Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

14,938 results found
Article

Ankle series

The ankle series is comprised of an anteroposterior (AP), mortise and lateral radiograph. The series is often used in emergency departments to evaluate the distal tibia, distal fibula, and the talus; forming the ankle joint. See approach to an ankle series. Indications Ankle radiographs are p...
Article

Ankle (stress view)

The AP stress view of the ankle is a highly specialized view used to assess the integrity of the syndesmosis and deltoid ligament. It can be performed one of two ways, with gravity or via manual external rotation.  Indications In intermediate ankle injuries that have no syndesmotic widening on...
Article

Ankle x-ray (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists An ankle x-ray, also known as ankle series or ankle radiograph, is a set of two x-rays of the ankle joint. It is performed to look for evidence of injury (or pathology) affecting the ankle, often after trauma. Reference ar...
Article

Ankylosing spondylitis

Ankylosing spondylitis (less commonly known as Bechterew disease or Marie Strümpell disease) is a seronegative spondyloarthropathy, which results in fusion (ankylosis) of the spine and sacroiliac (SI) joints, although involvement is also seen in large and small joints. Epidemiology Traditional...
Article

Ankylosing spondylitis (cardiovascular manifestations)

Cardiovascular manifestations of ankylosing spondylitis may affect around 2-10% of all patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Cardiac complications include: left ventricular dysfunction: considered on of the commonest findings 3 aortic root dilatation: also a relatively frequent finding 3 righ...
Article

Ankylosing spondylitis (thoracic manifestations)

Thoracic manifestations of ankylosing spondylitis can be varied. For a general discussion of the condition refer to the parent article on ankylosing spondylitis. It can affect the tracheobronchial tree and the lung parenchyma, and the disease spectrum includes: upper lobe fibrocystic changes -...
Article

Anlage

An anlage in biology refers to the primordial precursor of a tissue or organ, which is still recognisable as a collection of cells that will form that specific tissue. The term is commonly used in medicine to refer to organs, such as the pancreas, when one is describing anatomical variants and ...
Article

Ann Arbor staging system

The Ann Arbor staging system was the landmark lymphoma staging classification system for both Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It is named after the town of Ann Arbor in the US state of Michigan where the Committee on Hodgkin's Disease Staging Classification met in 1971 to agree on it....
Article

Annular fissure

Annular fissures are a degenerative deficiency of one or more layers that make up the annulus fibrosus of the intervertebral disc.  Terminology Many authors prefer the term annular fissure over annular tear, as the latter seems to imply acute injury 1,2. In the setting of severe trauma with di...
Article

Annular ligament (disambiguation)

The annular ligament can refer to: annular ligament of the stapes annular ligament of the proximal radio-ulnar joint
Article

Annular pancreas

Annular pancreas is a morphological anomaly that results in pancreatic tissue completely or incompletely encircling the duodenum. This condition can cause duodenal obstruction and is therefore important to recognize, as radiologists are frequently the first to make the diagnosis. Epidemiology ...
Article

Annuloaortic ectasia

Annuloaortic ectasia refers to a proximal dilatation of the aortic root at the level of the aortic annulus, which is the same level as the sinus of Valsalva. Pathology Annuloaortic ectasia occurs with connective tissue diseases such as Marfan disease and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. It is a cystic ...
Article

Annulus fibrosus

The annulus fibrosus (plural: annuli fibrosi) surrounds the nucleus pulposus and together they form the intervertebral disc. Gross anatomy The annulus comprises 15 to 20 collagenous (type I) laminae which run obliquely from the edge of one vertebra down to the edge of the vertebra below. The d...
Article

Annulus fibrosus calcification

Annulus fibrosus calcification is a form of intervertebral disc calcification where the peripheral annular portion (annulus fibrosus) can get calcified. This may occur in isolation or in conjunction with other sites of disc calcification. It could involve any portion of the spine. Some suggest t...
Article

Annulus of Zinn contents (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the contents of the tendinous ring (also known as the annulus of Zinn) from superior to inferior is: One Canal, Several Orbital Nerves In One Annulus Mnemonic: OC: optic canal SO: superior division of oculomotor nerve N: nasociliary nerve IO: inferior division of ocu...
Article

Anode angle

The anode angle refers to the angle the target surface of the anode sits at in relation to the vertical.  Most x-ray tubes have an anode angle of 12-15 degrees but greater or lesser angles can also be used depending on the application. The degree of angulation of the anode affects the effective...
Article

Anode heel effect

Anode heel effect refers to the lower field intensity towards the anode in comparison to the cathode due to lower x-ray emissions from the target material at angles perpendicular to the electron beam. Basic concept The conversion of the electron beam into x-rays doesn’t simply occur at the sur...
Article

Anode (x-ray tube)

The anode (or anticathode) is the component of the x-ray tube where x-rays are produced. It is a piece of metal, shaped in the form of a bevelled disk with a diameter between 55 and 100 mm, and thickness of 7 mm, connected to the positive side of the electrical circuit. The anode converts the en...
Article

Anomalous aortic origin of coronary artery

Anomalous aortic origin of coronary artery (AAOCA) refers to a congenital coronary artery anomaly in which a coronary arteries arises from a different coronary sinus. Terminology Anomalous origin of the coronary artery arising from the opposite sinus (ACOAS) is a narrower definition and refers...
Article

Anomalous course of coronary arteries

Anomalous course of a coronary artery is a type of congenital coronary artery anomaly. It may represent a benign and incidental finding, but rarely it is a malignant course predisposing patients to life-threatening myocardial ischemia or arrhythmias, depending on where the artery runs.  Clinica...
Article

Anomalous insertion of the medial meniscus

Anomalous insertion of the medial meniscus (AIMM) is an anatomical variation of the insertion of the anterior root of the medial meniscus.   Terminology Defined as a congenital variation in the insertion of the anterior root of the medial meniscus onto the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The...
Article

Anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery

Anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA), also known as Bland-White-Garland syndrome (BWG), is a rare congenital coronary artery anomaly and is considered one of the most severe of such anomalies. There are two forms, based on onset of disease, each of which has differe...
Article

Anomalous pancreaticobiliary junction

An anomalous pancreaticobiliary junction, also known as pancreaticobiliary maljunction, describes the abnormal junction of the pancreatic duct and common bile duct that occurs outside the duodenal wall to form a long common channel (>15 mm). Epidemiology It is more common in Asia and eastern c...
Article

Anomalous systemic arterial supply to normal lung

Anomalous systemic arterial supply to normal lung is an anatomical variant in which a portion of the lung (usually a basal segment) is supplied by a systemic vessel without a distinct pulmonary sequestration. Terminology It was traditionally (perhaps inappropriately since not a true sequestrat...
Article

Anomaly detection

Anomaly detection uses a large number of normal examples to train an algorithm which detects what is normal (based on the training examples) and what is not normal. Anomaly detection has features of both supervised and unsupervised learning, and is applicable to Radiology as it’s important to di...
Article

Anophthalmia

Anophthalmia refers to a complete absence of ocular development. It is often considered to represent the most severe form of microphthalmia. Pathology It can occur in three different situations: primary anophthalmia: complete absence of eye tissue due to a failure of the part of the brain tha...
Article

Anorectal disease (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Anorectal disease is a group of conditions that affect the anus and rectum. The most common conditions in this group include hemorrhoids, anal fissures, anorectal abscess and anal fistula. Reference article This is a summ...
Article

Anorexia nervosa

Anorexia nervosa is a psychiatric disorder characterized by distorted self-perception of body weight leading to starvation, obsession with remaining underweight, and an excessive fear of gaining weight. One in five patients with anorexia dies due to complications of the disease. Epidemiology T...
Article

Anorexia nervosa (CNS manifestations)

The CNS manifestations of anorexia nervosa are common but varied with most of the imaging features non-specific in their own right.  For a general discussion, and for links to other system specific manifestations, please refer to the article on anorexia nervosa. Epidemiology Studies have iden...
Article

Anosmia

Anosmia (also known as anosphresia or olfactory anesthesia) is the complete absence of the sense of smell.  Terminology In addition to anosmia, there is also hyposmia (a.k.a. microsmia or olfactory hypoesthesia) representing a diminished sense of smell and parosmia (a.k.a. dysosmia or paraosmi...
Article

ANOVA

ANOVA (ANalysis Of VAriance) is a statistical technique commonly seen in radiology research. ANOVA analyzes are conceptually similar to the student t-test, but involve comparison of multiple groups at once. The alternative to an ANOVA would be multiple head-to-head t-tests, but this would likel...
Article

Anoxic brain injury

Anoxic brain injury, also known as global hypoxic-ischemic injury, is seen in all age groups (from antenatal to the elderly) as a result of numerous etiologies. The pattern of injury depends on a number of factors including: age of the patient (brain maturity) neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encepha...
Article

Ansa cervicalis

The ansa cervicalis (or ansa hypoglossi, an archaic synonym) is a component of the cervical plexus which gives muscular branches to the geniohyoid muscle of the suprahyoid group and most of the infrahyoid (strap) muscles (excluding the thyrohyoid muscle).  It lies within the carotid triangle, s...
Article

Ansa pancreatica

The ansa pancreatica is a rare type of anatomical variation of the pancreatic duct. It is a communication between the main pancreatic duct (of Wirsung) and the accessory pancreatic duct (of Santorini). Recently, the ansa pancreatica has been considered as a predisposing factor in patients with i...
Article

Anteater nose sign (foot)

The anteater nose sign refers to an anterior tubular elongation of the superior calcaneus which approaches or overlaps the navicular on a lateral radiograph of the foot. This fancifully resembles the nose of an anteater and is indicative of calcaneonavicular coalition 1,2.  History and etymolog...
Article

Antegrade ureteric stent

Antegrade ureteric stents are performed under fluoroscopic guidance, typically by an interventional radiologist or urologist. It is performed via percutaneous access from the kidney. It is usually performed using the access from a prior percutaneous nephrostomy, a so-called two-step procedure, a...
Article

Antenatal features of Down syndrome

Antenatal screening of Down syndrome (and other less common aneuploidies) should be available as a routine component of antenatal care. It allows families to either adjust to the idea of having a child with the condition or to consider termination of pregnancy. For a general description of Down...
Article

Antenatal screening

Antenatal screening and diagnosis are currently available for a few selected genetic conditions, including trisomy 21 (Down syndrome), trisomy 18 (Edward syndrome), trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) and neural tube defects. For an overview of the conditions and their manifestations, please refer to t...
Article

Antenatal soft markers on ultrasound

Antenatal soft ultrasound markers are fetal sonographic findings that are generally not abnormalities as such but are indicative of an increased age adjusted risk of an underlying fetal aneuploidic or some non chromosomal abnormalities. Most of the described features do not constitute a structu...
Article

Antepartum hemorrhage

Antepartum hemorrhage (APH) refers to vaginal bleeding during the second half of pregnancy (> 20 weeks gestation). APH may occur in varying degrees from mild to severe, with concomitant risk to mother and baby and potential to result in severe maternal/fetal compromise, including death. Epidemi...
Article

Anterior abdominal wall

The anterior abdominal wall forms the anterior limit of the abdominal viscera and is defined superiorly by the xiphoid process of the sternum and costal cartilages and inferiorly by the iliac crest and pubic bones of the pelvis. Gross anatomy In general, the anterior abdominal wall has nine la...
Article

Anterior abdominal wall hernia

Anterior (or ventral) abdominal wall hernias (herniae also used) are a subgroup of abdominal wall herniae that are differentiated by the location of the hernia.  epigastric hernia incisional hernia port site hernia interparietal hernia parastomal hernia paraumbilical hernia Spigelian hern...
Article

Anterior angulation of the coccyx

Anterior angulation of the coccyx may be a normal variant but poses a diagnostic challenge for those considering coccygeal trauma. Classification Four types of coccyx have been described: type I: the coccyx is curved slightly forward, with its apex pointing caudally (~70%) type II: the coccy...
Article

Anterior ankle impingement syndrome

Anterior ankle impingement (AAI) syndrome is the result of chronic repetitive trauma with impingement of the anterior tibia against the talus. Epidemiology Common in soccer players and ballet dancers 1. Clinical presentation Clinical features of anterior ankle impingement syndrome include pa...
Article

Anterior ankle tendons (mnemonic)

A mnemonic that refers to the order of the anterior ankle tendons around the ankle is: Tom Hates Dick The mnemonic can be used to remember the order of the tendons from medial to lateral as they pass under the extensor retinaculum of the ankle.  Mnemonic T: tibialis anterior H: extensor hal...
Article

Anterior atlanto-occipital membrane

The anterior atlanto-occipital membrane is a thin membrane that joins the upper border of the anterior arch of the atlas (C1) to the anterior inferior surface of the foramen magnum. It is a continuation of the anterior longitudinal ligament above the C1 level. It is immediately posterior to the ...
Article

Anterior bronchus sign

The anterior bronchus sign refers to the appearance of the anterior segmental bronchus of the upper lobes as seen on a frontal chest radiograph. Gross anatomy The anterior segment bronchus of the upper lobes courses anteriorly and laterally. When the orientation is predominantly anteriorly the...
Article

Anterior cardiac veins

The anterior cardiac veins are a group of parallel coronary veins that course over the anterior surface of the right ventricle, draining it and entering directly into the right atrium. They may occasionally drain into the small cardiac vein. 
Article

Anterior cardinal veins

The anterior cardinal veins are paired transient embryologic venous vessels which deliver venous return to the heart starting at about 4 weeks of gestation 1. Embryogenesis The anterior cardinal veins begin their embryological development as symmetric venous channels draining blood from the cr...
Article

Anterior center-edge angle

The anterior center-edge angle, also known as the vertical-center-anterior (VCA) angle, is a radiographic measurement of the anterior coverage of the femoral head by the acetabulum. It is used in assessing acetabular dysplasia and pincer type of femoroacetabular impingement. Radiographic featur...
Article

Anterior cerebral artery

The anterior cerebral artery (ACA) along with the middle cerebral artery (MCA) forms at the termination of the internal carotid artery (ICA). It is the smaller of the two, and arches anteromedially to pass anterior to the genu of the corpus callosum, dividing as it does so into its two major bra...
Article

Anterior cerebral artery (ACA) infarct

Anterior cerebral artery (ACA) territory infarcts are much less common than either middle or posterior cerebral artery territory infarcts. Epidemiology ACA territory infarcts are rare, comprising ~2% of ischemic strokes 1,2. Clinical presentation ACA stroke syndrome presents as 1-3: dysarth...
Article

Anterior cervical angle

The anterior cervical angle is a novel ultrasound parameter that is being used as a predictor of spontaneous preterm birth. Measurement The angle between the uterine wall and the cervical canal is measured during the first and the second trimester by a transvaginal ultrasound. It is measured u...
Article

Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF)

Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is a commonly performed spinal fusion procedure for the decompression of the cervical cord due to disc protrusions and posteriorly projecting osteophytes. It is not to be confused with an ACDA (anterior cervical disc arthroplasty). Technique The ...
Article

Anterior cervical space

The anterior cervical space is a small infrahyoid compartment of the head and neck. It is a fat containing space and is not enclosed by fascia 1. Gross anatomy Contents areolar fat Relations posterior: carotid space medial: visceral space superior: submandibular space Related pathology ...
Article

Anterior chest wall protocol (MRI)

The MRI anterior chest wall protocol encompasses a set of MRI sequences for the routine assessment of the sternoclavicular joints and/or the anterior chest wall. Note: This article aims to frame a general concept of an MRI protocol for the assessment of sternoclavicular joints and/or the anteri...
Article

Anterior choroidal artery

The anterior choroidal artery (AChA) supplies several crucial anatomical structures of the brain important for vision and motor control. Identification of AChA is important because of its strategic and extensive area of supply as well as large variations in the territorial distribution. Gross a...
Article

Anterior choroidal artery syndrome

Anterior choroidal artery syndrome is a rare entity characterized by the triad of hemiplegia hemianaesthesia and contralateral hemianopia This occurs as a result of cerebral infarction in the anterior choroidal artery territory. The syndrome may also be associated with neuropsychological di...
Article

Anterior cingulate cortex

The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), previously known as the precingulate, is a region of the brain surrounding the anterior corpus callosum. It is involved in the limbic system and the prefrontal cortex. Summary location: it is located superior to the anterior corpus callosum, more specifical...
Article

Anterior circulation

The anterior circulation is the blood supply to the anterior portion of the brain, including most of the supratentorial structures excluding the occipital lobes. The anterior circulation is supplied by the internal carotid arteries which each divide into two the large terminal branches, the ant...
Article

Anterior commissure

The anterior commissure (AC) is a transversely oriented commissural white matter tract that connects the two cerebral hemispheres along the midline. It is a very important anatomical landmark that connects different parts of the limbic system on both sides and plays a role in the interhemispheri...
Article

Anterior commissure of the larynx

The anterior commissure of the larynx is the anterior junction point of the true vocal cords. It is bounded anteriorly by the thyroid cartilage and is part of the laryngeal glottis.
Article

Anterior commissure - posterior commissure line

The anterior commissure - posterior commissure line (AC-PC line), also known as the bicommissural line, has been adopted as a convenient standard by the neuroimaging community, and in most instances is the reference plane for axial imaging in everyday scanning. The creation of a standard image p...
Article

Anterior communicating artery

The anterior communicating artery (ACOM) arises from the anterior cerebral artery and acts as an anastomosis between the left and right anterior cerebral circulation. Approximately 4 mm in length, it demarcates the junction between the A1 and A2 segments of the anterior cerebral artery. Branche...
Article

Anterior compartment of the arm

The anterior compartment of the arm is one of the two compartments of the arm. A sheath of deep fascia surrounds the arm, the brachial fascia. Two intermuscular septa (medial and lateral) extend from it to attach to the humerus at the medial condylar ridge and lateral supracondylar ridge, respe...
Article

Anterior compartment of the forearm

The forearm is divided into the anterior compartment and the posterior compartment by the deep fascia, lateral intermuscular septum and the interosseous membrane between the ulna and radius.  Muscles The eight muscles located in the anterior compartment of the forearm can be divided into three...
Article

Anterior compartment of the leg

The anterior compartment of the leg is one of the four compartments in the leg between the knee and foot. Muscles within this compartment primarily produce ankle dorsiflexion and toe extension. The leg is separated into anterior, lateral, superficial posterior and deep posterior compartments by...
Article

Anterior compartment of the thigh

The anterior compartment of the thigh is one of the three compartments in the thigh. Muscles within this compartment primarily produce hip flexion and knee extension. The thigh is separated into anterior, posterior and medial (adductor) compartments by intermuscular septa and surrounded by the ...
Article

Anterior condylar confluence

The anterior condylar confluence is an extracranial venous structure at the base of skull that communicates extensively with regional veins and dural venous sinuses.  It is located immediately anterior to the hypoglossal canal and medial to the jugular vein, just inferior to the jugular bulb an...
Article

Anterior corticospinal tract

The anterior corticospinal tract is formed at the level of the of the medullary pyramids, where the majority (90%) of descending corticospinal tract fibers decussate to form the lateral corticospinal tract. The majority of the remaining non-decussating 10% of fibers form the much smaller anterio...
Article

Anterior cranial fossa

The anterior cranial fossa constitutes the floor of the cranial vault which houses the frontal lobes of the brain. Gross anatomy Structures present in the midline of the anterior cranial fossa from anterior to posterior are:  groove for superior sagittal sinus groove for anterior meningeal v...
Article

Anterior cruciate ligament

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the two cruciate ligaments that stabilize the knee joint.  Gross anatomy The ACL arises from the anteromedial aspect of the intercondylar area on the tibial plateau and passes upwards and backwards to attach to the posteromedial aspect of the lateral ...
Article

Anterior cruciate ligament avulsion fracture

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) avulsion fracture or tibial eminence avulsion fracture is a type of avulsion fracture of the knee. This typically involves separation of the tibial attachment of the ACL to variable degrees. Separation at the femoral attachment is rare 5. Epidemiology It is mor...
Article

Anterior cruciate ligament ganglion cyst

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ganglion cysts, commonly referred to simply as ACL cysts, along with ganglion cysts arising from the alar folds that cover the infrapatellar fat pad, make up the vast majority of intra-articular ganglion cysts of the knee. Epidemiology Anterior cruciate ligamen...
Article

Anterior cruciate ligament graft impingement

Anterior cruciate ligament graft impingement is a complication of an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and usually associated with a decreased range of motion. Epidemiology Associations Anterior cruciate ligament graft impingement is associated with improper tunnel placement and...
Article

Anterior cruciate ligament graft stretching

Anterior cruciate ligament graft stretching or graft elongation refers to a clinical scenario of increased knee laxity in the setting of intact graft fibers and can occur as a complication of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Epidemiology Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft stretch...
Article

Anterior cruciate ligament graft tear

Anterior cruciate ligament graft tears can occur as complications of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction or as a consequence of a traumatic reinjury. Epidemiology An anterior cruciate ligament reinjury occurs in about 7% of patients with an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction 1. R...
Article

Anterior cruciate ligament mucoid degeneration

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) mucoid degeneration, along with tears and anterior cruciate ligament ganglion cysts, is a relatively common cause of increased signal within the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The appearance can mimic acute or chronic interstitial partial tears of the ACL. How...
Article

Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is a common procedure post ACL tear. It aims to reduce knee joint instability and thus prevent any further meniscal and/or cartilage damage.  Procedure There are numerous surgical techniques for ACL reconstruction 1-3: autograft reconstruction ...
Article

Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction complications (overview)

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction complications are common, occurring in 10-25% of patients. Clinical presentation Patients with complications of ACL reconstruction can present with decreased range of motion (impingement or arthrofibrosis) and/or laxity (graft rupture or stretchi...
Article

Anterior cruciate ligament tear

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are the most common knee ligament injury encountered in radiology and orthopedic practice. Clinical presentation  Patients typically present with symptoms of knee instability, usually after acute trauma. The following signs and symptoms are common: poppi...
Article

Anterior dislocation of the hip

Anterior hip dislocation is much less common than a posterior hip dislocation. It constitutes only 5-18% of all hip dislocations. Pathology While the posterior dislocation is often associated with fractures, the anterior dislocation is mostly an isolated injury 1. Subtypes It can be classifi...
Article

Anterior division of the mandibular nerve

The anterior division of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve has four branches, which are all motor branches except one. The four branches are: deep temporal nerves lateral pterygoid nerves masseteric nerve buccal nerve
Article

Anterior epitympanic recess

The anterior epitympanic recess, also known as the supratubal recess, is a small discrete space in the epitympanum anterior to the malleus. It is separated from the epitympanum proper by the cog.  
Article

Anterior ethmoidal artery

The anterior ethmoid artery is a branch of the ophthalmic artery. It supplies the anterior and middle ethmoidal sinuses, frontal sinus, the lateral nasal wall and the nasal septum (see nasal cavity). Gross anatomy It traverses the anterior ethmoidal foramen with the anterior ethmoidal nerve (w...
Article

Anterior ethmoidal foramen

The anterior ethmoid foramen is a small opening in the ethmoid bone. It is the anatomical border of anterior and posterior ethmoid air cells. It transmits the anterior ethmoidal artery, vein and nerve. The anterior ethmoid foramen is situated 25 mm away from the lacrimal crest, 12 mm anterior t...
Article

Anterior ethmoidal nerve

The anterior ethmoidal nerve is an extraconal branch of the nasociliary nerve, a branch of the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve. Some authors describe it as either the terminal branch or a direct continuation of the nasociliary nerve.  It branches off distal to the infratrochlear nerv...
Article

Anterior ethmoidal notch

The anterior ethmoidal notch contains the anterior ethmoidal artery and has significant rates of anatomic variation that put the artery during functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). Gross anatomy The anterior ethmoidal notch lies in the medial wall of the superomedial orbit, adjacent to t...
Article

Anterior fontanelle

The anterior or frontal fontanelle is the diamond-shaped soft membranous gap (fontanelle) at the junction of the coronal and sagittal sutures. It persists until approximately 18-24 months after birth, after which it is known as the bregma. The precise timing of the anterior fontanelle closure is...
Article

Anterior fontanelle inclusion cyst

Anterior fontanelle inclusion cysts, also commonly referred to as congenital dermoid inclusion cysts, are cystic lesions overlying the anterior fontanelle without communication with the underlying intracranial compartment.  Terminology Although the term congenital dermoid inclusion cyst is mor...
Article

Anterior glenolabral injuries

Anterior glenolabral injuries are common in the setting of anterior shoulder dislocation and comprise a number of closely related entities: Bankart lesion bony Bankart lesion anterior labroligamentous periosteal sleeve avulsion (ALPSA) Perthes lesion glenolabral articular disruption (GLAD) ...
Article

Anterior hip pain

Causes of anterior hip pain include: osteoarthritis synovitis including pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) synovial osteochondromatosis inflammatory arthropathy (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis) iliopsoas bursitis ganglion cyst synovial cyst muscle tear malignancy inguinal adenopathy ...
Article

Anterior horn syndrome

Anterior horn syndrome is a fairly generic term used to refer to flaccid paralysis and areflexia due to involvement of the anterior grey matter horns of the spinal cord. Sensation is typically preserved.  Causes of anterior horn syndrome include:  anterior spinal artery ischemia  poliomyeliti...

Updating… Please wait.

 Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

 Thank you for updating your details.