Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

10,991 results found
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Subclavius muscle

The subclavius muscle is a small triangular muscle that depresses the shoulder. It is a minor member of the anterior group of muscles of the pectoral girdle.  Summary origin: 1st costochondral joint insertion: subclavian groove on the inferior aspect of the clavicle innervation: nerve to sub...
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Posterior Perforated Substance

The posterior perforated substance, or substantia perforata posterior, is an area of grey matter situated in the interpeduncular fossa between the cerebral crura. Gross anatomy The posterior perforated substance is a triangular area of grey matter located within the interpeduncular fossa. The ...
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Pectoralis major

The pectoralis major muscle is a muscle of the pectoral region, overlying the anterior chest wall but is considered an upper limb muscle due to its function.  Summary origin sternal part: sternum and superior six costal cartilages clavicular part: medial half of the clavicle insertion: late...
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Pectoralis minor

Pectoralis minor is a muscle of the anterior chest wall that inserts into the pectoral girdle. It lies deep to and is completely covered by pectoralis major.  It is an important anatomical landmark in two senses: it divides the axillary artery into 3 parts it divides the axillary lymph nodes ...
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Medial pectoral nerve

The medial pectoral nerve, also known as the medial anterior thoracic nerve arises from the medial cord of the brachial plexus and supplies both the pectoralis minor and major muscles.  Gross anatomy Origin The medial pectoral nerve arises from the medial cord of the brachial plexus with fibr...
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Musculofascial cone

The musculofascial cone is a structure within the orbit involved in the movement and support of the globe, or more simply the eye. It also serves as the physical division between the intraconal and extraconal compartment, the cone itself included in the contents of the intraconal space 1.  Gros...
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Gallstone disease (summary)

Gallstone disease represents a group of conditions that are linked to, or caused by, gallstones. These stones are formed from sludge in the gallbladder and may range from millimetres in diameter to several centimetres. 90% of gallstones are asymptomatic, but they may become impacted, causing pai...
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Chronic kidney disease

Chronic kidney disease (CKD), also known as chronic renal failure, is a progressive loss of glomerular function caused by a long-standing renal parenchymal disease. It is present when the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 for three consecutive months or greater than...
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Subarachnoid haemorrhage (summary)

Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is bleeding into the subarachnoid space. This is usually found centrally (around the circle of Willis) but can occur in other parts of the brain. Reference article This is a summary article; read more in our article on subarachnoid haemorrhage. Summary anatomy ...
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Tuber cinereum

Tuber cinereum is a hollow eminence of gray matter. It is a part of the hypothalamus. Gross anatomy It is located between mammillary bodies and optic chiasm. Devoid of the blood brain barrier, it normally enhances after contrast administration. Relations It is continuous: laterally: with an...
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Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a catch-all term for all lymphomas that are not of the Hodgkin's subtype. It is a heterogeneous group of malignancies in terms of histology, clinical presentation and prognosis.  See the 2008 WHO classification for further information on subtypes. 
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Medical devices in the abdomen and pelvis

Medical devices in the abdomen and pelvis are important to be recognised, just like medical devices of the chest. Often we ignore these devices, considering them to be incidental and non-pathological, however it is essential to be aware of potential complications. Gastrointestinal tubes stomac...
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Chilaiditi syndrome

Chilaiditi syndrome is the anterior interposition of the colon to the liver reaching the under-surface of the right hemidiaphragm with associated upper abdominal pain; it is one of the causes of pseudopneumoperitoneum. Colonic gas in this position may be misinterpreted as true pneumoperitoneum ...
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Kidneys

The kidneys are paired retroperitoneal organs that lie at the level of the T12 to L3 vertebral bodies. Gross anatomy Location The kidneys are located on the posterior abdominal wall, with one on either side of the vertebral column, in the perirenal space. The long axis of the kidney is parall...
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Hepatic encephalopathy

Hepatic encephalopathy (also known as portosystemic encephalopathy) refers to a spectrum of neuropsychiatric abnormalities occurring in patients with liver dysfunction and portal hypertension. It results from exposure of the brain to excessive amounts of ammonia. Terminology Hepatic encephalop...
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Urinary bladder diverticulum

Bladder diverticulum are outpouchings from the bladder wall, whereby mucosa herniates through the bladder wall. They may be solitary or multiple in nature and can vary considerably in size. Epidemiology There are two peaks - one at 10 years and the other at 60-70 years 2. Pathology Diverticu...
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Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation

Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations (VGAMs), probably better termed as median prosencephalic arteriovenous fistulas, are uncommon intracranial anomalies that tend to present dramatically during early childhood with features of a left-to-right shunt and high-output cardiac failure. Epidemiolo...
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Retinopathy of prematurity

Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) (formerly referred to as retrolental fibroplasia) is an ocular condition seen in the infant population. It often occurs bilaterally, although usually with significant asymmetry 1.  Epidemiology There is often a history of premature delivery, low birth weight, a...
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Medical abbreviations and acronyms (A)

This article contains a list of commonly used medical abbreviations and acronyms that start with the letter A and may be encountered in medicine and radiology (please keep in alphabetic order). A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L -M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z ...
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Currarino triad

The Currarino triad (not to be confused with Currarino-Silverman syndrome, the eponymous name for pectus carinatum type 2 deformity) or ASP triad, is characterised by: anorectal malformation or congenital anorectal stenosis sacrococcygeal osseous defect presacral mass e.g anterior sacral men...
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Acute pancreatitis (summary)

Acute pancreatitis refers to acute inflammation of the pancreas and is a potentially life-threatening condition. Reference article This is a summary article; read more in our article on acute pancreatitis. Summary anatomy pancreas epidemiology epidemiology is dependent on the cause of pa...
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Appendicitis (summary)

Appendicitis occurs when there is inflammation of the vermiform appendix. It is a very common condition and is a major cause of abdominal surgery in young patients. CT is the most sensitive modality to detect appendicitis although its use should be limited because of the radiation dose required ...
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Peptic ulcer disease (summary)

Peptic ulcer disease encompasses a number of entities that are the result of gastric mucosal ulceration secondary to the effects of gastric acid. Since the recognition of Helicobacter pylori as a common causative agent and the development of powerful anti-acid medications, peptic ulcer disease h...
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Oesophageal cancer (summary)

Oesophageal cancer is a relatively uncommon tumour that occurs within the oesophagus of affected individuals. Patients present with symptoms of increasing dysphagia that progress from solid foods to liquids. Reference article This is a summary article; read more in our article on oesophageal c...
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Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (summary)

Gastric-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is a spectrum of disease that occurs when gastric acid refluxes into the lower oesophagus Reference article This is a summary article; read more in our article on gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Summary anatomy gastro-oesophageal junction epide...
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Symptomatic pneumothorax (summary)

Pneumothoraces (singular: pneumothorax) are collections of gas within the pleural space. If the pneumothorax is under pressure, it is called a tension pneumothorax. Reference article This is a summary article; read more in our article on pneumothorax. Summary anatomy pleura epidemiology ...
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Skull fractures (summary)

Skull fractures usually occur following significant head injury and may herald underlying neurological pathology. Reference article This is a summary article; we do not have a more in-depth reference article. Summary anatomy cranial vault base of the skull epidemiology accurate incidence...
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Spinal cord compression (summary)

  Spinal cord compression is a surgical emergency and if unrecognised or untreated, can result in irreversible neurological damage and disability. If the spinal roots below the conus medullaris are involved, it is termed cauda equina syndrome. Reference article This is a summary article; read...
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Pneumonia (summary)

Pneumonia refers to infection within the lung and results in infective fluid and pus filling the alveolar spaces. This initially results in patchy airspace opacification and then more confluent consolidation. Reference article This is a summary article; read more in our article on pneumonia. ...
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Stroke (summary)

Stroke is a clinical diagnosis where an acute neurological deficit follows a cerebrovascular insult. There are two main groups of stroke: ischaemic (>80%) or haemorrhagic (<20%) 1. Reference article This is a summary article; read more in our article on stroke. Summary anatomy cerebral vas...
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Subdural haemorrhage (summary)

Subdural haemorrhage (SDH) is a collection of blood between the dura and the arachnoid layers of the meninges. They are common and can occur in any age range, usually related to a history of head trauma. Prognosis tends to depend on the extent of the bleed and associated mass effect. Reference ...
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Extradural haemorrhage (summary)

Extradural haemorrhages (EDH) represent collections of blood in the extradural (epidural) space. The haemorrhage sits between the skull superficially and the dura which overlies the brain parenchyma. Reference article This is a summary article; read more in our article on extradural haemorrhag...
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Pectus carinatum

Pectus carinatum (otherwise known as a pigeon chest) refers to a chest wall deformity in which the sternum protrudes anteriorly. It is less common than pectus excavatum. Clinical presentation Patients may present with dyspnoea and exercise intolerance. Pathology Associations scoliosis (comm...
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Gissane angle

Gissane angle, also known as the "critical angle", is an angular measurement made directly inferior to the lateral process of the talus. It is formed by the downward and upward slopes of the calcaneal superior surface. It is better seen on a lateral plain film of the calcaneus and hindfoot. Its ...
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Arterial supply to the hand

The arterial supply to the hand is comprised of a complex vascular network formed from the branches and distal continuations of the radial and ulnar arteries. This rich vascular network can be divided into palmar and dorsal components. Palmar arterial supply The palmar arterial supply can be d...
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Neural network (overview)

Artificial neural networks are a powerful type of model capable of processing many types of data. Initially inspired by the connections between biological neural networks, modern artificial neural networks only bear slight resemblances at a high level to their biological counterparts. Nonetheles...
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Böhler angle

Böhler angle, also written as Bohler angle or Boehler angle, is also called the calcaneal angle or tuber joint angle 1, and is the angle between two lines tangent to the calcaneus on the lateral radiograph. These lines are drawn tangent to the anterior and posterior aspects of the superior calca...
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Pencil-in-cup deformity

Pencil-in-cup deformity is the description given to one of the appearances on plain radiograph in psoriatic arthritis. The appearance results from periarticular erosions and bone resorption giving the appearance of a pencil in a cup. Although classically described with psoriatic arthritis, thi...
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Foramen Vesalii

The foramen Vesalii, also know as the foramen of Vesalius, sphenoidal emissary foramen, foramen venosus or canaliculus sphenoidal, is a tiny variably present foramen in the greater wing of the sphenoid bone, located between the foramen ovale and scaphoid fossa. It transmits a sphenoidal emissary...
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Convolutional neural network

A convolutional neural network (CNN) is a particular implementation of a neural network used in machine learning that exclusively processes array data such as images, and is thus frequently used in machine learning applications targeted at medical images. Architecture A convolutional neural ne...
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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (staging)

Both endocrine and exocrine tumours of the pancreas are now staged by a single pancreatic staging system. Staging of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is with the TNM system, and as a majority of tumours are not-resectable, this is mostly achieved with imaging (typically CT scan) although laparo...
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Dacryocystitis

Dacryocystitis is the inflammation of the nasolacrimal sac related to impairment in the lacrimal drainage system and superimposed infection.  Epidemiology Dacryocystitis has a bimodal distribution: neonates due to congenital abnormalities and, when acquired, usually affect individuals older th...
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Cookie bite skeletal metastases

Cookie bite metastases are characterised by small focal eccentric lytic external cortical destruction in long tubular bones. This type of destruction is typically described for metastases from bronchogenic carcinoma, however they can also occur with other tumours.
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Convoluted cerebriform pattern

A convoluted cerebriform pattern is a term used to denote the appearance of a sinonasal inverted papilloma on MRI. The appearance is seen on both T2 and post contrast T1 images and appears as alternating roughly parallel lines of high and low signal intensity. This sign has been reported as pre...
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Continuous diaphragm sign

The continuous diaphragm sign is a chest radiograph sign of pneumomediastinum or pneumopericardium if lucency is above the diaphragm, or of pneumoperitoneum if lucency is below the diaphragm.  Normally the central portion of the diaphragm is not discretely visualised on chest radiographs as it ...
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Cone-shaped caecum (differential)

A cone-shaped caecum refers to a loss of the normal rounded appearance of the caecum, which instead becomes narrow and cone-shaped with the apex pointing towards the base of the appendix. It is encountered in a number of conditions including: inflammatory infective blastomycosis amoebiasis ...
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Concentric ring sign

The concentric ring sign is a pathognomonic sign for a subacute haematoma on MRI. A subacute haematoma may show 3 characteristic layers of signal intensity: a thin peripheral rim of low signal intensity on all pulse sequences corresponding to haemosiderin. an inner peripheral high-signal inte...
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Comet tail sign (phleboliths)

Comet tail sign (in urological imaging) is helpful in distinguishing a ureteric calculus from a phlebolith and strongly favours the latter.  The sign refers to a tail of soft tissue extending from a calcification, representing the collapsed/scarred/thrombosed parent vein. When well seen it is s...
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Comet tail sign (chest)

The comet tail sign is a finding that can be seen on CT scans of the chest. It consists of a curvilinear opacity that extends from a subpleural "mass" toward the ipsilateral hilum. The comet tail sign is produced by the distortion of vessels and bronchi that lead to an adjacent area of round ate...
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Comb sign (mesentery)

The comb sign refers to the hypervascular appearance of the mesentery in active Crohn disease.  Fibrofatty proliferation and perivascular inflammatory infiltration outline the distended intestinal arcades. This forms linear densities on the mesenteric side of the affected segments of small bowel...
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Coin lesion (lung)

Coin lesion refers to a round or oval, well-circumscribed solitary pulmonary lesion. It is usually 1-5 cm in diameter and calcification may or may not be present 1,3. Typically, but not always, the patient is asymptomatic 1.  Differential diagnosis The differential diagnosis for such lesions i...
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Cogwheel sign

The cogwheel sign refers to an imaging appearance in pelvic imaging of thickening loops of the Fallopian tube seen on cross-section. There are infolding projections (sometimes looking like nodules) into the Fallopian tube lumen which is likened to that of a cogwheel. The sign is typically descri...
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Coffee-bean sign (sigmoid colon)

The coffee-bean sign (also known as the kidney bean sign or bent inner tube sign 4) is a sign on an abdominal plain radiograph of a sigmoid volvulus although some authors have also used the term to refer to closed loop small bowel obstructions. Caecal volvulus may be mistaken with sigmoid volvul...
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Cobweb sign of arterial dissection

The cobweb sign is seen in cases of arterial dissection (usually aortic dissection) on CT angiogram (CTA) examinations and represents strands or ribbons of media crossing the false lumen, and appearing as thin filiform filling defects. Although it is a specific sign for the false lumen, it is i...
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Ensembling

Ensembling is a class of meta-algorithmic techniques where multiple models are trained and their results are aggregated to improve classification performance. It is effective in a wide variety of problems.  Two commonly used methods are:  boosting - a method of weighting the predictions of mul...
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Middle cranial fossa

The middle cranial fossa is a butterfly-shaped depression of the skull base, which is narrow in the middle and wider laterally. It houses the temporal lobes of the cerebrum. Gross anatomy The middle cranial fossa can be divided into medial and lateral parts. In the medial part, the following s...
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Idiopathic transient osteoporosis of the hip

Idiopathic transient osteoporosis of the hip (ITOH) is a self-limiting clinical entity of unknown cause, although almost certainly a vascular basis and possible overactivity of the sympathetic system exists. There is some controversy as to whether ITOH represents a very early, reversible stage o...
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Anterior cranial fossa

The anterior cranial fossa constitutes the floor of cranial vault which houses the frontal lobes of the brain. Gross anatomy Structures present in the midline of anterior cranial fossa from anterior to posterior are:  groove for superior sagittal sinus groove for anterior meningeal vessels ...
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Thyroid-associated orbitopathy

Thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) is the most common cause of proptosis in adults and is most frequently associated with Graves disease. On imaging, it is characterised by enlargement of the extraocular muscles' bellies (frequently: inferior rectus > medial rectus  > superior rectus) sparing...
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Osteochondroma

Osteochondromas are a relatively common imaging finding, accounting for 10-15% of all bone tumours and ~35% of all benign bone tumours. Although usually thought of as a benign bone tumour, they may be thought of as a developmental anomaly. They are frequently asymptomatic and have very low malig...
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Orbital apex

Content pending.
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Pterygopalatine fossa

The pterygopalatine fossa (PPF) is a small but complex space of the deep face in the shape of an inverted pyramid located between the maxillary bone anteriorly, the pterygoid process posteriorly and inferior to the orbital apex. It is quite important as it is a neurovascular crossroad of the nas...
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Sphenoparietal sinus

The sphenoparietal sinus is one of the dural venous sinuses and is located along the posteroinferior ridge of the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone. It drains into the cavernous sinus and receives tributaries from: superficial middle cerebral vein middle meningeal vein (frontal ramus) anterior...
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Superior oblique muscle

The superior oblique muscle is one of the 6 extra-ocular muscles that control eye movements. It abducts, depresses and internally rotates the eye. Summary innervation: trochlear nerve (CN IV) origin: lesser wing of sphenoid bone and is outside of Annulus of Zinn located supero-medially. inse...
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Levator palpebrae superioris

The levator palpebrae superioris muscle is a small muscle of the superior orbit that elevates and retracts the upper eyelid. It is not part of the extra-ocular muscles; it does not insert on the globe and therefore does not produce eye movements. It is mostly composed of skeletal muscle but ther...
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Paranasal sinus mucocele

Paranasal sinus mucoceles represent complete opacification of one or more paranasal sinuses by mucus, often associated with bony expansion due to obstruction of the nasal sinus drainage. Clinical presentation Clinical presentation depends on two factors: location and direction of expansion p...
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Ciliary ganglion

The ciliary ganglion is one of four parasympathetic ganglia of the head and neck. It receives parasympathetic fibres from the oculomotor nerve. Gross anatomy smallest of the ganglia (2mm in size) located posterolaterally in the intraconal space of the orbit (towards the orbital apex) between ...
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Greater wing of sphenoid

The greater wing or ali-sphenoid of the sphenoid bone is a process which projects from either side of the lower part of the sphenoid body, at a common junction with the pterygoid process. 1 It is a paired structure, which curves upward, backward and laterally from each side of the sphenoid body,...
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Optic nerve sheath meningioma

Optic nerve meningiomas are benign tumours arising from the arachnoid cap cells of the optic nerve sheath, and represent ~20% of all orbital meningiomas, the majority of which are direct extensions from intracranial meningiomas.  These tumours typically appear as masses within the optic nerve, ...
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Cavernous sinus

The cavernous sinuses are paired dural venous sinuses.  Gross anatomy The cavernous sinus (CS) is located on either side of the pituitary fossa and body of the sphenoid bone between the endosteal and meningeal layers of the dura. The normal lateral wall should be either straight or concave.  ...
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Sphenoid wing dysplasia

Sphenoid wing dysplasia is a characteristic but not pathognomonic feature of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), it can also occur in isolated cases. Epidemiology Sphenoid wing dysplasia is seen in 5-10% of cases of NF1 and is one of the diagnostic criteria of NF1 5,6. Pathology Its exact aetiol...
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Reinforcement learning (machine learning)

Reinforcement learning is one of the main algorithms used in machine learning in the context of an agent in an environment. In each timestep, this agent takes in information from their environment and performs an action. Certain actions reward the agent.  Reinforcement learning maximizes these ...
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Unsupervised learning (machine learning)

Unsupervised learning is one of the main algorithms used in machine learning.  Unsupervised learning algorithms are used on datasets where output labels are not provided. Hence, instead of trying to predict a particular output for each input, these algorithms attempt to discover the underlying ...
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Triple bubble sign

The triple bubble sign is the classic radiographic appearance observed in jejunal atresia 1,2. The appearance is due to a proximal obstruction caused by the atretric jejunum. It is equivalent to the double bubble sign, but a third bubble is seen because of proximal jejunal distention.
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Jejunal atresia

Jejunal atresia is a congenital anomaly characterised by obliteration of the lumen of the jejunum. The site of the atresia can be anywhere from the ligament of Treitz to the jejunoileal junction. There can be more than one atretic segment. This article will focus on jejunal atresia alone but be...
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Calculation of splenic volume

Content pending...
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Superior orbital fissure

The superior orbital fissure is the communication between the cavernous sinus and the apex of the orbit. It is straddled by the tendinous ring which is the common origin of the four rectus muscles (extraocular muscles). Gross anatomy Boundaries medial: body of sphenoid superior: lesser wing ...
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Orbital venous varix

Orbital venous varix (OVV) is an uncommon vascular malformation which is composed of enlarged single or multiple tubular venous channels with direct communication to the systemic venous system.  Terminology Orbital venous varices are divided into primary and secondary. Primary orbital varices ...
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Foramen ovale (skull)

Foramen ovale is an oval shaped opening in the middle cranial fossa located at the posterior base of the greater wing of the sphenoid bone, lateral to the lingula. It transmits the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (CN Vc), accessory meningeal artery, emissary veins between the caverno...
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Optic canal

The optic canal is a cylindrical canal running obliquely through the lesser wing of sphenoid bone near the base where it joins the body of sphenoid. It transmits the optic nerve and ophthalmic artery. The optic canal opens into the skull base at the optic foramen.
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Lesser wing of sphenoid

The lesser wing of the sphenoid bone, or orbito-sphenoid, is a sharp, pointed triangular plate arising laterally from the upper anterior portion of the sphenoid body.  Gross anatomy The lesser wing features both superior and inferior surfaces: the superior surface is flattened and is in conta...
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Testicular microlithiasis

Testicular microlithiasis (TM) is a relatively common condition that represents the deposition of multiple tiny calcifications throughout both testes.  The diagnosis is only made with more than five calcifications are detected. In the vast majority of cases testicular microlithiasis is bilatera...
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Orbital cavernous venous malformation

Cavernous venous malformations of the orbit, also known as cavernous haemangiomas, are the most common vascular lesion of the orbit in adults. It is important to note that according to newer nomenclature (ISSVA classification of vascular anomalies) these lesions are merely known as slow flow ve...
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Tolosa-Hunt syndrome

Tolosa-Hunt syndrome (THS) is an idiopathic inflammatory condition that involves the cavernous sinus and orbital apex, and is essentially a clinical diagnosis of exclusion. Clinical presentation Clinically it refers to the presence of a painful ophthalmoplegia secondary to surrounding cavernou...
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Bony orbit

The bony orbit refers to the bones that constitute the margins of the orbits, that is the roof, medial and lateral walls and floor. The orbital margin or rim refers to the anterior circular margin of the orbit. The orbital apex refers to the posterior confluence of the orbit, where the optic can...
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Orbital septum

The orbital septum is a thin sheet of fibrous tissue that originates from the orbital rim periosteum and blends with the tendon of the levator palpebrae superioris superiorly and inserts into the tarsal plate inferiorly. The orbital septum separates the intra-orbital fat from eyelid fat and orb...
Article

Multidirectional shoulder instability

Multidirectional instability is characterized by recurrent atraumatic instability of the glenohumeral joint due to a lax joint capsule. Epidiomology It is more common in young female patients less than 30 years of age. Pathology  Multidirectional instability is due to congenital laxity of th...
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Small bowel carcinoid

The small bowel is the most common site of carcinoid tumours, accounting for 42% of gastrointestinal carcinoid tumours 1. Within the small bowel, the most common site is at the terminal ileum 2. Clinical Features Small bowel carcinoid are slow growing and may present with vague symptoms 1,3: ...
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Cloverleaf skull

Cloverleaf skull, also known as kleeblattschädel, refers to a type of severe craniosynostosis which gives the skull a cloverleaf shape. It is very rare, with less than 130 case reports globally. It typically results from intrauterine premature closure of the sagittal, coronal and lambdoid suture...
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Cheerio sign (pulmonary nodule)

Cheerio sign in thoracic imaging relates to pulmonary nodules with a central lucent cavity as seen on CT. It is due to proliferation of (malignant or non-malignant) cells around an airway. They are so named because of their resemblance to the breakfast cereal, Cheerios 1-2.  The Cheerio sign (p...
Article

Bunionette

A bunionette, also known as a tailor's bunion, is a bony prominence at the lateral 5th metatarsal head. It is the lateral counterpart of the more common bunion of the first metatarsophalangeal joint.  Clinical presentation Bunionettes are visible on clinical examination as an erythematous swel...
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Lissencephaly type II

Lissencephaly type II is characterised by reduction in normal sulcation, associated with a bumpy or pebbly cortical surface (thus the term cobblestone lissencephaly), absent in lissencephaly type I. Unlike type I lissencephaly which is the result of neuronal undermigration, type II is due to ove...
Article

Splenomegaly

Splenomegaly is a term which refers to enlargement of the spleen. The normal adult splenic length upper limit is usually around 12-15 cm. Also one should know how to calculate splenic index, volume and mass by CT and MR techniques. Massive splenomegaly is a term used when the spleen weighs > 100...

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