Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

16,012 results found
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Laminotomy

A laminotomy is a spinal decompression procedure with partial removal of the vertebral arch usually at its base. Laminotomies might be combined with other spinal procedures such as discectomy or spinal fusion procedures. If a laminotomy is combined with a foraminotomy, then the procedure is call...
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Cervical disc arthroplasty

Cervical disc arthroplasty is a procedure involving the replacement of degenerative cervical intervertebral discs with artificial discs to enable decompression of the cervical spinal cord.   This procedure is an alternative to anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and avoids the loss o...
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Clinical signs

Clinical signs are really important to know in radiology. They are part of the communication strategy that clinical colleagues use to tell us what they are thinking. As such, it is vital that we understand that: these signs exist what they mean how specific and sensitive they are (if known)
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Cullen sign

Cullen sign refers to superficial edema visible as periumbilical discolouration and is most commonly seen in patients with acute pancreatitis 1-3. Clinical presentation Clinically patients with pancreatitis present with epigastric pain that radiates to the umbilical/periumbilical region and th...
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Platelets

Platelets, also known as thrombocytes, are an essential constituent of the cellular component of blood. They play a key role in normal hemostasis. Normal platelet levels in adult patients are 150-400 x 109/L. Physiology Platelets are tiny (2-4 μm) cells that lack nuclei 1-3. They are mass prod...
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Red flags of low back pain (mnemonic)

Low back pain is a very common condition among primary care patients. Most patients have nonspecific low back pain (85-90%) and would have unremarkable radiographs. The purpose of the red flags is to aid in the recommendation for imaging of the spine. A mnemonic to remember the red flags of low ...
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Accessory muscles of the forearm, wrist and hand

Accessory muscles of the forearm, wrist and hand are muscular, usually asymptomatic, anatomical variants that might be encountered on imaging studies and confused with pathologic conditions. The following accessory muscles around the forearm, wrist and hand have been described 1-6: ​elbow acc...
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Accessory flexor digitorum superficialis indicis muscle

An accessory flexor digitorum superficialis indicis muscle is an unusual accessory muscle of the hand and wrist and a normal anatomical variant. Summary origin: flexor digitorum superficialis tendon near the transverse carpal ligament insertion: metacarpal head of the index finger near the A1...
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Posterolateral lumbar fusion

Posterolateral lumbar fusion is an alternative technique to lumbar interbody fusion and can be a primary procedure or performed after lumbar laminectomy for spinal decompression to aid in stability after disruption of the posterior tension band. Posterior instrumentation via pedicle screws and r...
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Immune thrombocytopenia

Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) was historically known as idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (see Terminology section). It is characterized by an immune-mediated decrease in platelet numbers to <100x109/L and in most cases is primary, i.e. no underlying cause is found. Terminology Historically,...
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Acute lung injury

Acute lung injury (ALI) refers to a rather broad clinical syndrome defined by a constellation of clinical criteria which includes: acute onset of bilateral pulmonary infiltrates with hypoxemia without evidence of hydrostatic pulmonary edema pulmonary wedge pressures of usually 18 mmHg or les...
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Lumbar interbody fusion (overview)

Lumbar interbody fusion is a common technique that aims for osseous fusion after discectomy.  There are anterior and posterior approaches (relative to the transverse process), some of which require additional instrumentation, and none of which have been demonstrated to be clinically superior wi...
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Coiled catheter sign (ureter)

The coiled catheter sign is sometimes seen in transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter. When a retrograde ureteropyelogram is attempted in the afflicted ureter, the catheter tip is seen to coil in the dilated portion of the ureter distal to the obstruction 1. 
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Os sustentaculi

The os sustentaculi or os sustentaculum is a rare accessory ossicle of the ankle and a normal anatomical variant. Epidemiology The estimated prevalence is approximately 0.3-0.4% 1. Associations It has been found in up 24% of talocalcaneal coalitions 2. Gross anatomy The os sustentaculi is ...
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Bullous sarcoidosis

Bullous sarcoidosis is a rarely described pattern in pulmonary sarcoidosis where there is concurrent presence of bullous emphysema superimposed on the typical changes of sarcoidosis. It may be contributed by fibrotic cysts, bullae, and paracicatricial emphysema from traction effects or endobronc...
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Mucormycosis vs aspergillosis

It is important to be able to distinguish between mucormycosis and aspergillosis because:​ antifungal sensitivity: mucormycosis is resistant to voriconazole, whilst aspergillosis is sensitive to it mucormycosis may have an improved prognosis if treated earlier It is to be noted that there has...
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Accessory extensor digiti secundus muscle

The accessory extensor digiti secundus muscle is a rare accessory muscle or tendon of the ankle and an anatomical variant. Summary origin: extensor hallucis longus tendon or muscle insertion: medial phalanx of the second toe adjacent to the second tendon of the extensor digitorum longus muscl...
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Anterior fibulocalcaneus muscle

The anterior fibulocalcaneus muscle is a rare accessory muscle of the ankle and an anatomical variant. Summary origin: the proximal third of the fibula, peroneus tertius muscle fascia, anterior crural intermuscular septum insertion: lateral calcaneus anterosuperior to the peroneal tubercle ju...
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Extensor hallucis capsularis tendon

The extensor hallucis capsularis tendon, also known as secondary extensor hallucis longus, accessory extensor tendon of the first metatarsophalangeal joint, extensor ossis metatarsi hallucis or extensor ossis primi internodii hallucis is an accessory tendon or muscle of the ankle and an anatomic...
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Hairy cell leukemia

Hairy cell leukemia is a rare and indolent form of small mature B-cell leukaemias. Epidemiology Its annual incidence is estimated at around 0.3 cases per 100 000, and the disease comprises 2-3% of all leukaemias. There is a recognized male predilection of around 4:1 with a median age of around...
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Tibiocalcaneus internus muscle

The tibiocalcaneus internus muscle is a rare accessory muscle of the ankle and an anatomical variant with an unknown prevalence. Summary origin: medial crest of the lower third of the tibia insertion: medial surface of the calcaneus approximately 1-2 cm anterior to the Achilles tendon Gross ...
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Peroneocalcaneus internus muscle

The peroneocalcaneus internus muscle, also known as fibulocalcaneus internus muscle of MacAlister, is a rare accessory muscle of the ankle and an anatomical variant with an estimated prevalence of about 1%. It is often bilateral if present. Summary origin: the medial surface of the distal lowe...
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Mixed germ cell tumor of the mediastinum

Mixed germ cell tumors of the mediastinum or mediastinal mixed germ cell tumors are malignant non-seminomatous germ cell tumors of the mediastinum consisting of more than one type of germ cell tumor. Terminology The term ‘malignant teratoma’ is not recommended. Epidemiology Mixed germ cell t...
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Thrombocytosis

Thrombocytosis (plural: thrombocytoses) is a general term and is defined as a rise in platelet count to over two standard deviations above the normal range. Its exact quantitative definition is variable, but generally equates to a platelet count greater than 400-450x109 cells/L.  Although there...
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Tibioastragalus anticus of Gruber muscle

The tibioastragalus anticus of Gruber (TAAG) muscle or anterior tibiotalus muscle is a rare accessory muscle of the ankle and an anatomical variant. Summary origin: lateral tibial surface and the interosseous membrane of the distal third of the lower leg insertion: anterior superolateral neck...
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Anococcygeal nerve

The anococcygeal nerve is the terminal branch of the coccygeal plexus and is described as supplying the skin of the post anal region. Gross anatomy Origin The anococcygeal nerve originates from the coccygeal plexus 2.  Course The course of the anococcygeal nerve varies according to source i...
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Accessory muscles of the ankle

Accessory muscles of the ankle are muscular anatomical variants that are usually asymptomatic but rarely cause symptoms or might be encountered on imaging studies. The following accessory muscles around the ankle have been described 1-4: posteromedial/flexor compartment accessory flexor digit...
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Spring ligament complex injury

Spring ligament complex injuries or calcaneonavicular ligament injuries refer to stretching sprains, tears, or ruptures of the plantar calcaneonavicular ligament complex and can affect one or more of the three portions. Epidemiology Spring ligament complex injuries are most commonly associated...
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Right ventricular fractional area change

The right ventricular fractional area change is a two-dimensional measure of right ventricular global systolic function usually made on an echocardiogram. It is obtained from the apical four-chamber view and is calculated as RV- fractional area change = (end-diastolic area - end-systolic area) ...
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Anterior calcaneal process fractures

Anterior calcaneal process fractures are often missed fractures of the calcaneus (up to 88% are not reported on radiographic examination of the ankle) 1 leading to non-union of bone fragments, unrecognised associated ligamentous injuries, and persistent ankle or foot pain. Epidemiology Anterio...
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Aerogenous metastasis

Aerogenous metastases are a rare form of metastases that can occur in the lung due to aerogenous spread along the airways. Pathology It is related to but not considered identical to the term spread through air spaces (STAS) 4. Aerogenous metastases are usually from primary lung cancer dissemi...
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Post cardiac arrest syndrome

The post cardiac arrest syndrome (PCAS) describes the clinicopathological state that manifests following most cardiac arrests. Clinically, it is manifested by a combination of neurological disturbance, multiorgan dysfunction and a systemic inflammatory response syndrome-like state. Pathology T...
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Tularemia

Tularemia is a rare and highly virulent febrile zoonotic bacterial infection caused by Francisella tularensis, which has been developed as a bioweapon by several countries. It can infect the skin and mucous membranes, lungs and intestine and cause systemic disease and death. Tularemia is a notif...
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Mediastinal choriocarcinoma

Mediastinal choriocarcinomas or choriocarcinomas of the mediastinum are malignant non-seminomatous germ cell tumors of the mediastinum consisting of trophoblastic cells. Epidemiology Pure choriocarcinomas are rare and account for up to 3% of primary mediastinal germ cell tumors 1. They usually...
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Mediastinal embryonal carcinoma

Mediastinal embryonal carcinomas or embryonal carcinomas of the mediastinum are malignant non-seminomatous germ cell tumors with embryonal type cells primarily growing in the mediastinum. Epidemiology Mediastinal embryonal carcinomas are very rare mediastinal tumors accounting for up to 8% of ...
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Mediastinal yolk sac tumor

Mediastinal yolk sac tumors or yolk sac tumors of the mediastinum are malignant non-seminomatous germ cell tumors primarily growing in the mediastinum. Terminology The term ‘endodermal sinus tumor’ is not recommended. Epidemiology Mediastinal yolk sac tumors are rare mediastinal tumors. In a...
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Rule of Spence

The Rule of Spence is a radiologic method to evaluate the likelihood of injury to the transverse atlantal ligament (TAL) on an open mouth AP (“peg”) radiograph. As originally framed, if the combined projection of the lateral masses of the atlas is more than 6.9 mm beyond the lateral masses of th...
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Coccygeal plexus

The coccygeal plexus is formed by the anterior rami of S4-S5 in combination with the coccygeal nerve and is described as supplying the skin of the post-anal region. Gross anatomy Origin The plexus consists of a minute network of nerve fibers contributed by the anterior rami of S4, S5 and the ...
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Mediastinal seminoma

Mediastinal seminomas or mediastinal germinomas are primary malignant germ cell tumors of the mediastinum. Epidemiology Mediastinal seminomas are rare mediastinal tumors and account for up to one-third of primary malignant mediastinal germ cell tumors 1. They are almost only found in males ≥10...
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Gastrointestinal bleeding

Gastrointestinal ​(GI) bleeding refers to hemorrhage into the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract; it is commonly clinically subdivided into whether it occurs into the upper (proximal) or lower (distal) GI tract: upper GI bleeding bleeding proximal to the ligament of Treitz, i.e. proximal to t...
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Neoplasm

Neoplasms, also known as tumors, are pathological masses, caused by cells abnormally proliferating and/or not appropriately dying. Neoplasms may be either benign or malignant. Malignant neoplasms are synonymous with cancers. Benign neoplasms clear origin (unless very large) slow growth  usua...
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Hamartoma of mature cardiac myocytes

Hamartomas of mature cardiac myocytes (HMCM) are benign tumors arising from mature striated cardiac myocytes. Terminology Terms that are not recommended include ‘cardiac hamartoma’ or ‘hamartoma of adult cardiac myocytes’ 1. Epidemiology A hamartoma of mature cardiac myocytes is a very rare ...
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Splenic vein thrombosis

Splenic vein thrombosis (plural: thromboses) is an uncommon condition in which the splenic vein becomes thrombosed, that most frequently occurs in the context of pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer. Whilst, for the most part asymptomatic, splenic vein thrombosis increases risk of gastric varices a...
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Pediatric thumb (lateral view)

The lateral thumb view for pediatrics is part of a two view series examining the distal metacarpal, distal and proximal phalanges.  Indications This projection is useful for diagnosing fractures and localizing foreign bodies in pediatric patients. It also presents as an orthogonal view of the ...
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Cystic tumor of the atrioventricular node

Cystic tumors of the atrioventricular node (CTAVN), also known as endodermal heterotopia, refer to a benign mass lesion of the atrioventricular node that constitutes a developmental endodermal rest. Terminology A term that is no longer recommended for use is ‘mesothelioma of the atrioventricul...
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Low lying acromion

A low lying acromion is a type of acromioclavicular joint configuration where the inferior cortex of the acromion lies below the inferior cortex of the clavicle. This can cause narrowing of the subacromial space and in turn in lead to subacromial impingement.  Differential diagnosis On imaging...
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Uhthoff phenomenon (multiple sclerosis)

Uhthoff phenomenon refers to the temporary exacerbation (lasting less than 24 hours) of neurological symptoms secondary to increases in body temperature. This phenomenon is experienced by multiple sclerosis patients, though it also occurs in other demyelinating diseases 1.  History and etymolog...
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Cardiac undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma

Cardiac undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas are highly malignant mesenchymal tumors of the heart. Terminology Terms that are no longer recommended for use include ‘intimal sarcoma’, ‘undifferentiated sarcoma’ and ‘undifferentiated spindle cell sarcoma’ 1. Epidemiology Cardiac undifferentia...
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Persistent descending mesocolon

Persistent descending mesocolon is defined as the failure of fusion of the mesentery of the descending colon with the lateral and posterior parietal peritoneum 1. Gross anatomy Persistent descending mesocolon is a rare congenital anomaly, in which the primitive dorsal mesocolon does not fuse w...
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Trigonum parietale (azygos lobe)

The trigonum parietale refers to a triangular opacity seen on chest radiograph that correlates with a small piece of extrapleural areolar tissue that lies between the layers of pleura in the fissure of an azygos lobe 1-4. It may be seen at the most superior portion of the azygos fissure and shou...
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Absent azygos vein

An absent azygos vein is a very uncommon variant in which the azygos vein fails to develop. In cases of agenesis of the azygos vein, the hemiazygos and accessory hemiazygos veins play an important role in venous drainage, accounting for drainage of both the right and left intercostal veins 1-3. ...
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Pediatric Appendicitis Risk Calculator

The Pediatric Appendicitis Risk Calculator (pARC) is a clinical decision rule and predictor of the likelihood of acute appendicitis in pediatric patients.  Due to the non-categorical data of some variables within the criteria, an integrated calculator is required to use this tool. Criteria 1,2 ...
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Pumice stone sign

The pumice stone sign is a recently described distinctive imaging appearance of emphysematous osteomyelitis on CT described as clusters of greater than 3 distinct foci of intramedullary gas with irregularly irregular sizes ranging between 2 and 5 mm with resemblance to surface appearance of pumi...
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Facet joint tropism

Facet joint tropism refers to a situation where there is a difference in the orientation/angle of facet joints (i.e. between the left and right sides) with respect to each other in the sagittal plane. This can lead to unequal biomechanical forces on the facet joints and intervertebral disc durin...
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Cardiac leiomyosarcoma

Cardiac leiomyosarcomas are malignant smooth muscle tumors of the heart. Epidemiology Cardiac leiomyosarcomas are rare primary malignant tumors of the heart accounting for less than one-fifth of cardiac sarcomas. They have been found in a wide age range from 6 months to 86 years with a mean ag...
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Dedifferentiated chordoma

Dedifferentiated chordomas are biphasic malignant tumors composed of notochordal and high-grade sacomatous components. Epidemiology Dedifferentiated chordomas are very rare tumors that might be seen in recurrences or after radiotherapy 1-3. Diagnosis The diagnosis is based on typical imaging...
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Meningiomatosis

Meningiomatosis, specifically familial meningiomatosis, is a rare tumor predisposition syndrome characterized by multiple meningiomas. This entity is defined in patients that do not meet diagnostic criteria for the more common neurofibromatosis type 2, which also features a predisposition to men...
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Hypertensive brainstem encephalopathy

Hypertensive brainstem encephalopathy (HBE) is a clinicoradiological diagnosis characterized by severe hypertension (SBP >200mmHg), vasogenic edema of the brainstem, and a variable presentation of acute-subacute neurological disturbances. One of the primary diagnostic features often seen is the ...
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Poorly differentiated chordoma

Poorly differentiated chordomas are highly aggressive poorly differentiated notochordal tumors with a loss of SMARCB1 expression. Epidemiology Poorly differentiated chordomas are very rare tumors typically seen in children and young adults under the age of 30 years. Females are more frequently...
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Trauma

The term trauma (plural: traumas) or traumatic injury refers to damage or harm of sudden onset caused by external factors or forces requiring medical attention. Polytrauma or multiple trauma has been defined as a pattern of potentially life-threatening injuries involving at least two body regio...
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Z-track technique for paracentesis

The Z-track technique is used for paracentesis. It produces a non-linear track between the dermis and the peritoneum, and this serves to decrease the chance of ascitic fluid leakage through the track. Procedure Instead of directly sticking the access needle from the skin surface into the perit...
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Bone lymphoma

Lymphoma of the bone may represent lymphoma that has originated within that bone itself i.e. primary, or metastasized there from another organ/tissue, i.e. secondary. Secondary forms of bone lymphoma are much more common than the primary bone form. primary osseous lymphoma secondary osseous ly...
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Gastropericardial fistula

Gastropericardial fistulas are rare abnormal communications between the stomach and the pericardial sac. This is a life-threatening condition that can lead to impaired cardiac function, sepsis and eventually death. Clinical presentation Patients with gastropericardial fistula may present with ...
Article

Radiomics quality score

The radiomics quality score, often abbreviated to RQS, is a score that assesses the characteristics and ultimately the quality of a radiomics study including the reporting of it. The score has thirty-six potential points given based on sixteen criteria, with a score of thirty-six indicating supe...
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Mediastinal lipoma

A mediastinal lipoma is a benign fat-containing mediastinal lesion. Pathology Similar to lipomas elsewhere and except in rare situations comprise of mature adipocytes. They can be variable in size. They are usually seen as an encapsulated mass with homogeneous fat attenuation. These lesions oc...
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Secondary osteosarcoma

Secondary osteosarcomas are osteosarcomas growing on abnormal bone in the setting of various underlying osseous disorders. Terminology Other acceptable terms include Paget sarcoma, osteosarcoma in Paget disease of bone or radiation-associated osteosarcoma, if applicable. The terms postirradiat...
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Idiopathic scoliosis

Idiopathic scoliosis describes scoliosis that has no clinically or radiologically identifiable underlying cause. It is the dominant type of scoliosis with ~80% of all scolioses being idiopathic. Pathology Idiopathic scoliosis can be classified by age into: adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (>11...
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Bronchomediastinal trunk

The bronchomediastinal trunks (a.k.a. bronchomediastinal lymphatic trunks) are lymphatic trunks, one on each side of the body. On the left, the bronchomediastinal trunk is a tributary of the thoracic duct, and on the right, it is a tributary of the right lymphatic duct. Although, in some individ...
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Small cell osteosarcoma

Small cell osteosarcomas (SCOS) are a rare subtype of osteosarcoma characterized by the production of small round cells. Epidemiology Small cell osteosarcomas account for approximately 1.5% of osteosarcomas. They occur mainly in young adolescents with a mild female predilection but have been f...
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Veins of the brainstem

The veins of the brainstem drain the medulla, the pons and the mesencephalon, including the cerebral peduncles, tegmentum and quadrigeminal plate. They are characterized by several variations and feature multiple connections draining into the inferior, medial superior petrosal sinuses or form a ...
Article

Transverse pontine vein

The transverse pontine veins course in a horizontal fashion along the anterior surface of the pons at different heights above or below the trigeminal nerve. Gross anatomy The transverse pontine veins connect the anterior pontomesencephalic vein to the veins on the lateral pontine surface inclu...
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Peduncular vein

The peduncular veins (PV) or interpeduncular veins are veins of the brainstem and tributaries of the basal vein of Rosenthal, sometimes visible on imaging in the vicinity of the basilar artery tip and the proximal posterior cerebral artery. Gross anatomy The peduncular veins drain the cerebral...
Article

Anterior medullary vein

The anterior medullary vein (AMV) is a vein of the brain stem that can be seen in several individuals. It connects the anterior spinal vein to the pontomesencephalic venous system and several adjacent dural sinuses via bridging veins. Gross anatomy The anterior medullary vein usually courses i...
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Lateral mesencephalic vein

The lateral mesencephalic veins (LMV) form an important supratentorial-infratentorial anastomosis from the basal veins of Rosenthal to the superior petrosal sinus. Gross anatomy The lateral mesencephalic veins usually course through or near the lateral mesencephalic sinus. They receive venous ...
Article

Anterior pontomesencephalic vein

The anterior pontomesencephalic vein (APMV) is a longitudinal vein running along the anterior surface of the pons and mesencephalon and in the interpeduncular fossa. Uncommonly it can become large and can potentially lead to confusion on imaging. In a midline position, it is called the median an...
Article

Acromion index

The acromion index (AI) is a parameter that can be measured on the AP radiograph (or sometimes on coronal CT or MR images) to assess predisposition to rotator cuff pathology. It is taken as the ratio between GA: distance from the plane of the glenoid cavity to the lateral edge of the acromion ...
Article

Solid variant of ABC

The solid variant of the aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a rare non-neoplastic and reactive bone lesion. It differs from the classical type of ABC in certain aspects. Epidemiology The solid variant of aneurysmal bone cyst has an incidence of 3.4-7.5% and is found to have slight female predilecti...
Article

CIC-rearranged sarcoma

CIC-rearranged sarcomas or CIC-DUX4 sarcomas are aggressive undifferentiated small round cell sarcomas with CIC-gene fusions most frequently CIC-DUX4. It is an ultra-rare high grade undifferentiated sarcoma, distinct in terms of clinical presentations and molecular characteristics 6. Epidemiolo...
Article

Taurine

Taurine is one of the compounds examined in MR spectroscopy. It resonates at 3.4 ppm chemical shift. It is elevated in medulloblastomas.
Article

Anterior resection of the rectum

Anterior resection is a surgical procedure to resect the rectum and sigmoid colon while preserving the anal sphincter complex. Indications cancer of the rectum (most commonly) severe diverticular disease Procedure Although historically an open procedure, most anterior resections are now per...
Article

Superior vermian vein

The superior vermian vein is formed in the midline over the superior aspect of the cerebellar vermis (over the anterior lobe) by multiple tributaries draining not just the subjacent vermis but also the adjacent cerebellar hemispheres. These tributaries most often coalesce into a single trunk ove...
Article

Godtfredsen syndrome

Godtfredsen syndrome is a rare syndrome of abducens and hypoglossal nerve palsies that localizes to a clival mass. Clinical presentation The classic clinical presentation includes 1-3: abducens nerve palsy: diplopia worse when horizontal gaze is directed towards the affected side hypoglossal...
Article

Genetic tumor syndromes of soft tissue and bone

Genetic tumor syndromes of soft tissue and bone are a group of genetic disorders and disease syndromes associated with neoplasms that display different features than their sporadic counterparts. These genetic syndromes have been classified separately by the World Health Organization (WHO) and co...
Article

Undifferentiated small round cell sarcomas of bone and soft tissue

Undifferentiated small round cell sarcomas of bone and soft tissue are a group of malignant bone and soft tissue tumors characterized by small round cell morphology. They comprise the following tumors 1: Ewing sarcoma round cell sarcoma with EWSR1-non-ETS fusions CIC-rearranged sarcoma sarco...
Article

Sarcoma with BCOR genetic alteration

Sarcomas with BCOR genetic alterations or BCOR sarcomas are uncommon malignant undifferentiated small round cell tumors of soft tissue and bone characterized by BCOR genetic alterations and comprise sarcomas with BCOR-related gene fusions as BCOR-CCNB3 sarcomas and other BCOR-rearranged sarcomas...
Article

Fibrocartilaginous mesenchymoma

Fibrocartilaginous mesenchymomas are very rare locally aggressive mesenchymal bone tumors seen in children and adolescents. Epidemiology Fibrocartilaginous mesenchymomas are very rare tumors. They occur in children, adolescents and young adults up to the third decade 1-3. The male gender is sl...
Article

Blunting of the costophrenic angle

Blunting of the costophrenic angle (also known as blunting of the costophrenic sulcus) is a chest radiograph sign usually indicative of a small pleural effusion. It may be seen on either frontal or lateral erect projections. It has been found that approximately 200 mL pleural fluid needs to be p...
Article

Gallbladder cancer (staging - AJCC 8th edition)

The AJCC (American Joint Committee on Cancer) 8th edition gallbladder cancer staging system was introduced in 2018. TNM system T: primary tumor Tis: carcinoma in situ - tumor only within the epithelium (the inner layer of the gallbladder) T1: tumor invades the lamina propria or muscularis T...
Article

CT chest abdomen-pelvis (protocol)

The CT chest-abdomen-pelvis protocol serves as an outline for an examination of the trunk covering the chest,  abdomen and pelvis. It is one of the most common CT examinations conducted in routine and emergencies. It can be combined with a CT angiogram. Note: This article aims to frame a genera...
Article

CT abdomen-pelvis (protocol)

The CT abdomen-pelvis protocol serves as an outline for an examination of the whole abdomen including the pelvis. It is one of the most common CT protocols for any clinical questions related to the abdomen and/or in routine and emergencies. It forms also an integral part of trauma and oncologic ...
Article

NeuroImaging Radiological Interpretation System (NIRIS) for acute traumatic brain injury

The NeuroImaging Radiological Interpretation System (NIRIS) is a scheme for structured contextual reporting of CT head examinations of suspected head injuries. The NIRIS was proposed 1 in 2018 by a multi-institute group of neuroradiologists based at Stanford University. Its unique objective is ...
Article

Ascending auditory pathway

Ascending auditory pathway is the intracranial component of the auditory system. It transmits auditory information collected by the inner ear to the primary auditory cortex in the brain via a number of intermediary pathways and structures.  Summary location: internal auditory canals, brain ste...
Article

Bird’s nest sign (lungs)

The bird’s nest sign refers to the appearance created by a reverse halo sign with associated irregular and intersecting areas of stranding or irregular lines within the area of ground-glass opacity 1. Both bird's nest sign and reverse halo signs are suggestive of invasive pulmonary fungal infec...

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