Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

16,075 results found
Article

Non-recurrent laryngeal nerve

A non-recurrent laryngeal nerve is an uncommon anatomical variant in which the recurrent laryngeal nerve takes a course that is deviant to its usual descent into the thorax. The non-recurrent laryngeal nerve rather enters the larynx directly from the cervical Vagus nerve instead of coursing infe...
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Dentinogenic ghost cell tumor

Dentinogenic ghost cell tumors (DGCT) are benign mixed epithelial and mesenchymal odontogenic tumors with locally aggressive behavior. Terminology It is also known as the 'solid' or 'neoplastic form of calcifying odontogenic cyst’, since the 4th WHO classification of head and neck tumors in 20...
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Odontogenic fibroma

Odontogenic fibromas are benign mesenchymal odontogenic tumors with varying amounts of fibrous connective tissue. Epidemiology Odontogenic fibromas are rare tumors and are more common in women. Central odontogenic fibromas occur in a wide age range and peripheral odontomas have a peak between ...
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Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis is an uncommon condition that often presents at an advanced stage. Imaging is more often used for staging than for the initial diagnosis. It is the commonest histological subtype of penile cancer. Epidemiology Penile cancer is a relatively infrequent ...
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Rosenbach sign (eye)

The Rosenbach sign of the eyes is a clinical sign of Graves disease. It consists of fine tremors of the eyelids when gently closed 1,2. History and etymology Ottomar Ernst Felix Rosenbach (1851-1907), a German physician born in Prussian County in Silesia, graduated from medicine in Breslau in ...
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Rosenbach sign (hemiplegia)

Rosenbach sign or phenomenon is a clinical sign described in hemiplegia.  The sign refers to the absence of an abdominal wall skin reflex when stroking the paralyzed side of a patient; conversely on the unaffected side, the reflex is normal 1. See also Rosenbach gave his name to two other cli...
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Rosenbach sign (aortic valve regurgitation)

Rosenbach sign is a clinical sign that is seen in severe aortic/tricuspid valve regurgitation. It is elicited as pulsation of the liver, during systole, and it is primarily due to the increased cardiac output and associated retrograde blood flow into the liver 1-3. See also Rosenbach also gave...
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Disclosures

Disclosures are an important part of your user profile.  Radiopaedia.org strives to ensure that our content is free from commercial bias or undue corporate influence. Furthermore, transparency is important to us. We, therefore, encourage and require you to truthfully and fully include relevant ...
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Distal radioulnar joint instability

Distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability refers to excessive painful mobility in the distal radioulnar joint usually as a result of a previous traumatic injury or bony malunion. Epidemiology Distal radioulnar joint instability is common but often misdiagnosed 1. Associations Distal radioul...
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Accessory brachialis muscle

An accessory brachialis muscle, also known as brachialis accessorius muscle, is a very rare accessory muscle of the elbow and an anatomical variant. Summary origin: anterior surface of the lower humeral diaphysis course: variably medial or lateral to the brachialis muscle insertion: variable...
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Obturator sign

Obturator sign is a clinical sign of acute appendicitis, it is defined as discomfort felt by the subject/patient on the slow internal movement of the hip joint, while the right knee is flexed. It indicates an inflamed pelvic appendix that is in contact with the obturator internus muscle 1-3. Se...
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Neer impingement test

The Neer impingement test is a clinical test to aid the diagnosis of rotator cuff impingement. It predominantly provokes a posterosuperior internal impingement mechanism and involves forward flexion of the arm with the thumb facing down with the arm in a more anterolateral orientation.  
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Thumb pathology

Thumb pathology is wide and includes all lesions involving the tendons, ligaments, muscles, bone, and articulations of the thumb. congenital triphalangeal thumb absent thumb tendon tear/rupture Stener lesion yo-yo on a string sign fractures of the thumb Bennett fracture-dislocation Rola...
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Additional radial wrist extensor muscles

Additional radial wrist extensors are normal anatomical variants and accessory muscles of the forearm and the wrist.  The following additional wrist extensors have been described 1-6: extensor carpi radialis intermedius extensor carpi radialis accessorius extensor carpi radialis tertius Epid...
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Pituitary height grading

Pituitary height grading describes degrees of loss of the pituitary height (concavity), which encompasses gradations of (partially) empty sella. Grading As originally described by Yuh et al. 1, the loss of pituitary height (h) and the sellar height (H) are measured on a midsagittal T1-weighted...
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Accessory flexor carpi ulnaris muscle

The accessory flexor carpi ulnaris (AFCU) is a rare accessory muscle of the forearm and wrist and a normal anatomical variant that can be found in addition to a normal flexor carpi ulnaris muscle. Epidemiology The accessory flexor carpi ulnaris muscle is considered very rare 1,2. Associations...
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Flexor carpi radialis brevis vel profundus

The flexor carpi radialis brevis (FCRB) vel profundus muscle is an accessory muscle of the forearm and wrist and a normal anatomical variant. Epidemiology The flexor carpi radialis brevis vel profundus muscle has been found in 2-8% of anatomical dissections 1-3. Summary origin: anterior surf...
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Pericapsular nerve group block (ultrasound-guided)

Pericapsular nerve group (PENG) blocks are one approach for delivering anesthesia to the hip joint. It is most commonly used in patients with fractures of the hip and bony pelvis 1.  Indications acetabular fractures 5 pubic rami fractures proximal femoral fractures intertrochanteric fractur...
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Late arterial phase

The late arterial phase, also known as the corticomedullary phase or early venous portal phase, is a contrast-enhanced CT or MRI series, in which there is an optimal enhancement of structures that get their blood supply directly from the arterial system. The standard characteristics for this ph...
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Early arterial phase

The early arterial phase, also known as the early systemic arterial phase, is a contrast-enhanced CT or MRI series, in which the contrast (e.g. iodinated or gadolinium) is still in the arteries and has not reached the organs and other soft tissues. Technique The acquisition time depends on the...
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Steelpan sign (sigmoid volvulus)

The steelpan sign refers to the close resemblance of sigmoid volvulus on CT to the percussion instrument known as the steelpan. The steelpan, also known as steel drum or pan, is a Caribbean musical instrument invented in Trinidad and Tobago by the mid-1930s, which became very popular in Trinidad...
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Hypervascular splenic lesions

Hypervascular splenic lesions are findings that enhance more or similarly to the background splenic parenchyma on late arterial phase, on contrast-enhanced CT or MRI. Vascular mycotic aneurysm Neoplastic splenic hemangioma 2 most common primary benign neoplasm of the spleen second most com...
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Arterial transit artifact

The arterial transit artifact, sometimes known as the bright vessel appearance or trapped labeled spins, on noncontrast arterial spin labeling (ASL) MR perfusion of the brain refers to curvilinear high signal corresponding to labeled blood within cerebral arteries. Normally, in ASL imaging, labe...
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Implant migration

Implant migration or hardware migration refers to the displacement of an implant or component away from its designated position and is associated with hardware failure and loosening. Examples of implant migration include screw break out or screw back out, cage extrusion, inlay extrusion, choledo...
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Split-wall sign (sigmoid volvulus)

The split-wall sign is one of the signs of sigmoid volvulus. This sign is characterized by the separation of the walls of a single loop of the sigmoid colon due to the invagination of mesenteric fat between them. The intervening fat causes the loop to appear bilobed or C-shaped on axial images, ...
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Implant malposition

Implant malposition or hardware malposition refer to inappropriately positioned implants or hardware. It can be associated with various complications related to injury of adjacent structures. Terminology For implants with variant positions and no complications or increased risk, the term devia...
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Pediatric humerus (AP view)

The anteroposterior humerus view for pediatrics is part of the humerus series and is usually taken in a standing position. However, it can also be obtained in a supine position. The projection demonstrates the humerus in its natural anatomical position allowing for adequate radiographic examina...
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Humerus series (pediatric)

The humerus series for pediatrics is a set of anteroposterior and lateral radiographs taken to investigate elbow joint pathology, often in the context of trauma. As the elbow joint is also imaged in this series, being familiar with the order of elbow ossification is important in assessing the e...
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Bile duct duplication

Bile duct duplication, also known as common bile duct duplication (although in some cases this latter terminology would be erroneous), is a rare congenital anomaly of the biliary system. A double bile duct is considered normal during early human development, but by birth, we expect to see the co...
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Anectasis

Anectasis is a term that describes primary atelectasis, as distinct from secondary atelectasis. Anectasis refers to the failure of the lung to expand fully at birth. See also atelectasis
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Osseous surgical spinal fusion

Osseous surgical spinal fusion refers to spinal fusion surgery with bone grafts, bone graft supplements or bone graft substitutes. Osseous spinal fusion eventually supplies the best stability for the respective spinal segment and most types of spinal fusion surgeries are directed to establish a...
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Shrimp sign (progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy)

The shrimp sign is an MRI marker of cerebellar progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, characterized by T2-hyperintensity in the cerebellar white matter abutting but sparing the dentate nucleus. The white matter lesion resembles a shrimp, with the dentate nucleus outlining the belly of the ...
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Fetal MRI

Fetal MRI allows for detailed imaging of the developing fetus in utero. Fast sequences are required due to fetal movement 1. Fetal MRI is most commonly utilized when ultrasound (USS) findings are equivocal. Fetal anatomy can be evaluated in detail including the brain, upper aerodigestive tract, ...
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Quadratus femoris injection (technique)

Quadratus femoris injections under image guidance ensure precise delivery of an injectate and ensure the sciatic nerve is avoided during the procedure.  CT and ultrasound can be used, with ultrasound becoming more challenging in those with larger body habitus. Indications therapeutic for ischi...
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Posterior instrumentation and fusion (scoliosis)

Posterior instrumentation and fusion is a surgical technique to improve spinal curvature in scoliosis patients. Procedure The vertebral column is manipulated into the desired position and held in place with metalwork namely pedicle screws and/or hooks transfixed with rods with or without in si...
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Spinal instrumentation hardware

Spinal instrumentation hardware refers to various types of implants used for fixation in spinal surgery. They can be used in various combinations and include wires, clamps, screws, different plate-screw and rod-screw interfaces, intervertebral prostheses and disk replacements. Cervical spine in...
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Congenital scoliosis

Congenital scoliosis refers to scoliosis resulting from a congenital abnormality of the vertebra, e.g. a segmentation or fusion defect.  Terminology There are several definitions of congenital scoliosis. Some authors include neurological congenital causes. In this article, our focus will only ...
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Neuromuscular scoliosis

Neuromuscular scoliosis is a term that can be used to describe scoliosis that is caused by underlying brain, spine or muscular conditions. While the underlying conditions can be a very broad group of disparate conditions, they tend to result in similar spinal curves. Radiographic features Neur...
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Acetaminophen

Paracetamοl (or acetaminοphen in North America) is the most widely used drug in the world. It is employed as an antipyretic and mild analgesic in both adults and children. Although once regarded as a benign agent, it is now viewed with increasing concern due to its acute hepatotoxicity following...
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Interspinous device

Implantation of interspinous devices is one option for treating lumbar canal stenosis and other causes of low back pain. These devices attempt to produce lumbar flexion by distracting the lumbar spinous processes restoring height and resulting in tightening of the thickened ligamentum flavum, an...
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Chemical article structure

Articles about chemicals, whether chemical elements or their innumerable compounds, have a unique structure and subheadings. All articles should be placed in the Pathology section. ======================================================================= The introduction should take the followin...
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White knight nodule (thyroid)

The "white knight" nodule is regarded as a benign lesion of the thyroid gland 1. Pathology Follicular cells, Hurthle cells, numerous small and large lymphocytes and colloid are seen on fine needle aspiration cytology of white knight nodules, which is consistent with Hashimoto thyroiditis 2,3. ...
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Hardware failure

Orthopedic implant or hardware failure refers to the failure of the implant to live up to its expected requirements with respect to the manufacturer's or the surgeon's allegations. This includes any complication directly related to the implant such as wear, fractures, dissociations and dislocati...
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Craniocervical fixation

Craniocervical fixation, instrumentation or occipitocervical fusion refer to surgical fixation techniques with the goal to stabilize the craniocervical junction. History and etymology An occipitocervical fusion with fibular only bone graft was already described by Forrester in 1927 1,2. Severa...
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Atlantoaxial fixation

Atlantoaxial fixation refers to various surgical techniques to stabilize the atlantoaxial complex. History and etymology The first effort of an atlantoaxial stabilization was made by Mixter and Osgood in 1910 by fixation of the spinous processes with a heavy silk thread 1,2.  Posterior cervic...
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Coach finger

A coach finger refers to dorsal dislocation of the middle phalanx (P2) in relation to the proximal phalanx (P1) at the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint. It occurs as a result of forced hyperextension with axial loading.   
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Ventilator induced lung injury

Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) is a type of acute lung injury usually inflicted or aggravated by mechanical ventilation. It may occur during invasive or non-invasive ventilation. Pathology The predominant mechanisms include: alveolar overdistention (volutrauma) / regional lung overdist...
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Shock

Shock is a pathologic state in which cellular injury results from an inadequate degree of effective tissue perfusion 5. It is commonly subcategorized by hemodynamic parameters into hypovolemic, distributive, cardiogenic, and extracardiac obstructive shock 1. Common causes include hemorrhage, car...
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Kussmaul sign

Kussmaul sign is a clinical sign, seen as a paradoxical increase in the jugular venous pressure in response to inspiration. This is opposed to the normal physiological response of inspiration resulting in decreased jugular venous pressure 1. Pathology Etiology This sign typically arises secon...
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Odontoid process fixation

Odontoid process fixation or odontoid process repair refers to the surgical fixation of an odontoid fracture. Anterior odontoid screw fixation is performed with single and double screw techniques, non-cannulated and cannulated screws, and uni- or bicortical fixation techniques. Odontoid plate ...
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Anterior meniscofemoral ligament (ligament of Humphrey)

The anterior meniscofemoral ligament (aMFL) inserts to the lateral aspect of the medial femoral condyle and runs between the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) to its' distal attachment to the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus 1-3.  It is one of two varia...
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Osteoporotic vs pathological vertebral fractures

Discriminating between acute osteoporotic and pathological vertebral fractures is sometimes challenging. This may be especially true in the elderly population, in which both osteoporosis and malignant disease often co-occur, and vertebral fractures of both kinds are common and indeed may coexist...
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Oblique lumbar interbody fusion (OLIF)

Oblique lumbar interbody fusion (OLIF) is one of several techniques used in lumbar interbody fusion. It provides minimally invasive access to the disc space, passing between the peritoneum and the psoas muscles. Indications Indications for the procedure generally overlap with those of LLIF and...
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Tc99m mebrofenin

Tc99m-Mebrofenin: trimethyl bromo IDA, also known as TBIDA, or under the trade name Choletec, is a diagnostic radiopharmaceutical used in hepatobiliary imaging. It is one of the Tc99m IDA (iminodiacetic acid) analogs. It is taken up by hepatocytes through the same membrane transport mechanism as...
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Boas sign

Boas sign is a clinical sign that is defined as hyperesthesia felt by the patient to light touch in the right lower scapular region or the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. It is classically seen in patients with acute cholecystitis. History and etymology Ismar Isidor Boas (1858–1938), was ...
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Carnett sign

The Carnett sign describes an examination finding used to distinguish pain arising from the abdominal wall from pain arising from within the abdomen itself. Eliciting the sign was described as a two-stage procedure. First the examiner locates the point of maximal tenderness through palpation of...
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Fothergill sign

The Fothergill sign describes an examination finding used to distinguish an abdominal wall mass from one arising in the abdomen itself. The sign is said to be present if a mass remains palpable and becomes fixed when the rectus muscles are contracted, such as when the patient lifts their head f...
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Blumberg sign

Blumberg sign is defined as discomfort on the manual application of tension over the abdomen observed by simultaneously watching the subjects face. On the removal of the examiner's hand the patient should be again asked whether he or she is feeling pain or not. It is expressive of peritoneal irr...
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Subsidence

In a medical sense, subsidence refers to the collapse or settling of bone located immediately next to an implantable device in direction of the loading force. It can lead to a loss of the desired postoperative result and to further complications 1. Epidemiology Associations Subsidence can be ...
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RANO criteria for brain metastases (RANO-BM)

Response assessment in neuro-oncology brain metastases (RANO-BM) criteria are recommendations for standardized tumor response and progression assessment in clinical trials involving brain metastases. Published in 2015, these should not be confused with the RANO criteria for high-grade glioma fro...
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Posterior cervical fusion

Posterior cervical fusion refers to a surgical spinal fusion technique of the cervical spine for conditions requiring posterior stabilization. It might be done for the management of cervical spine fractures or combined with spinal decompression techniques such as laminectomy or laminotomy. Hist...
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Rovsing sign

Rovsing sign is commonly used to describe pain elicited in the right iliac fossa on deep palpation of the left iliac fossa.  It is used in clinical examination to detect peritoneal irritation in the right iliac fossa, most frequently associated with acute appendicitis. Most teaching erroneously...
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Aaron sign

Aaron sign is a clinical sign that is defined as a feeling of distress and pain in the epigastric, umbilical and praecordial regions, on steady pressure over McBurney point, it is suggestive of chronic appendicitis. History and etymology Charles Dettie Aaron (1866–1951) was an American gastroe...
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Ligament

Ligaments are connective tissue structures that arch over joints connecting one bone to another bone with primary functions as stabilizers of articulations. The scientific study of ligaments is called syndesmology. Histology Ligaments are ultimately formed from numerous ligamental fibrils. The...
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Posterior sacroiliac ligament

The posterior (a.k.a. dorsal) sacroiliac ligament (TA: ligamentum sacroiliacum posterius) is a very strong ligament important in stabilizing the sacroiliac joint. Gross anatomy Some texts state that the posterior sacroiliac ligaments have two components; a more superior part, the short posteri...
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Renal imaging in nuclear medicine

Renal imaging in nuclear medicine is a method to assess the kidneys and collecting systems via multiple different radioactive tracers. Dynamic renal imaging is performed using Tc-99m MAG3 or Tc-99m DTPA, and static renal imaging is performed with Tc-99m DMSA. In addition, Tc-99m DTPA can be use...
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Complications of spinal surgery

Complications of spinal surgery are common and can occur at different time intervals after the surgery. Some of them are related to instrumentation, the procedure and/or the approach others are not. Anyhow, it is essential for the radiologist to be aware of them in the assessment of radiographs,...
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Paraspinal muscles

The paraspinal muscles (PSM) , also known as paravertebral muscles, is a descriptive term given to those muscles that closely surround the spine, primarily the thoracolumbar spine. There has been great research interest in using the cross-sectional area of these muscles as a measure of overall m...
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Laminotomy

A laminotomy is a spinal decompression procedure with partial removal of the vertebral arch usually at its base. Laminotomies might be combined with other spinal procedures such as discectomy or spinal fusion procedures. If a laminotomy is combined with a foraminotomy, then the procedure is call...
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Cervical disc arthroplasty

Cervical disc arthroplasty is a procedure involving the replacement of degenerative cervical intervertebral discs with artificial discs to enable decompression of the cervical spinal cord.   This procedure is an alternative to anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and avoids the loss o...
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Clinical signs

Clinical signs are really important to know in radiology. They are part of the communication strategy that clinical colleagues use to tell us what they are thinking. As such, it is vital that we understand that: these signs exist what they mean how specific and sensitive they are (if known)
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Cullen sign

Cullen sign refers to superficial edema visible as periumbilical discolouration and is most commonly seen in patients with acute pancreatitis 1-3. Clinical presentation Clinically patients with pancreatitis present with epigastric pain that radiates to the umbilical/periumbilical region and th...
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Platelets

Platelets, also known as thrombocytes, are an essential constituent of the cellular component of blood. They play a key role in normal hemostasis. Normal platelet levels in adult patients are 150-400 x 109/L. Physiology Platelets are tiny (2-4 μm) cells that lack nuclei 1-3. They are mass prod...
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Red flags of low back pain (mnemonic)

Low back pain is a very common condition among primary care patients. Most patients have nonspecific low back pain (85-90%) and would have unremarkable radiographs. The purpose of the red flags is to aid in the recommendation for imaging of the spine. A mnemonic to remember the red flags of low ...
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Accessory muscles of the forearm, wrist and hand

Accessory muscles of the forearm, wrist and hand are muscular, usually asymptomatic, anatomical variants that might be encountered on imaging studies and confused with pathologic conditions. The following accessory muscles around the forearm, wrist and hand have been described 1-6: ​elbow acc...
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Accessory flexor digitorum superficialis indicis muscle

An accessory flexor digitorum superficialis indicis muscle is an unusual accessory muscle of the hand and wrist and a normal anatomical variant. Summary origin: flexor digitorum superficialis tendon near the transverse carpal ligament insertion: metacarpal head of the index finger near the A1...
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Posterolateral lumbar fusion

Posterolateral lumbar fusion is an alternative technique to lumbar interbody fusion and can be a primary procedure or performed after lumbar laminectomy for spinal decompression to aid in stability after disruption of the posterior tension band. Posterior instrumentation via pedicle screws and r...
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Immune thrombocytopenia

Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), historically known as idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, is an autoimmune disorder characterized by a decrease in platelet numbers to <100 x 109/L. In most cases it is a primary condition, i.e. no underlying cause is found. Terminology Historically, immune thro...
Article

Acute lung injury

Acute lung injury (ALI) refers to a rather broad clinical syndrome defined by a constellation of clinical criteria which includes: acute onset of bilateral pulmonary infiltrates with hypoxemia without evidence of hydrostatic pulmonary edema pulmonary wedge pressures of usually 18 mmHg or les...
Article

Lumbar interbody fusion (overview)

Lumbar interbody fusion is a common technique that aims for osseous fusion after discectomy.  There are anterior and posterior approaches (relative to the transverse process), some of which require additional instrumentation, and none of which have been demonstrated to be clinically superior wi...
Article

Coiled catheter sign (ureter)

The coiled catheter sign is sometimes seen in transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter. When a retrograde ureteropyelogram is attempted in the afflicted ureter, the catheter tip is seen to coil in the dilated portion of the ureter distal to the obstruction 1. 
Article

Os sustentaculi

The os sustentaculi or os sustentaculum is a rare accessory ossicle of the ankle and a normal anatomical variant. Epidemiology The estimated prevalence is approximately 0.3-0.4% 1. Associations It has been found in up 24% of talocalcaneal coalitions 2. Gross anatomy The os sustentaculi is ...
Article

Bullous sarcoidosis

Bullous sarcoidosis is a rarely described pattern in pulmonary sarcoidosis where there is concurrent presence of bullous emphysema superimposed on the typical changes of sarcoidosis. It may be contributed by fibrotic cysts, bullae, and paracicatricial emphysema from traction effects or endobronc...
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Mucormycosis vs aspergillosis

It is important to be able to distinguish between mucormycosis and aspergillosis because:​ antifungal sensitivity: mucormycosis is resistant to voriconazole, whilst aspergillosis is sensitive to it mucormycosis may have an improved prognosis if treated earlier It is to be noted that there has...
Article

Accessory extensor digiti secundus muscle

The accessory extensor digiti secundus muscle is a rare accessory muscle or tendon of the ankle and an anatomical variant. Summary origin: extensor hallucis longus tendon or muscle insertion: medial phalanx of the second toe adjacent to the second tendon of the extensor digitorum longus muscl...
Article

Anterior fibulocalcaneus muscle

The anterior fibulocalcaneus muscle is a rare accessory muscle of the ankle and an anatomical variant. Summary origin: the proximal third of the fibula, peroneus tertius muscle fascia, anterior crural intermuscular septum insertion: lateral calcaneus anterosuperior to the peroneal tubercle ju...
Article

Extensor hallucis capsularis tendon

The extensor hallucis capsularis tendon, also known as secondary extensor hallucis longus, accessory extensor tendon of the first metatarsophalangeal joint, extensor ossis metatarsi hallucis or extensor ossis primi internodii hallucis is an accessory tendon or muscle of the ankle and an anatomic...
Article

Hairy cell leukemia

Hairy cell leukemia is a rare and indolent form of small mature B-cell leukaemias. Epidemiology Its annual incidence is estimated at around 0.3 cases per 100 000, and the disease comprises 2-3% of all leukaemias. There is a recognized male predilection of around 4:1 with a median age of around...
Article

Tibiocalcaneus internus muscle

The tibiocalcaneus internus muscle is a rare accessory muscle of the ankle and an anatomical variant with an unknown prevalence. Summary origin: medial crest of the lower third of the tibia insertion: medial surface of the calcaneus approximately 1-2 cm anterior to the Achilles tendon Gross ...
Article

Peroneocalcaneus internus muscle

The peroneocalcaneus internus muscle, also known as fibulocalcaneus internus muscle of MacAlister, is a rare accessory muscle of the ankle and an anatomical variant with an estimated prevalence of about 1%. It is often bilateral if present. Summary origin: the medial surface of the distal lowe...
Article

Mixed germ cell tumor of the mediastinum

Mixed germ cell tumors of the mediastinum or mediastinal mixed germ cell tumors are malignant non-seminomatous germ cell tumors of the mediastinum consisting of more than one type of germ cell tumor. Terminology The term ‘malignant teratoma’ is not recommended. Epidemiology Mixed germ cell t...
Article

Thrombocytosis

Thrombocytosis (plural: thrombocytoses) is a general term and is defined as a rise in platelet count to over two standard deviations above the normal range. Its exact quantitative definition is variable, but generally equates to a platelet count greater than 400-450x109 cells/L.  Although there...
Article

Tibioastragalus anticus of Gruber muscle

The tibioastragalus anticus of Gruber (TAAG) muscle or anterior tibiotalus muscle is a rare accessory muscle of the ankle and an anatomical variant. Summary origin: lateral tibial surface and the interosseous membrane of the distal third of the lower leg insertion: anterior superolateral neck...

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