...
Progressive muscular atrophy is one of the motor neuron diseases, sometimes considered a variant of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, confined to the lower motor neurons.
The coronary microcirculation comprises several anatomically and functionally different coronary vascular compartments with a small diameter (<500 µm) that play a crucial role in the regulation of myocardial perfusion.
location: epicardium, myocardium, endocardium
blood supply: epicar...
The scapula method is used to assess posterior humeral head subluxation in patients with glenohumeral osteoarthritis as part of the work-up for shoulder arthroplasty.
First, the scapular axis (medial border of the scapular body to center of the glenoid) is drawn on an axial image that ...
The dual stream language processing models (dorsal and ventral) have replaced the historic model that only included the Broca's and Wernicke's areas and the arcuate fasciculus 1.
The dorsal stream is responsible for phonological processing and language production (sound/sign to actio...
The levator anguli oris muscle, also known as caninus or triangularis labii superioris muscles, is a buccolabial muscle, a subdivision of the facial muscles.
origin: canine fossa of the maxilla
insertion: modiolus and merges with depressor anguli oris muscle
The Ram's horn sign, also known as Shofar sign, is the tubular, conical appearance of the stomach antrum seen on a barium meal. The stomach is less distensible and the curved conical appearance resembles the horn of a ram.
This is seen in granulomatous disease, typically Crohn disease, but also...
Patellar tendinopathy refers to tendinopathic changes affecting the patellar tendon and can affect part of all of the tendon depending on various clinical scenarios.
Some forms can be associated with specific situations which include
chronic insertional injury of the posterior...
Cryoablation refers to the use of thermal energy in the form of very low temperatures to achieve targeted destruction of tumor cells. It is an image-guided technique, currently widely employed in the management of renal 1, hepatic 2 and lung tumors 3.
Historically, a rudimental form of cryosurg...
Inferior gluteal neuropathy or inferior gluteal nerve injury can be the result of nerve compression or traction injury of the inferior gluteal nerve.
Inferior gluteal nerve neuropathy like superior gluteal nerve neuropathy is rather uncommon and often associated with iatrogenic in...
Superior gluteal neuropathy or superior gluteal nerve injury can be the result of nerve compression or traction injury of the superior gluteal nerve under the roof of the greater sciatic foramen.
Superior gluteal nerve neuropathy is uncommon and often associated with iatrogenic in...
Sciatic neuropathy can be the result of nerve compression or traction injury of the sciatic nerve which might occur at several levels along its course. The peroneal division of the nerve is more commonly affected than the tibial division due to the more superficial location and two different fix...
Wrist arthrocentesis refers to the aspiration of an effusion in the radiocarpal joint. It serves primarily as a diagnostic modality to determine fluid composition, and may function secondarily to reduce pain associated with capsular stretch. The dynamic, ultrasound-guided technique will be descr...
The tubercle of Assaki, also known as the tubercle of Asskay 3, is a small bony protuberance of the central part of the glenoid fossa with accompanying thinning of articular cartilage in this location 1.
It is presumably caused by the constant pressure of the humeral head exerted on ...
Hip spine syndrome is one term used to describe the clinical association between hip osteoarthritis and degenerative lumbar spinal canal stenosis due to overlapping pain distribution.
Patients with hip spine syndrome have hip and lumbar spine degeneration and present wit...
Hepatic small vessel neoplasms (HSVN) are low-grade vascular lesions of uncertain malignant potential.
Although also referred to as hepatic small vessel hemangiomas 3, this term may wrongly mislead HSVN to represent a subtype of hepatic hemangiomas and, therefore, will be avoided ...
The lesser palatine artery is a small branch of the descending palatine artery (branch of the 3rd part of the maxillary artery). The vessel supplies the soft palate with small branches to the palatine tonsils 1,2. The vessel emerges through the lesser palatine foramen before traveling posterior ...
The descending palatine artery is a branch of the maxillary artery that supplies both the soft palate and hard palate as well as the palatine tonsils 1.
origin: 3rd part of the maxillary artery
course: descending through the pterygopalatine fossa before its branches enter either the ...
Saphenous neuropathy or saphenous nerve entrapment can be the result of nerve compression or traction injury of the saphenous nerve a pure sensory nerve terminal branch and the longest cutaneous branch from the femoral nerve that supplies the medial thigh, lower leg and foot 1-3.
The CT paranasal sinus protocol serves as an examination for the assessment of the study of the mucosa and bone system of the sinonasal cavities. It is usually performed as a non-contrast study. In certain situations, it might be combined or simultaneously acquired with a
Note: This article aim...
The ascending palatine artery is a branch of the facial artery that supplies part of the soft palate. In addition, the vessel also supplies the tensor veli palatini, uvular muscle, palatine tonsils, and palatopharyngeus 1,2. The posterior branch supplies the posterior and inferior soft palate es...
Sural neuropathy, also known as sural nerve entrapment, can be the result of nerve compression or traction injury of the sural nerve. This nerve is a purely sensory branch, usually formed by a confluence of branches from the tibial nerve and common peroneal nerve that supplies the lateral aspect...
The aerodigestive tract is a non-TA descriptive collective term for the respiratory tract and proximal portion of the digestive tract. As it is a non-standard term, its precise components vary somewhat with the context in which the term is being employed.
Definitions of what precis...
A trefoil appearance of spinal canal (sometimes termed as a cloverleaf spinal canal appearance) is a particular appearance that is of congenital or acquired etiology. This is mainly described in the lumber region and can result in narrowing of the lateral recesess as well as at times involvement...
The frontalis muscle (TA: musculus frontalis) is a paired muscle extending from the supraorbital region to the level of the coronal suture. Flat and quadrilateral in shape, it is one of the facial muscles. Along with the occipitalis muscle, it forms the occipitofrontalis muscle due to a common t...
Lumbar spinal stenosis grading refers to systems for classifying the severity of central spinal canal narrowing around the cauda equina nerve roots.
The two most popular systems, both applied to visual assessment of MRI, are the Lee grading system, and the Schizas grading system. Both t...
Anterior instrumentation and fusion is a surgical procedure used in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis to correct vertebral curvature. This technique is preferred to posterior instrumentation and fusion in skeletally immature patients with a Lenke 5C thoracolumbar or lumbar adolescent...
The anterior tarsal tunnel is a fibro-osseous canal found in the anterior aspect of the ankle.
The anterior tarsal tunnel is beneath the inferior extensor retinaculum of the foot and bordered by the following structures 1,2:
roof: inferior extensor retinaculum
Deep peroneal nerve entrapment or compression syndrome anterior is a nerve compression syndrome of the deep peroneal nerve and might occur within the anterior tarsal tunnel beneath the inferior extensor retinaculum as anterior tarsal tunnel syndrome.
Deep peroneal nerve entrapment...
Superficial peroneal nerve entrapment or compression syndrome is a nerve compression syndrome of the superficial peroneal nerve a mixed motor and sensory nerve providing the motor innervation of the peroneus longus and peroneus brevis muscles and sensory innervation of the dorsum of the foot and...
The solitary fibrous tumor of the orbit is a rare spindle-cell neoplasm originating from mesenchymal fibroblast-like cells histologically identical to solitary fibrous tumors found elsewhere
Solitary fibrous tumors occur in a wide age range reported from 9 to 76 years without a co...