Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

11,243 results found
Article

Metopic suture

The metopic suture (also known as the median frontal suture) is a type of calvarial suture. It is often associated with frontal sinus agenesis or hypoplasia 7.  Gross anatomy This suture runs through the midline across the frontal bone from the nasion to the bregma, although it may often be in...
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High-output cardiac failure

High output cardiac failure refers to a state of cardiac failure that is associated with a higher than normal cardiac output which is still not sufficient for body tissue demands. Clinical presentation Patients can present with a number of symptoms of varying degrees which include tachycardia,...
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Isolated greater trochanteric fracture

Greater trochanteric fractures generally result from forceful muscle contraction of a fixed limb, which usually occurs in those who are young and physically active. It can also be caused by direct trauma. Epidemiology Generally, isolated trochanteric fractures are seen more so in young, active...
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Short rib polydactyly syndrome

Short rib polydactyly syndrome(s) (SRPS) comprise a rare group of severe osteochondrodysplasias. There are four major recognised types present: type I: Saldino-Noonan type type II:: Majewski type type III: Verma-Naumoff type type IV: Beemer-Langer type There may also be other very rare type...
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Acardiac twin

Acardiac twins (or recipient twins) are haemodynamically disadvantaged non-viable twins that undergo secondary atrophy in association with a twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence. Epidemiology Acardiac twinning is thought to affect 1 in 100 monozygotic twin pregnancies and 1 in 35,000 preg...
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Cardiovascular shunts

Cardiovascular (cardiac) shunts are abnormal connections between the pulmonary and systemic circulations. Most commonly they are the result of congenital heart disease. Pathology Blood can either be shunted from the systemic circulation to pulmonary circulation (i.e. 'left-to-right shunt') or ...
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Atrioventricular septal defect

Atrioventricular septal defects (AVSDs), also known as atrioventricular canal defects or endocardial cushion defects, comprise of a relatively wide range of defects involving the atrial septum, ventricular septum and one or both of the tricuspid or mitral valve. They can represent 2-7% of congen...
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Trochanteric fracture

Trochanteric fracture is a fracture involving the greater and/or lesser trochanters of the femur. Classification Fractures in these regions can be classified as: intertrochanteric pertrochanteric: intertrochanteric, involving both trochanters subtrochanteric greater trochanteric avulsion f...
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Endometrial thickness

Endometrial thickness is a commonly measured parameter on routine gynaecological ultrasound and MRI. The appearance, as well as the thickness of the endometrium, will depend on whether the patient is of reproductive age or postmenopausal and, if of reproductive age, at what point in the menstrua...
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Acromegaly

Acromegaly is the result of excessive growth hormone production in skeletally mature patients, most commonly from a pituitary adenoma. The same excess of growth hormone in individuals whose epiphyses have not fused will result in gigantism (excessively tall stature).   It is most commonly diagn...
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Lethal skeletal dysplasias

Lethal skeletal dysplasias form a heterogeneous group which are commonly characterised being non-survivable for prolonged periods ex-utero. They include: achondrogenesis atelosteogenesis campomelic dysplasia chondrodysplasia punctata: lethal variants  metatropic dysplasia: lethal variants 4...
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Intrauterine growth restriction

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is commonly defined as an estimated fetal weight (EFW) at one point in time during pregnancy being at or below the 10th percentile for gestational age 2. Some authors define the term IUGR when fetal biometric parameters fall under the 5th percentile or fal...
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Saber-sheath trachea

Saber-sheath trachea refers to diffuse coronal narrowing of the intrathoracic portion of the trachea with the concomitant widening of the sagittal diameter. It is not uncommon and is pathognomonic for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) 1.  The sagittal:coronal diameter is over 2:1 2 a...
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Cingulate sulcus sign

The cingulate sulcus sign has been proposed as being useful as an MRI feature of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). It denotes the posterior part of the cingulate sulcus being narrower than the anterior part. The divider between the anterior and posterior parts of the sulcus being a...
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Colpocephaly

Colpocephaly is a descriptive term to a disproportionate prominence of the occipital horns of the lateral ventricles. It can result from a wide range of congenital insults. Clinical presentation Patient may present with motor abnormalities, cognitive deficit, visual abnormalities, and seizures...
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Coarctation of the aorta

Coarctation of the aorta (CoA) refers to a narrowing of the aortic lumen. It can be primarily divided into two types: infantile (pre-ductal) form: is characterised by diffuse hypoplasia or narrowing of the aorta from just distal to the brachiocephalic artery to the level of ductus arteriosus, t...
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Medical abbreviations and acronyms (C)

This article contains a list of commonly used medical abbreviations and acronyms that start with the letter C and may be encountered in medicine and radiology (please keep in alphabetic order). A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L -M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z ...
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Stepladder sign (small bowel obstruction)

Stepladder sign represents the appearance of air-fluid distended small bowel loops that appear to be stacked on top of each other, typically observed on erect abdominal radiographs in the setting of small bowel obstruction.  On breast imaging, the stepladder sign is used to describe intracapsul...
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Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is used as a modified pulmonary or cardiopulmonary bypass technique in those with severe cardiac and/or respiratory failure refractory to conventional ventilatory support and medical intervention 1,3. There are two access paths for extracorporeal life s...
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Double lumen cannula for VV ECMO

The double lumen cannula enables veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) to patients with severe respiratory failure. It is often used as a bridge to lung transplant.  The cannulation is usually performed via the right jugular vein. This position allows the patients to stay aw...
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Hill-Sachs lesion

Hill-Sachs lesions are a posterolateral humeral head compression fracture, typically secondary to recurrent anterior shoulder dislocations, as the humeral head comes to rest against the anteroinferior part of the glenoid. It is often associated with a Bankart lesion of the glenoid. Pathology I...
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Pleural effusion

Pleural effusion tends to be used as a catch-all term denoting a collection of fluid within the pleural space. This can be further divided into exudates and transudates depending on the biochemical analysis of aspirated pleural fluid (see below). Essentially it represents any pathological proces...
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Partial hydatidiform mole

Partial hydatidiform mole (PHD) is a sub type of a hydatidiform mole which in turn falls under the spectrum of gestational trophoblastic disease.  Clinical presentation Clinical signs and symptoms such as abdominal pain, cramps of the lower abdomen and vaginal bleeding during pregnancy are non...
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Double bleb sign

A double bleb sign is a sonographic feature where there is visualisation of a gestational sac containing a yolk sac and amniotic sac giving an appearence of two small bubbles 2. The embryonic disc is located between the two bubbles. It is an important feature of an intrauterine pregnancy and thu...
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Subependymoma

Subependymomas are uncommon, benign (WHO grade I) tumours which are slow growing and non-invasive. They tend to occur in middle-aged and older individuals and usually identified as an incidental finding.  Terminology These tumours were previously also known as subependymal astrocytomas, not to...
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Diaphysis

The diaphyses (singular: diaphysis), sometimes colloquially called the shafts, are the main portions of a long bone (a bone that is longer than it is wide) and provide most of their length.  The diaphysis has a tubular composition with a hard outer section of hard cortical bone and a central po...
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Retropharyngeal abscess

Retropharyngeal abscess is a potentially life-threatening infection involving the retropharyngeal space which requires prompt diagnosis and aggressive therapy. Epidemiology Retropharyngeal abscesses are most frequently encountered in children, with 75% of cases occurring before the age of 5 ye...
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Cerebral hemiatrophy

Cerebral hemiatrophy has a variety of causes, and is generally associated with seizures and hemiplegia. Causes include: congenital idiopathic (primary) intrauterine vascular injury acquired perinatal intracranial haemorrhage Rasmussen encephalitis postictal cerebral hemiatrophy basal gan...
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Compton effect

Compton effect or Compton scatter is one of three principle forms of photon interaction. It is the main cause of scattered radiation in a material. It occurs due to the interaction of the x-ray or gamma photon with free electrons (unattached to atoms) or loosely bound valence shell (outer shell)...
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Intracranial infections

Intracranial infections can be classified according to causative organisms, anatomical location or even by route of spread. By organsim The organisms involved vary depending on the specific location of infection. Needless to say, bacteria, viruses, fungi, nematodes and parasites can all cause ...
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Perineural spread of tumour

Perineural spread of tumour is a form of local invasion in which primary tumours cells spread along the tissues of the nerve sheath.  It is a well-recognised phenomenon in head and neck cancers. An important distinction has to be made between perineural invasion (PNI) and perineural spread (PNS...
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Thalassaemia

Thalassaemia is an autosomal recessive haemoglobinopathy that originated in the Mediterranean region. The genetic defect causes a reduction in the rate of globin chain synthesis which causes the formation of abnormal haemoglobin molecules. The resultant microcytic anaemia is the characteristic p...
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Brachydactyly

Brachydactyly (BD) essentially refers to short digits. It is often inherited as an autosomal dominant trait (all the types). The clinical spectrum can widely range from minor digital hypoplasia to complete aplasia. As a group, it most commonly involves the middle phalanx 2. Single or multiple b...
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Rasmussen encephalitis

Rasmussen encephalitis (RE), also known as chronic focal encephalitis (not to be confused with a Rasmussen aneurysm), is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown origin, usually affecting one brain hemisphere. Epidemiology Most cases (85% cases) occur in children under the age of 10 years 1. ...
Article

Vesicoureteric junction

The vesicoureteric junction (VUJ) is the most distal portion of a ureter, at the point where it connects to the urinary bladder.  Terminology VUJ is synonymous with "ureterovesicular junction" (UVJ). It is nearly synonymous with "ureteral orifice" (UO), although depending on the context, the V...
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CT dose index

CT dose index (CTDI) is a standardized measure of radiation dose output of a CT scanner which allows the user to compare radiation output of different CT scanners. In the past CTDI100 (measured over a 100 mm long ionization chamber) and CTDIw (weighted average of dose across a single slice) were...
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Dose length product

Dose length product (DLP) is a measure of CT tube radiation output/exposure. It is related to CTDIvol, but CTDIvol represents the dose through a slice of an appropriate phantom. DLP accounts for the length of radiation output along the z axis (the long axis of the patient). DLP = (CTDIvol ) * (...
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Size specific dose estimate

Size specific dose estimate (SSDE) is a method of estimating CT radiation dose that takes a patient's size into account.  CTDIvol and DLP are common methods to estimate a patient's radiation exposure from a CT procedure. The exposures are the same regardless of patient size, but the size of the...
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Lugano classification: response evaluation criteria for CT and PET/CT

The Lugano classification recommends two methods of visualization for standing lymphoma: Computer tomography (CT) Positron emission tomography–computed tomography (PET/CT) Response Assessment on CT   CT uses for the standing of all types of lymphoma (if CT is performed for tumor size measure...
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WHO criteria in tumour response

The WHO criteria have been developed in the 1980s to standardised reporting of cancers in clinical trial.​ These criteria Nowadays, newer criteria often based on the WHO criteria (such as RECIST, mRECIST, Choi criteria, Lugano response criteria), have widely replaced the WHO criteria in clinical...
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CNS infectious diseases

This article aims to be a collection of articles that represent the central nervous system infectious diseases. There will be some overlap between articles as they are listed and discussed in a mixture of anatomical and aetiological classification.   Terminology It is important to remember tha...
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White matter buckling sign

The white matter buckling sign is helpful in distinguishing an extra-axial mass from an intra-axial one, and represents the white matter projecting into gyri being compressed and displaced by the mass, even in the presence of oedema (which would usually expand gyri, if the mass were intra-axial)...
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PERCIST

Positron Emission Tomography Response Criteria in Solid Tumors (PERCIST) make use of positron emission tomography (PET) to provide functional information to help determine tumor viability. The criteria consist of four categories: complete metabolic response, partial metabolic response, progress...
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Choi response criteria

Use only the size of the tumor during evaluation of response to chemotherapy has some pitfalls and limitations, especially when the estimated response for specific tumors such as gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST). The Choi response criteria for GIST proposed that tumour attenuation could p...
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Cerebritis

Cerebritis is a term that represents inflammation of the brain in the setting of infection, before the development of a cerebral abscess.  Terminology Cerebritis is essentially the same as encephalitis except that it is used to denote brain parenchymal inflammation secondary to infection with ...
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Brain abscess

Brain abscess is a potentially life-threatening condition requiring rapid treatment, and prompt radiological identification. Fortunately, MRI is usually able to convincingly make the diagnosis, distinguishing abscesses from other ring-enhancing lesions.  Epidemiology Demographics reflect at-ri...
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Acute bacterial meningitis complications (mnemonic)

The complications of acute bacterial meningitis can be remembered using the mnemonic: HACTIVE Mnemonic H: hydrocephalus A: abscess C: cerebritis / cranial nerve lesion T: thrombosis I: infarct V: ventriculitis/vasculopathy E: extra-axial collection: empyema and hygroma Related articles...
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Posterior nipple line

The posterior nipple line (PNL) refers to a line drawn posteriorly and perpendicularly from the nipple towards the pectoral muscle (or the posterior image edge in CC) on the mammograms. In an adequately positioned breast, the measurement difference of this line between a CC view and MLO view sho...
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Articles

Articles form the encyclopaedic component of Radiopaedia.org and are collaborative efforts to create atomic reference articles for anything related to the practice of radiology. Unlike a textbook, journal publication or a written encyclopaedia, Radiopaedia.org articles allow you and other users ...
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References

References are essential to the pursuit of the high academic standards we are aiming for at Radiopaedia.org.  Reference ideals each article should have at least 3-4 references all reference material should be cited in the reference section references should be sought in the following order o...
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Ciliated hepatic foregut cyst

Ciliated hepatic foregut cysts are a very rare type of hepatic cyst, with nonspecific radiological features. Less than a hundred of cases have been reported yet 1. They are usually benign, but rare cases of malignant degeneration (in squamous cell carcinoma) have also been reported 1-4.  Epidem...
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Tendons of pes anserinus (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for remembering the three conjoined tendons that make up the pes anserinus include: Say Grace before Tea SerGeanT  Mnemonics From anterior to posterior, the tendons are: Say Grace before Tea S: sartorius G: gracilis T: semitendinosus SerGeanT S: sartorius G: gracilis T: sem...
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Rectum

The rectum is the last part of the large intestine. It is located within the pelvis and is the continuation of the sigmoid colon after the rectosigmoid junction and continues as the anal canal at the angle created by puborectalis.  Gross anatomy At the level of the S3 vertebral body, the sigmo...
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Elbow ossification (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for elbow ossification include CRITOE and CRITOL. These are essentially the same, apart from the terminal letter which represents the External or Lateral epicondyle. Mnemonics CRITOE C - capitellum R - radial head I - internal epicondyle T - trochlea O - olecranon E - external ...
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Sinonasal lymphoma

Sinonasal lymphoma refers to the involvement of the nasal cavity and/or paranasal sinuses with lymphoma. It can be primary or secondary. Clinical presentation Presenting symptoms of sinonasal lymphoma are variable but are usually similar to those of benign inflammatory diseases. The clinical s...
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Veiled right kidney sign

The veiled right kidney sign is a sonographic sign described in pneumoretroperitoneum, most commonly due to duodenal perforation. It refers to the appearance of the right kidney on transabdominal ultrasound 1-4. On ultrasound, there is difficulty in obtaining images of the right kidney due to i...
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Foramen ovale (skull)

Foramen ovale is an oval shaped opening in the middle cranial fossa located at the posterior base of the greater wing of the sphenoid bone, lateral to the lingula. It transmits the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (CN Vc), accessory meningeal artery, emissary veins between the caverno...
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Bladder impairment following spinal cord injury

Another commonly used classification scheme used by urologists and rehabilitation specialists, described by Wein, classifies bladder impairment following spinal cord injury according to the level of injury: suprasacral (infrapontine) bladder - upper motor neuron lesion, releasing the sacral mic...
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Valentino syndrome

Valentino syndrome, or Valentino appendix, refers to a clinical syndrome of right lower quadrant or right iliac fossa pain secondary to a perforated peptic ulcer. It is an important differential diagnosis for acute appendicitis. Epidemiology Although thought to be a very rare manifestation of ...
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Pneumoretroperitoneum

Pneumoretroperitoneum is by definition presence of gas within the retroperitoneal space. Pathology Pneumoretroperitoneum is always abnormal and has a relatively small differential: perforated retroperitoneal hollow viscus duodenum peptic ulcer disease blunt or penetrating abdominal trauma...
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Inguinal canal

The inguinal canal is a passage in the anterior abdominal wall that transmits structures from the pelvis to the perineum formed by the fetal migration of the gonad from the abdomen into the labioscrotal folds. Gross anatomy The inguinal canal has an oblique course, is 4 cm in length and has tw...
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Response evaluation criteria in solid tumours

Response evaluation criteria in solid tumours or RECIST refers to a set of published rules used to assess tumour burden in order to provide an objective assessment of response to therapy. They were initially introduced in 2000 and have undergone subsequent revision in 2009 (RECIST 1.1).  The cr...
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Y sign (epidural lipomatosis)

The Y sign refers to a common appearance in lumbar epidural lipomatosis where excess fat in the extradural space compresses the dural sac into the shape of the letter "Y". 
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Langerhans cell histiocytosis (CNS manifestations)

The central nervous system (CNS) is an uncommonly involved organ system in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). Involvement of the CNS is related but distinct from involvement of the skull base or craniofacial structures, which are discussed separately in the article skeletal manifestations of L...
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Spaceflight-induced cerebral changes

Spaceflight-induced cerebral changes, or microgravity-induced cerebral changes, refer to the effects of prolonged microgravity exposure, through spaceflight, on the brain and surrounding structures. Epidemiology As the name suggests, spaceflight-induced cerebral changes are limited to patients...
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Emphysematous pyelitis

Emphysematous pyelitis is isolated gas production inside the excretory system, secondary to acute bacterial infection. It is a relatively benign entity and needs accurate differentiation from the far more serious emphysematous pyelonephritis, which is gas production from an infection in the rena...
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Spina bifida

Spina bifida is a type of neural tube defect/spinal dysraphism which can occur to varying degrees of severity. It is often considered the most common congenital CNS malformation. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at 1:1000-2000 live births 2. Clinical presentation A constellation of fe...
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Appendicitis

Appendicitis is inflammation of the vermiform appendix. It is a very common condition in general radiology practice and is one of the main reasons for abdominal surgery in young patients. CT is the most sensitive modality to detect appendicitis. Epidemiology Acute appendicitis is typically a d...
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Peptic ulcer disease

Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) encompasses a number of entities, united by the presence of mucosal ulceration secondary to the effects of gastric acid. Since the recognition of Helicobacter pylori as a common causative agent, and the development of powerful anti-acid medications, peptic ulcer diseas...
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External capsule

The external capsule is a series of white matter tracts in the brain situated between the putamen and claustrum. It is composed of claustrocortical fibres dorsally and the combined mass of the uncinate fasciculus and inferior frontal occipital fasciculus ventrally.  Relationships The putamen s...
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Congenital pseudoarthrosis of the tibia

Congenital pseudoarthrosis of the tibia describes abnormal bowing that can progress to a segment of bone loss simulating the appearance of a joint. The condition is usually apparent shortly after birth and is rarely diagnosed after the age of two. Pathology The aetiology is unclear, however, a...
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Tram-track sign (brain)

Tram-track sign in the brain refers to the parallel calcification of the cortex in patients with Sturge-Weber syndrome 1.  It should not be confused with other tram-track signs elsewhere in the body. 
Article

IgG4-related disease

IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a systemic disease that is characterised by extensive IgG4-positive plasma cells and T-lymphocyte infiltration of various organs. Terminology This condition has been known by many other names in the past, such as IgG4-related sclerosing disease, IgG4-related s...
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IgG4-related hypophysitis

IgG4-related hypophysitis is a rare cause of inflammation of the pituitary gland and an uncommon manifestation of the systemic IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD). Epidemiology Although IgG4-RD tends to present in middle-aged and elderly men, the gender ratio is more balanced in patients with IgG4-...
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IgG4-related hypertrophic pachymeningitis

IgG4-related hypertrophic pachymeningitis is one of the many manifestations of IgG4-related disease which represents a fibroinflammatory condition that can affect any organ. IgG4-related pachymeningitis is increasingly being recognised as the aetiology of hypertrophic pachymeningitis, an entity ...
Article

Adding an image to an article

Adding images to an article is an important way of illustrating various imaging examples of that condition. Ideally, there should only be one image per case (usually the 'best' image) per article unless you wish to highlight a specific point, or it is a rare condition with only one case availabl...
Article

Persistent primitive trigeminal artery

Persistent primitive trigeminal artery (PPTA) is one of the persistent carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses. It is present in 0.1-0.6% of cerebral angiograms and is usually unilateral. In utero the trigeminal artery supplies the basilar artery before development of the posterior communicating an...
Article

Tau sign

The tau sign represents the appearance of a persistent trigeminal artery on the sagittal plane of an angiogram or on sagittal MRI images. It resembles the greek letter 'tau'. Persistent trigeminal artery arising from the junction between the petrous and cavernous ICA and runs posterolaterally al...
Article

Congestive hepatopathy

Congestive hepatopathy includes a spectrum of hepatic derangements that can occur in the setting of right-sided heart failure (and its underlying causes). If there is subsequent hepatic fibrosis the term cardiac cirrhosis may be used. The condition can rarely occur as a result of non-cardiac cau...
Article

Benign enhancing foramen magnum lesion

Benign enhancing foramen magnum lesions have been anecdotally seen by radiologists for years but only recently described as an incidental finding in a typical location in the foramen magnum just behind the vertebral artery. Although the precise nature of this finding has not been entirely elucid...
Article

Gastrointestinal stromal tumour

Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal tumours of the gastrointestinal tract. They account for ~5% of all sarcomas. They respond remarkably well to chemotherapy.  Terminology Previously these tumours have been variably referred to as leiomyomas, leiomyosarcomas...
Article

Photon starvation

Photon starvation is one source of streak artifact which may occurs in CT. It is seen in high attenuation areas, particularly behind metal implants. Because of high attenuation insufficient photons reach the detector surface resulting in characteristic artifact. During reconstruction process, th...
Article

Fluorosis

Skeletal fluorosis is a chronic metabolic bone disease caused by ingestion of large amounts of fluoride through either water or food in geographic areas where high levels of fluoride occur naturally. Radiographic features Plain film/CT Described features include: increased bone density: oste...
Article

CT artifacts

CT artifacts are common and can occur for various reasons. Knowledge of these artifacts is important because they can mimic pathology (e.g. partial volume artefact) or can degrade image quality to non-diagnostic levels.  CT artifacts can be classified according to the underlying cause of the ar...
Article

Myelofibrosis

Myelofibrosis is a haematological disorder where there is the replacement of bone marrow with collagenous connective tissue and progressive fibrosis. It is also classified as a myeloproliferative disorder. It is characterised by: extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) progressive splenomegaly ana...
Article

Renal osteodystrophy

Renal osteodystrophy (ROD), also known as uraemic osteopathy, is the constellation of musculoskeletal abnormalities that occur in patients with chronic renal failure, due to concurrent and superimposed: osteomalacia (adults) / rickets (children) secondary hyperparathyroidism: abnormal calcium ...
Article

Pons

The pons is the middle of the three parts of the brainstem, sitting above the medulla and below the midbrain. It acts as a relay between the cerebellum and cerebral hemispheres.  Gross anatomy The pons has a bulbous shape and has two main components - the ventral pons and the dorsal tegmentum....
Article

CT head (an approach)

The approach taken to interpreting a CT scan of the head is no doubt different depending on the circumstances and the reading clinician, however, most radiologists will go through the same steps. What follows is merely a suggested approach to interpreting a CT of the head.  An important aspect ...
Article

Hypertrophic pachymeningitis

Hypertrophic pachymeningitis is a condition where there is localised inflammatory thickening of the dura. It can result from a number of causes which include: infective neurosyphilis CNS tuberculosis: tuberculous pachymeningitis CNS cryptococcosis bacterial meningitis inflammatory IgG4-re...
Article

Multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumours

Multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumour (MVNT) is a newly recognised cytoarchitectural pattern in the recently revised 2016 edition of the WHO classification of CNS tumours. Radiologically, MVNTs appear as small 'bubbly' indolent subcortical tumours that sometimes present with seizures. Th...
Article

Agnosia

Agnosia is a neurological disorder characterised by an inability to identify an object despite both having knowledge of that object and functional sensory input. For example, a patient with posterior cortical atrophy who characteristically have visual agnosia, will be unable to identify a hammer...
Article

Visual agnosia

Visual agnosia is a special type of agnosia where patients are unable to recognise objects despite having knowledge about them and being able to visually perceive them. It typically occurs when there is damage to the ventral occipito-temporal pathway, such as in posterior cerebral atrophy (Bens...
Article

Cerebellum

The cerebellum, meaning "the little brain", sits at the base of the brain in the posterior cranial fossa below the tentorium and behind the brainstem.  Gross anatomy The cerebellum has the following features: three surfaces: anterior (petrosal), superior (tentorial), inferior (suboccipital) ...

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