Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

16,075 results found
Article

Sacroiliac joint fixation

Sacroiliac joint fusion (SIJ fusion) represents the surgical treatment for all patients with low back and/or buttock pain who do not respond to medical or physiotherapeutic treatment 1,2. The treatment shows excellent outcomes in these patients. Alongside the standard surgical treatment is minim...
Article

Medial plantar nerve entrapment

Medial plantar nerve entrapment or compression syndrome, also known as jogger’s foot is a nerve compression syndrome of the medial plantar nerve either in the distal tarsal tunnel or beneath the plantar arch at the knot of Henry. Epidemiology Medial plantar nerve entrapment is a rather rare ty...
Article

Crizotinib associated interstitial pneumonitis

Crizotinib associated interstitial pneumonitis is a type of drug-induced lung disease precipitated by a tyrosine kinase/anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor Crizotinib used in the treatment of certain forms of non-small cell lung cancer that have certain mutations including the ROS1 mutati...
Article

Risorius muscle

The risorius muscle (TA: musculus risorius) is one of the muscles of the mouth, a subset of the facial muscles. It is often absent and has been described as an accessory muscle. Summary origin: fascia overlying the parotid, masseter and/or platysma muscles​ insertion: modiolus at the angle of...
Article

Mastoid bowl

A mastoid bowl or mastoid cavity refers to a post surgical cavity that is created from the resection of mastoid air cells and intervening septae, usually during complex mastoidectomies such as canal wall up or canal wall down mastoidectomies, or other surgeries such as cochlear implantations. Th...
Article

Glenoid bare spot

Glenoid bare spot, also known as glenoid bare area, is a small central or slightly eccentric area of the inferior glenoid fossa, where the articular cartilage is markedly thinner or completely absent 2. It is considered to be a normal aging-related phenomenon 1. Epidemiology The glenoid bare s...
Article

Levator labii superioris muscle

The levator labii superioris (LLS) muscle (TA synonym: musculus levator labii superioris) is one of the elevators of the upper lip, a subset of the facial muscles. It is not to be confused with the levator labii superioris alaeque nasalis muscle, which has a very similar name, at least partiall...
Article

Medial capsuloligamentous complex of the knee

The medial capsuloligamentous complex of the knee is comprised of three layers 1-3: superficial layer (layer 1) deep crural fascia sartorius muscle intermediate/middle layer (layer 2) superficial medial collateral ligament posterior oblique ligament medial patellofemoral ligament medial ...
Article

Interossei muscles of the hand

The interosseous (or interossei) muscles of the hand are a group of intrinsic hand muscles that lie near the metacarpals. There are two sets: dorsal interossei muscles (hand) palmar interossei muscles (hand)
Article

Palmar aponeurosis

The palmar aponeurosis is the thickened strong part of the palmar fascia in the hand which is continuous with the flexor retinaculum and the tendon of palmaris longus tendon. It is superficial to the long flexor tendons and is an inverted triangle in shape, fanning over the palm and thinning med...
Article

Muscles of the hand

Muscles of the hand can be divided into: extrinsic muscles whose tendons, which attach to structures within the hand, arise from muscle bellies from the forearm or distal humerus intrinsic muscles (mnemonic) whose muscle bellies and tendons are located solely within the hand
Article

Scoliosis surgery (overview)

Scoliosis surgery is indicated when conservative management has failed. Indications Cobb angle ≥45º (skeletally immature) or ≥40-50º (skeletally mature) 1,2 progressive scoliosis deformity spinal functional compromise pain not responsive to non-operative treatment pulmonary function compro...
Article

Bone tumors with internal trabeculations (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the types of bone tumors with internal trabeculations or pseudotrabeculations is: D CHANG Mnemonic D: desmoplastic fibroma C: chondromyxoid fibroma H: hemangioma (intraosseous) A: aneurysmal bone cyst N: non-ossifying fibroma G: giant cell tumor
Article

Heel fat pad syndrome

Heel fat pad syndrome, also known as plantar fat pad syndrome or heel fat pad atrophy is a common but not well-known cause of heel pain in the adult population. Epidemiology Heel fat pad syndrome is common. It is the second most common cause of plantar heel pain after plantar fasciitis It is t...
Article

Pseudocyst of the glisson capsule

A pseudocyst of the glisson capsule is a form of subcapsular hepatic pseudocyst that has often been described in the setting of ventriculoperitoneal shunts. It may be seen as a cystic lesion abutting the hepatic capsule.
Article

Renal artery calcification

Renal artery calcifications, also known as renovascular calcifications, are deposits of calcium salts on the wall of a renal artery, found incidentally on imaging, usually CT 1. They are associated with extrarenal atherosclerosis and linked to hypertension 2. Terminology The term “renal artery...
Article

Degenerative spinal instability

Degenerative spinal instability is frequent although somewhat controversial clinical entity with evolving theories on its clinical relevance, in particular, its role as a causative factor of low back pain (LBP). While radiographic instability may be evident, this does not always correlate with t...
Article

Spinal instability (overview)

Spinal instability is a broad term with no generally agreed-upon definition but can be thought of the potential for or actual abnormal segmental spinal motion.  Terminology Spinal microinstability refers to abnormal segmental movement without bony changes 1.  Pathology Spinal instability is ...
Article

Aspirin

Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a generic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug and antiplatelet agent. It is one of the most-widely if not the most commonly used drug in the world and is listed on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines 1-4. It is used as an over-the-coun...
Article

Pediatric humerus (lateral view)

The lateral humerus view for pediatrics is part of the humerus series and is usually taken in a standing position. However, it can also be obtained in a supine position. The projection demonstrates the humerus orthogonal to the AP view, allowing for adequate radiographic examination of the enti...
Article

Skull base meningioma

Skull base meningiomas can be located at the olfactory groove, tuberculum sella, sphenoid ridge, petroclival region, foramen magnum and jugular foramen 1.   Clinical presentation Similar to typical meningiomas, they are slowly growing and usually asymptomatic. Apart from headache, they can pre...
Article

Punctuation

Correct usage of punctuation is essential to ensure that there is a consistency of style on Radiopaedia.org. For further details, please see the following articles for discussion: ampersand capitalization colons commas in body text lists dashes and hyphens full stops (periods) quotation ...
Article

Quotation marks

The British use of commas and full-stops (periods) outside quotation marks (if not part of the original quotation) is preferred to the American use of punctuation within quotation marks: British: The vessel has been termed the "innominate". American: The vessel has been termed the "innominate."
Article

Van Assche index

The Van Assche index is a semiquantitative scoring system originally developed in 2003 to assess the severity and disease response in perianal fistulizing Crohn disease. In 2017 substantial changes were proposed to the original system, resulting in the modified Van Assche index. Both system rema...
Article

Myometrial arterial calcification

Myometrial arterial calcification are thought to increase with advancing age and may represent calcification of radial or arcuate arteries of the uterus.  They may have an increased association with atherosclerosis elsewhere. Radiographic features Ultrasound They may be seen as hyperechoic m...
Article

Enchondroma protuberans

Enchondroma protuberans, also known as ecchondroma, is a rare form with an exophytic growth pattern that leads to deformity/remodeling of the cortex, unlike 'typical` enchondromas' which are located within the intramedullary cavity.  Radiographic features Due to their cartilaginous origin, typ...
Article

Amyloid related imaging abnormalities (ARIA)

Amyloid related imaging abnormalities (ARIA) represent a variety of imaging features identified in patients with Alzheimer disease being treated with novel amyloid lowering therapies such as the monoclonal antibodies bapineuzumab, solanezumab and aducanumab 1-4.  Clinical presentation In most ...
Article

Low back pain

Low back pain, lumbar or lumbosacral pain is an extremely common clinical symptom and the most common musculoskeletal condition affecting the quality of life that can be found in all age groups. It represents the leading cause of disability worldwide 1-3. Epidemiology Low back pain is a very c...
Article

Cerebral palsy

Cerebral palsy is a spectrum of developmental disorders that result from an insult to the developing brain in utero or early life. Characteristically, muscle tone and movement are affected but there is wide variation in the degree to which each individual is affected 1. Epidemiology The incide...
Article

Pyothorax-associated lymphoma

Pyothorax-associated lymphoma (PAL) is a non-Hodgkin lymphoma of exclusively B-cell phenotype that develops in the pleural cavity of patients after a long-standing pyothorax or empyema. Epidemiology Associations There is a strong association with EBV infection. Pathology Location Commonly ...
Article

Immunosuppression

Immunosuppression is the impairment of the body's immune system which can alter the ability of the body's defense mechanisms to prevent diseases, particularly certain infections, including opportunistic infections, and cancers.  Terminology Patients with immunosuppression are said to be immuno...
Article

Barrett's index

Barrett's index (BI) is used to assess for dysthyroid optic neuropathy, a severe complication of thyroid-associated orbitopathy that can lead to permanent blindness 1. Measurement Measurement is calculated on coronal CT or MRI imaging of the orbits at a point halfway between the posterior glob...
Article

Discectomy

Discectomy is the most common surgery for lower back pain performed for the treatment of disk herniations. It is often combined with other spinal procedures as laminotomy or foraminotomy or artificial disk replacement and other forms of spinal fusion. Discectomy techniques can be generally subdi...
Article

Zonary placenta

A zonary placenta also known as a ring-shaped placenta or annular placenta is an extremely rare variation in placental morphology where the placenta can appear as an annular ring. It can be a complete ring of placental tissue, but more often, tissue atrophy to part of the ring can result in a ho...
Article

Exophytic sinonasal papilloma

Exophytic sinonasal papillomas (ESP) or fungiform sinonasal papillomas are a form of Schneiderian papillomas and benign sinonasal tumors arising from the Schneiderian epithelium of the nasal septum. Epidemiology Exophytic sinonasal papillomas are the second most common form of sinonasal papill...
Article

Oncocytic sinonasal papilloma

Oncocytic sinonasal papillomas (OSP) or cylindrical cell papillomas are a rare form of Schneiderian papillomas and benign epithelial sinonasal tumors arising from the Schneiderian epithelium of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Epidemiology Oncocytic sinonasal papillomas are the least fr...
Article

Primary intraosseous carcinoma

Primary intraosseous carcinomas NOS (PIOC) are malignant epithelial odontogenic neoplasms of the jawbones with no clear benign analog. Epidemiology Primary intraosseous carcinomas are rare tumors 1-4. They occur in a wide age range with the mean in the sixth decade of life. Men are more freque...
Article

Synostosis

The term synostosis (plural: synostoses) refers to the fusion of bones usually at cartilaginous or fibro-osseous connections. Synostoses occur physiologically, as asymptomatic anatomical variants or might be abnormal and cause clinical symptoms as a functional loss. The latter is clinically sign...
Article

Uterine restricted diffusion

Uterine restricted diffusion refers to a hyperintense signal involving the endometrium, myometrium, or cervix on DWI images with a corresponding low signal on ADC images, with a mean cut-off ADC value for malignancy of 1.15 x 10-3 mm2/s 7. Endometrial restricted diffusion malignant endometrial...
Article

Anterior vertebral body tether (AVBT)

Anterior vertebral body tethering (AVBT) is a fusionless technique for treating and managing idiopathic scoliosis in skeletally immature patients to reduce the typical side effects of rigid posterior fusion (such as loss of spinal motion and risks adjacent segment degeneration later in life) 1,3...
Article

Pediatric thumb (oblique view)

The oblique thumb view in pediatrics is an additional projection for thumb imaging. Typically, this view is not performed unless specified by the referring doctor or radiologist.  Indications For pediatrics, this oblique view is only indicated when specifically requested. This view may help to...
Article

Nerve compression syndrome

Nerve compression syndromes or nerve entrapment neuropathies are a group of several nerve disorders associated with sensory and/or motor loss resulting from nerve compression. Epidemiology Nerve compression syndromes are common 1-5 and can account for 10-20% of cases in specialist clinics of n...
Article

Vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib (VEPTR) procedure

Vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib (VEPTR) procedure is a surgical technique that was initially developed to treat thoracic insufficiency syndrome and then it was used in congenital scoliosis with rib abnormalities, and has since been successfully used to treat early-onset scoliosis wit...
Article

In situ contouring

In situ contouring is a surgical technique used in thoracolumbar scoliosis surgery and thoracolumbar fracture reduction and fixation.  Procedure Thoracolumbar scoliosis surgery The key of this technique is to " make the rod take the shape of the spine and then to make the spine take the shape...
Article

In situ spinal fusion

In situ spinal fusion is, as the name suggests, where fusion is performed without a change in alignment. It is a technique used to treat: isthmic spondylolisthesis 1 osteogenesis imperfecta 2
Article

Intercritical gout

Intercritical gout is the asymptomatic stage between attacks of acute gouty arthritis. Clinical presentation During the asymptomatic phase, the joints may be non-tender and without erythema or swelling. Patients can experience multiple gout attacks with asymptomatic periods of several months i...
Article

Posterior dynamic lumbar stabilization

Posterior dynamic lumbar stabilization is an alternative instrumented method to rigid spinal fusion aiming to improve segmental stability. Purported advantages of this technique include reduced posterior element and intervertebral disc loading reducing symptoms and potentially allowing for disc ...
Article

Central vein

A central vein refers to a major vein close to the center of the circulation, i.e. the heart. It originally referred to those large veins in which the distal tip of a catheter could lie for central venous pressure monitoring. To accurately measure the central venous pressure, which is the pressu...
Article

Cavitating lesions (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the commonest causes of cavitating lesions seen in a chest x-ray is: WEIRD HOLES Mnemonic W: Wegener's granulomatosis (granulomatosis with polyangiitis) E: embolism (pulmonary, septic) I: infection (anaerobes, pneumocystis, TB) R: rheumatoid arthritis (necrobiotic no...
Article

UTI-causing microorganisms (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the commonest micro-organisms responsible for urinary tract infections (UTIs) is: KEEPS Mnemonic K: Klebsiella spp. E: Enterococcus faecalis / Enterobacter cloacae E: Escherichia coli P: Pseudomonas aeruginosa / Proteus mirabilis S: Staphylococcus saprophyticus / S...
Article

Parkinson disease common signs (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the commonest clinical signs of Parkinson disease is SMART Mnemonic S: shuffling gait M: mask-like facies A: akinesia R: rigidity T: tremor
Article

Dialysis indications (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the basic indications of dialysis is HAVE PEE Mnemonic H: hyperkalemia (refractory) A: acidosis (refractory) V: volume overload E: elevated BUN > 35 mM P: pericarditis E: encephalopathy E: edema (pulmonary)
Article

Hematuria causes (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the commonest causes of hematuria is: I PEE RBCS Mnemonic I: infection P: pseudohaematuria (menses, dark urine) E: exercise E: external trauma R: renal glomerular disease B: benign prostatic hypertrophy C: cancer S: stones
Article

Scalp nerve supply (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the nerve supply to the scalp is: GLASS Mnemonic G: greater occipital nerve / greater auricular nerve L: lesser occipital nerve A: auriculotemporal nerve S: supratrochlear nerve S: supraorbital nerve Please note that other nerves also contribute, see anatomy articl...
Article

Abdominal paracentesis contraindications (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the contraindications to abdominal paracentesis is: CAPSID Mnemonic C: coagulopathy (INR >2.0)  A: abdominal wall cellulitis P: pregnancy S: surgical abdomen (absolute contraindication) / severe thrombocytopenia (platelet count <50 x 103/μL) I: intra-abdominal adhes...
Article

Anasarca

Anasarca refers to a state of generalized edema.  Terminology Some definitions of anasarca focus on the presence of subcutaneous (body wall and/or extremity) edema 1,2,7, while others focus on pleural effusions and ascites 3. An overarching definition is the accumulation of fluid (water retent...
Article

Marfan syndrome features (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the basic features of Marfan syndrome is: MARFANS Mnemonic M: mitral valve prolapse A: aortic dissection / aortic aneurysm R: regurgitant aortic valve / retinal detachment F: fibrillin-1 mutation A: arm span > height / arachnodactyly N: near-sightness / nasal voice...
Article

Forceps delivery criteria (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the criteria for forceps delivery is: FORCEPS Mnemonic F: fetus alive O: os dilated R: ruptured membrane / rotation complete C: cervix take-up E: engagement of head P: presentation suitable S: sagittal suture in AP diameter of inlet 
Article

Postpartum hemorrhage risk factors (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the basic risk factors of postpartum hemorrhage is: PARTUM Mnemonic P: prolonged labor / polyhydramnios / previous C-section A: APH R: recent Hx of bleeding T: twins U: uterine fibrosis M: multiparity 
Article

Pediatric appendicitis score

The Pediatric Appendicitis Score (PAS) is a clinical decision rule and predictor of the likelihood of acute appendicitis in the pediatric population 1. Criteria cough/percussion/hopping tenderness in right lower quadrant (+2) anorexia (+1) fever (+1) nausea or emesis (+1) tenderness in rig...
Article

Endocarditis signs (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the most important signs of endocarditis is: FROM JANE Mnemonic F: fever R: Roth's spots O: Osler's nodes M: murmur of heart J: Janeway lesions A: anemia N: nail hemorrhage E: embolism
Article

Edwards syndrome characteristics (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the characteristics of Edwards syndrome is: EDWARDS Mnemonic E: Eighteen (trisomy) D: digit overlapping flexion W: wide head A: absent intellect (mental retardation) R: rocher-bottom feet D: diseased heart S: small lower jaw
Article

Acute abdominal pain differential diagnosis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the basic differential diagnosis of acute abdominal pain is: ABDOMINAL Mnemonic A: appendicitis  B: biliary tract disease D: diverticulitis O: ovarian disease M: malignancy I: intestinal obstruction N: nephritic disorders A: acute pancreatitis L: liquor (ethano...
Article

Cyanosis differential diagnosis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to differentiate between central and peripheral cyanoses is: COLD PALMS Mnemonic C: cold (peripheral) O: obstruction (peripheral) L: LVF and shock (peripheral) D: decreased cardiac output (peripheral) P: polycythemia (central) A: altitude (central) L: lung disease (central) ...
Article

Felty syndrome components (mnemonic)

Felty syndrome is a rare condition that involves rheumatoid arthritis, decreased white blood cell count and spleen enlargement. A mnemonic to remember the basic components of Felty syndrome is: SANTA Mnemonic S: splenomegaly  A: anemia N: neutropenia T: thrombocytopenia A: arthritis (rhe...
Article

Thrombocytopenia causes (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the commonest causes of thrombocytopenia is: PLATELETS Mnemonic P: platelet disorders (DIC, TTP, ITP) L: leukemia  A: anemia T: trauma E: enlarged spleen L: liver disease E: ethanol T: toxicity (heparin, aspirin, chemotherapy, benzene) S: sepsis
Article

Acute pancreatitis severity criteria (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the severity criteria for acute pancreatitis is: PANCREAS Mnemonic P: PAO2 <8 kpA A: age >55 years N: neutrophilia (WBC >15 x 109 / L) C: calcium <2 mmol/L R: renal (urea >16 mmol/L) E: enzymes (LDH >600 IU/L and AST >200 IU/L) A: albumin (serum) <32 g/L S: sugar...
Article

Anion gap metabolic acidosis causes (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the commonest causes of anion gap metabolic acidosis is: GOLDMARK Mnemonic G: glycols (ethylene glycol and propylene glycol) O: oxoproline L: L-lactate D: D-lactate M: methanol A: aspirin R: renal failure K: ketoacidosis
Article

Tinnitus causes (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the commonest causes of tinnitus is: HAMMER ​Mnemonic H: hypertension A: anemia / acoustic neuroma M: migraine / Menière's disease M: medication (quinine, NSAIDs, streptomycin)  E: ear pathology (wax, foreign body, otitis media)  R: rare (temporomandibular joint ...
Article

New onset atrial fibrillation causes (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the commonest causes of new onset atrial fibrillation is: PIRATES ​Mnemonic P: pulmonary I: ischemic R: rheumatic A: atrial myxoma T: thyroid E: embolism S: sepsis
Article

Seizure causes (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the commonest causes of seizures is: VITAMIN ​Mnemonic V: vascular I: infection T: trauma A: AV malformation  M: metabolic  I: idiopathic  N: neoplasm
Article

Cerebellar disease signs (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the signs of cerebellar disease is: DANISH Mnemonic D: dysdiadochokinesia/dysmetria A: ataxia N: nystagmus I: intention tremor S: slurred speech H: hypotonia
Article

Horner syndrome signs (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the commonest signs of Horner syndrome is: PAMELA Mnemonic P: ptosis A: anhydrosis M: miosis E: enophthalmos L: loss of ciliary-spinal reflex A: anisocoria
Article

Acute gouty arthritis

Acute gouty arthritis, also known as a gout flare, is the acute symptomatic phase of gout due to the deposition of monosodium urate crystals in a synovial joint. Clinical presentation Acute gouty arthritis presents as a tender, erythematous, swollen joint. Involvement is typically monoarticula...
Article

Skeletal muscle

Skeletal muscles, skeletal striated muscles or plainly muscles are an integral part of the locomotor system responsible for movements. The musculoskeletal system of the human body has more than 600 muscles 1 making up around 40% of the body weight. They are very heterogeneous and have different ...
Article

Magnetically controlled growing rods

The method of magnetically controlled growing rods (MCGR) was introduced to avoid the morbidity of recurrent lengthening procedures, which are the basis of the treatment in traditional growing rods. Procedure As with traditional growing rods, they use spinal anchors (pedicle screws and hooks)....
Article

Glandular odontogenic cyst

Glandular odontogenic cysts (GOC) are developmental odontogenic cysts with glandular differentiation of the epithelium. Epidemiology Glandular odontogenic cysts are rare 1,2 and account for about 0.5% of odontogenic cysts 3. They are slightly more frequent in men and show a peak in the fifth a...
Article

Gingival cyst

Gingival cysts or dental lamina cysts are developmental oral mucosal cysts growing from the remnants of the dental lamina in the gingival or alveolar tissue. In newborns, they are transient appearances. Epidemiology Gingival cysts are very common and transient in newborns and are seen within t...
Article

Orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst

Orthokeratinized odontogenic cysts (OOC) are developmental odontogenic cysts arising from the remnants of the dental lamina and form a separate new entity in the WHO classification of odontogenic and maxillofacial bone tumors since 2017. Epidemiology Orthokeratinized odontogenic cysts are rare...
Article

Small intestine diverticular disease

Small intestine diverticular disease is an uncommon form of diverticular disease and can be classified into disease affecting the: Meckel diverticulum Meckel diverticulitis non Meckel diverticular disease duodenum - duodenal diverticulosis duodenal diverticulitis jejunum and ileum - jejuno...
Article

Rosenbach sign (disambiguation)

Rosenbach sign may refer to several different clinical signs: Rosenbach sign (AV regurgitation) Rosenbach sign (eye) Rosenbach sign (hemiplegia) History and etymology Ottomar Ernst Felix Rosenbach (1851-1907), a German physician born in Prussian County in Silesia, graduated from medicine in...
Article

Growing rod procedure

The growing rod is a surgical technique developed as an alternative procedure to spinal fusion to treat early-onset scoliosis (EOS), although the latter is the final and definitive treatment for scoliosis. The growing rod can be considered a delaying tactic to spinal fusion and is a distraction...
Article

Nephrogenic phase

The nephrogenic phase, also known as the nephrographic phase or the renal parenchymal phase, is a postcontrast injection time range in which there is an optimal enhancement of the renal parenchyma including the medulla. Technique The acquisition time depends on the intravenous device (central ...
Article

Stork test

The Stork test (also known as the Gillet test) is a clinical test used to assess the movement (intrapelvic motion) of the sacroiliac joint between the innominate bone and sacrum. It can be useful in evaluating suspected sacroiliac joint pathology / dysfunction. It involves placing the examiner'...
Article

Lateral periodontal and botryoid odontogenic cysts

Lateral periodontal odontogenic cysts are developmental cysts arising adjacent or lateral to the roots of vital teeth and botryoid odontogenic cysts are multilocular variants of lateral periodontal odontogenic cysts. Epidemiology Lateral periodontal and botryoid odontogenic cysts are rare, wit...
Article

Ameloblastic carcinoma

Ameloblastic carcinomas or malignant ameloblastoma are malignant epithelial odontogenic neoplasms with histologic features ameloblastoma. Epidemiology Ameloblastic carcinomas are rare tumors approximately accounting for 1% of jaw tumors 1,2. They have been found in a wide age range and are mor...
Article

Tension hydrocele

A tension hydrocele is a rare form of hydrocele that may result in impeded arterial inflow and venous outflow to and from the testis 1; testicular ischemia may result, leading to necrosis of the testicular parenchyma 2. Diagnosis Tension hydrocele can be diagnosed through a combination of clin...
Article

Portal venous phase

The portal venous phase, also known as the late portal phase or hepatic phase, is a contrast-enhanced CT or MRI series that has the following characteristics: liver parenchyma is at its peak enhancement with a density >110 HU (an increase of at least 50 HU from the unenhanced baseline)1,2 port...
Article

Alcian blue stain

Alcian blue stain is a histological stain utilized for the identification of extracellular matrix proteoglycans, like glycosaminoglycans and hyaluronic acid 1, commonly in connective tissue and epithelial malignant neoplasms 2, and also Barrett esophagus, where it can highlight mucosal intestina...
Article

Giemsa stain

Giemsa stain is a commonly used histological stain that colors the cytoplasm blue to pink (depending on its acidity) and the nucleus blue to black 1. It serves as the diagnostic gold standard of histopathological staining of blood samples from patients with plasmodium-borne malaria, and as the b...
Article

Tobacco abuse

Tobacco abuse, most commonly by smoking cigarettes, is a legal drug habit of many throughout the world. It is a significant risk factor for many malignancies, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and is a major cause of premature mortality throughout the world. Epidemiology It has been esti...
Article

Lumbar disc arthroplasty

Lumbar disc arthroplasty is a procedure involving the replacement of lumbar intervertebral discs with artificial discs to manage lower back pain. Similar to its cervical counterpart (cervical disc arthroplasty), it is an alternative to fusion procedures as a means of maintaining an increased ra...
Article

Humeral length (obstetric ultrasound)

The humeral length (HL) is sometimes measured as an additional fetal biometric parameter in a second-trimester ultrasound scan. Its measurement can often compliment the femoral length especially in situations where there are short limb syndromes. Short humeral length have been associated with co...

Updating… Please wait.

 Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

 Thank you for updating your details.