Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

12,076 results found
Article

Granuloma annulare

Granuloma annulare is a benign idiopathic inflammatory disorder of the dermis, characterised by formation of dermal papules in young children. Clinical presentation Granuloma annulare has various clinical presentations: three cutaneous forms erythematous perforating generalised one subcut...
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Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a spongiform encephalopathy that results in a rapidly progressive dementia and other non-specific neurological features and death usually within a year or less from onset.  The vast majority are sporadic, but familial and acquired forms are also occasionally en...
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Heidenhain variant of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

The Heidenhain variant of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a distinct clinical manifestation of a number of molecular subtypes (MM1 and MM 2C) dominated by pure visual disturbances early in the course of the disease 1. This is predictably correlated with prominent occipital involvement on M...
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Pulmonary emphysema

Pulmonary emphysema is defined as the "abnormal permanent enlargement of the airspaces distal to the terminal bronchioles accompanied by destruction of the alveolar wall and without obvious fibrosis". Emphysema is one of the entities grouped as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Emphysema is...
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Brown-Séquard syndrome

Brown-Séquard syndrome, also known as hemicord syndrome, is the result of damage to, or impairment of, the left or right side of the spinal cord. It is characterised by a characteristic pattern of motor and sensory deficits that are determined by the decussation pattern of various white matter t...
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Acute bilateral airspace opacification (differential)

Acute bilateral airspace opacification is a subset of the larger differential diagnosis for airspace opacification. An exhaustive list of all possible causes of acute bilateral airspace opacities is long, but a useful way to consider the huge list is via the material within the airways: infecti...
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Casoni Skin Test

The Casoni skin test, named after Italian physician Tomaso Casoni (1880-1933) is an intradermal hypersensitivity test to detect hydatid disease. Diagnostic sensitivity varies according to cyst location (liver cysts produce a detectable immune response more frequently than lung cysts) and cyst in...
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Small pulmonary nodules (HRCT chest approach)

Small pulmonary lung nodules refer to an HRCT chest imaging descriptor for 5-10 mm lung nodules and are divided into three main categories based on their distribution pattern: centrilobular perilymphatic random Terminology Radiologists often informally refer to indeterminate small pulmonary...
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Persistent hypophyseal canal

Persistent hypophyseal canal, also known as the craniopharyngeal canal when larger than 1.5 mm in diameter, is a rare congenital defect characterised by a communication through the central skull base between the nasopharynx and the pituitary fossa.  Terminology There are a number of terms whic...
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Heimlich valve

The Heimlich valve (or flutter valve) is a unidirectional valve to ensure that gas/fluid drained from the pleural space cannot flow back in.  The Heimlich valve is cheap, easy to use, and does not require clamping unlike 'traditional' thoracostomy drainage tubes. Suction can still be applied as...
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Medical devices in the thorax

Medical devices in the thorax are regularly observed by radiologists when reviewing radiographs and CTs. Extrathoracic devices tubing, clamps, syringes lying on or under the patient rubber sheets, foam mattresses, clothing, hair braids, nipple piercings etc. may also be visible These devices...
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Manubriosternal and sternoxiphoidal joint fusion

Manubriosternal and sternoxiphoidal joint fusion can be partial or complete, and may be a normal anatomic variant. Complete fusion can be seen at a young age. Pathological fusion can be seen in old age secondary to fusion caused by bridging osteophytes 2. It may also be seen in inflammatory art...
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Fifth ventricle (disambiguation)

The fifth ventricle has historically been used to refer to either the: cavum septum pellucidum or ventriculus terminalis
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Paraganglioma

Paragangliomas, sometimes called glomus tumours, are rare neuroendocrine tumours arising from paraganglia.  Terminology Paraganglia are clusters of neuroendocrine cells dispersed throughout the body and closely related to the autonomic nervous system, with either parasympathetic or sympathetic...
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Krukenberg tumour

Krukenberg tumour, also known as carcinoma mucocellulare, refers to the "signet ring" subtype of metastatic tumour to the ovary. The colon and stomach are the most common primary tumours to result in ovarian metastases, followed by the breast, lung, and contralateral ovary. Epidemiology The tu...
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Ventriculus terminalis

The ventriculus terminalis or terminal ventricle of Krause, also known as the 5th ventricle, is an ependymal-lined fusiform dilatation of the terminal central canal of the spinal cord, positioned at the transition from the tip of the conus medullaris to the origin of the filum terminale.  It re...
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Rad (CGS unit)

The rad (symbol rad) is a legacy unit in the cgs system for the absorbed dose of ionising radiation, although it remains in widespread use in the United States.  The rad is defined as the dose represented by 100 ergs of energy being absorbed by one gramme of matter. The erg is the unit of energ...
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Noonan syndrome

Noonan syndrome (NS) is a genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous non aneuploidic congenital RASopathy. Affected individuals can bear some clinical features similar to that of Turner syndrome.  Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~1 in 1000-2500 11. As individuals have normal numbe...
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Alobar holoprosencephaly

Alobar holoprosencephaly is a subtype of holoprosencephaly (HPE), and is the most severe of the classical three subtypes, with both semilobar and lobar holoprosencephaly having less severe clinical manifestations. For a general discussion of epidemiology, clinical presentation, and pathology, p...
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Cavum vergae

The cavum vergae (CV), along with the cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) that lies immediately anterior to it, is a persistence of the embryological fluid-filled space between the leaflets of the septum pellucidum and is a common anatomical variant.  Terminology The cavum vergae has also been refer...
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Cavum septum pellucidum

Cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) is a normal variant CSF space between the leaflets of the septum pellucidum. Terminology While the term "cavum septum pellucidum" is generally accepted, it is grammatically incorrect. Since it denotes a space (cavum meaning cave) of the septum pellucidum, the seco...
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Sleeve gastrectomy

Sleeve gastrectomy is a bariatric surgical procedure involving resection of the greater curvature of the fundus and body of the stomach to leave approximately 15% of the original gastric volume (60 to 100 mL), thus creating a restrictive physiology. The postsurgical gastric pouch resembles a ban...
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Fisher scale

The Fisher scale is the initial and best known system of classifying the amount of subarachnoid haemorrhage on CT scans, and is useful in predicting the occurrence and severity of cerebral vasospasm, highest in grade 3 2.  Numerous other scales have been proposed, incorporating various paramete...
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Normal head and neck imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the head and neck and surrounding structures, divided by region and modality. Neck For normal spinal imaging, please see: normal spinal imaging Plain radiographs soft tissue: example 1 soft tissue: example 2 CT soft tissue contrast: exampl...
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Serous cystadenoma of pancreas

Serous cystadenoma of the pancreas (or microcystic adenoma) is an uncommon type of benign cystic pancreatic neoplasm.  Epidemiology There is a recognised strong female predilection (M:F ~ 1:4) and usually presents in middle age to elderly patients (>60 years of age).  Clinical presentation M...
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≤11 ribs (differential)

≤11 ribs is associated with a number of congenital abnormalities and skeletal dysplasias, including: Down syndrome, Trisomy 21 campomelic dysplasia kyphomelic dysplasias asphyxiating thoracic dysplasia (Jeune syndrome) short rib polydactyly syndromes trisomy 18 chromosome 1q21.1 deletion ...
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Cobra head sign (ureter)

The cobra head sign (or spring onion sign) refers to dilatation of the distal ureter, surrounded by a thin lucent line, which is seen in patients with an adult-type ureterocoele. The cobra head appearance indicates an uncomplicated ureterocele. The lucent "hood" of the cobra represents the comb...
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Lobar lung collapse

Lobar collapse refers to the collapse of an entire lobe of the lung. As such it is a subtype of atelectasis (although collapse is not entirely synonymous is atelectasis), which is a more generic term for 'incomplete expansion'. Individual lobes of the lung may collapse due to obstruction of the ...
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Mucoid impaction (lung)

Mucoid impaction, also referred to as mucus plugging or bronchocele, airway filling by mucoid secretions and can be obstructive or non-obstructive. It is a common pathological finding in chest imaging. Pathology Aetiology Mucoid impaction may result from either obstructive or non-obstructive ...
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Ovarian serous tumours

Ovarian serous neoplasms are the commonest of four general types of the epithelial ovarian tumours, and are more prevalent than the mucinous ovarian tumours. Serous ovarian neoplasms are subdivided into benign, borderline, and malignant lesions according to their malignant potential and clinica...
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Artery of Percheron territory infarct

Artery of Percheron territory infarct is rare, on account of the relative rarity of the artery of Percheron, and presents with a variety of signs and symptoms collectively termed the paramedian thalamic syndrome. It is a type of posterior circulation infarction. On imaging, it is classically ch...
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Artery of Percheron

The artery of Percheron is a rare variant of the posterior cerebral circulation characterised by a solitary arterial trunk that supplies blood to the paramedian thalami and the rostral midbrain bilaterally. Gross anatomy The term is used to refer to a solitary arterial trunk that branches from...
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Epithelial ovarian tumours

Ovarian epithelial tumours account for the majority of all ovarian tumours (60-70%) and their malignant forms represent >90% of ovarian cancers 1. They can range from being benign to highly malignant. Epidemiology There is a difference in frequency of ovarian tumour subtypes depending on menop...
Article

Paint brush borders sign

The paint brush borders sign may be seen on MRI of a giant cell tumour, at the margin between the lesion and the normal bone. The sign specifically refers to the jagged interface as the tumour penetrates into the bone which mimics the profile of the bristles of a paint brush. It has recently be...
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Thalamus

The thalamus is the largest of the structures comprising the diencephalon. Role The thalamus acts as a relay centre, receiving and distributing information between the peripheries and higher centres such as the cerebral cortices. It contributes to functions such as: consciousness sleep memo...
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Nephrotic syndrome

Nephrotic syndrome results from loss of plasma proteins in the urine and characterised by hypoalbuminemia, hyperalbuminuria, hyperlipidemia, and oedema. It may be caused by primary (idiopathic) renal disease or by a variety of secondary causes. Clinical presentation Patients present with marke...
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Infiltrative hepatocellular carcinoma

Infiltrative hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), also known as diffuse hepatocellular carcinoma, is an infrequent subtype of HCC, which has particular imaging characteristics. Because of these characteristics, it has been called cirrhotomimetic-HCC or cirrhosis-like HCC. Epidemiology Infiltrative ...
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Calcifying pseudoneoplasm of the neuraxis

Calcifying pseudoneoplasms of the neuraxis (CAPNON) are very rare heavily calcified discrete intraparenchymal or extra-axial lesions that can occur anywhere along the neuraxis.  Epidemiology Given the rarity of these lesions, detailed epidemiological data is not available.  Clinical presentat...
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Postmortem changes - musculoskeletal and soft tissue

Musculoskeletal and soft tissue postmortem changes refer to the expected appearances of the musculoskeletal system and soft tissues on postmortem imaging. Radiographic features CT livor mortis can be seen in the dependent soft tissues 1 hypostasis of the dependent muscles increased attenuat...
Article

Proximal femoral fractures (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Proximal femoral fractures are a heterogeneous group of fractures that occur in and around the hip. The commonest type of fracture in this region is the femoral neck fracture. They can occur anywhere between the joint surf...
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Giant cell tumour of bone

Giant cell tumours of bone, also known as osteoclastomas, are relatively common bone tumours and are usually benign. They typically arise from the metaphysis of long bones, extend into the epiphysis adjacent to the joint surface, and have a narrow zone of transition. Epidemiology Giant cell tu...
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Carcinoembryonic antigen

Serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a cell-adhesive glycoprotein that was discovered in colorectal cancer in 1965, and is hence one of the oldest and most used tumour markers. Its name derives from its normal expression in fetoembryonic liver, gut and pancreas tissue. Normal range of CEA is...
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Solitary plasmacytoma with minimal marrow involvement

Biopsy-proven solitary lesion of bone or soft tissue with evidence of clonal plasma cells Clonal bone marrow plasma cells <10% Normal skeletal survey and MRI (or CT) of spine and pelvis (except for the primary solitary lesion) Absence of end-organ damage such as hypercalcaemia, renal insuffi...
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Passive hepatic congestion

Passive hepatic congestion, also known as congested liver in cardiac disease, describes the stasis of blood in the hepatic parenchyma, due to impaired hepatic venous drainage, which leads to dilation of central hepatic veins and hepatomegaly.  Passive hepatic congestion is a well-studied result...
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Salter-Harris classification

The Salter-Harris classification was proposed by Salter and Harris in 1963 1 and at the time of writing (June 2016) remains the most widely used system for describing physeal fractures.  Classification Conveniently the Salter-Harris types can be remembered by the mnemonic SALTR. type I slipp...
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Superior mesenteric venous thrombosis

Superior mesenteric venous thrombosis can result from number of conditions. It can account for around 5-15% of all mesenteric ischaemic events. It can be classified in various ways: acute: acute superior mesenteric venous thrombosis chronic: chronic superior mesenteric venous thrombosis or a...
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Simple pancreatic cyst

Simple pancreatic cysts, also known as true epithelial cysts or retention cysts, are unilocular cysts within the pancreas, lined by a monolayer of epithelium, which lack communication with the pancreatic ducts 1,5. In contradistinction to other solid viscera, simple cysts in the pancreas are a r...
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Abdominal paracentesis

Abdominal paracentesis, more commonly referred to as an ascitic tap, is a procedure that can be performed to collect peritoneal fluid for analysis or as a therapeutic intervention. Indications diagnostic: especially for newly-diagnosed ascites determine aetiology of ascites assess for bacter...
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Lipase

Lipase, more specifically pancreatic lipase, is an enzyme produced in the pancreas and is responsible for the digestion of fat molecules. It may be raised (hyperlipasaemia) in numerous pancreatic, hepatobiliary and other diseases but is most commonly associated with acute pancreatitis. Physiolo...
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Acute pancreatitis (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Acute pancreatitis refers to acute inflammation of the pancreas and is a potentially life-threatening condition. Reference article This is a summary article; read more in our article on acute pancreatitis. Summary anato...
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Gullo syndrome

Gullo syndrome (or benign pancreatic hyperenzymaemia) is characterised by the abnormal elevation of the serum levels of most or all of the pancreatic enzymes without any evidence of underlying pancreatic pathology. All other laboratory assays and imaging studies are unremarkable. Clinical prese...
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Extramedullary plasmacytoma

Extramedullary plasmacytoma is an uncommon plasma cell tumour that is composed of monoclonal plasma cells arranged in clusters or sheets. The rate of progression to multiple myeloma (MM) varies from 10% to 30%. Epidemiology EMP occurs most commonly during the fourth through to seventh decades ...
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Pancreatic trauma

The pancreas is uncommonly injured in blunt trauma. However, pancreatic trauma has a high morbidity and mortality. Imaging features range from subtle to obvious. Epidemiology The pancreas is injured in ~7.5% (range 2-13%) of blunt trauma cases 1,3. Motor vehicle accidents account for the vast ...
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Pseudopancreatitis

Pseudopancreatitis refers to the presence of fluid in or around the pancreas in the setting of trauma but in the absence of direct signs of traumatic pancreatic injury. Most patients will have a normal serum lipase level, but amylase has a limited sensitivity and specificity for pancreatic traum...
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Buried bumper syndrome

Buried bumper syndrome (BBS) is a rare but important complication in patients with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube, occurring by migration of the internal bumper along its track. The tube may get lodged anywhere between the gastric wall and the skin and lead to life-threatening co...
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Splenic lesions and anomalies

There are a number of splenic lesions and anomalies: Congenital anomalies accessory spleen wandering spleen asplenia polysplenia splenogonadal fusion retrorenal spleen Mass lesions Benign mass lesions splenic cyst (mnemonic) splenic pseudocyst splenic haemangioma: commonest benign sp...
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Renal lymphoma

Renal lymphoma is usually seen as a part of spectrum of multi-systemic lymphoma: primary renal lymphoma is unusual. Typical imaging findings are multiple bilateral hypodense or infiltrative renal masses. Epidemiology While renal lymphoma has autopsy incidence of 30-60% in lymphoma patients, ac...
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Peritoneal calcification

Peritoneal calcification is seen in a limited number of conditions that result in calcification of peritoneal structures. Therefore, the differential diagnosis is small: psammoma bodies in malignancy (most frequently cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary): fine sand-like calcification pseudomyxoma p...
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Acute superior mesenteric vein thrombosis

Acute superior mesenteric vein thrombosis is one of the less common causes of intestinal ischaemia. Often despite thrombosis of the SMV, small bowel necrosis does not occur, presumably due to persistent arterial supply and some venous drainage via collaterals.   For a general discussion refer t...
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Annular pancreas

Annular pancreas is a morphological anomaly which can cause duodenal obstruction. This condition is important to recognise, as radiologists are frequently the first to make the diagnosis. Epidemiology The incidence is probably 1 in 250, however its incidence is not accurately reported 1. It is...
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Nutmeg liver

A nutmeg liver appearance is due to a perfusion abnormality of the liver usually as result of hepatic venous congestion. When hepatic veins are congested, contrast is prevented from diffusing through the liver in a normal manner. This results in a mottled pattern of contrast enhancement in the a...
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Lymphoma response to immunomodulatory therapy criteria (LYRIC)

The Lymphoma Response to Immunomodulatory Therapy Criteria (LYRIC) represents an adaptation of the Lugano classification for the evaluation of lymphoma after immune-based treatment. During immunomodulatory agents (e.g. checkpoint inhibitors) therapy, imaging findings suggestive of progressive d...
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Acetabular fracture

Acetabular fractures are a pelvic fracture, which may also involve the ilium, ischium, and/or pubis depending on fracture configuration. Epidemiology Acetabular fractures are uncommon. The reported incidence is approximately 3 per 100,000 per year. This study reported a 63% to 37% male to fema...
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Anterior commissure of the larynx

The anterior commissure of the larynx is the anterior junction point of the true vocal cords. It is bounded anteriorly by the thyroid cartilage and is part of the laryngeal glottis.
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Pseudo-SLAP lesion

Pseudo-SLAP lesions represent a normal anatomic variant of the glenoid labrum that may simulate type II superior labral anterior posterior (SLAP) tears. Gross anatomy A synovial lined sulcus (or recess) may be located inferiorly to the long head of biceps tendon origin from the supraglenoid tu...
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Pyosalpinx

Pyosalpinx refers to a Fallopian tube that is filled, and often distended, with pus. Pathology A pyosalpinx often tends to be a complication of background pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Inflammation results in tubal and peritubal adhesions with superimposed obstruction of the fimbrial end....
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Pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysm

Pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysm refers to a pseudoaneurysm arising from the pulmonary arteries. Pathology Unlike a true aneurysm it does not involve all three layers of the the arterial wall.  They can arise from a number of causes including infection, associated neoplasms and trauma.  Locat...
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Pulmonary nodule

Pulmonary nodules are small, rounded opacities within the pulmonary interstitium. Pulmonary nodules are common and, as the spatial resolution of CT scanners has increased, detection of smaller and smaller nodules has occurred, which are more often an incidental finding. Classification Pulmonar...
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Traumatic spinal cord injury

Traumatic spinal cord injury can manifest as a wide variety of clinical syndromes resulting from damage to the spinal cord or its surrounding structures. It can result from minor injury if the spine is weakened from disease such as ankylosing spondylitis or if there is pre-existing spinal stenos...
Article

Adrenal hyperplasia

Adrenal hyperplasia refers to nonmalignant growth (enlargement) of the adrenal glands and is a rare cause of ACTH-independent Cushing syndrome, with unilateral adrenal cortical adenomas being the commonest. Approximately 20% of Conn syndrome cases are secondary to adrenal hyperplasia. In diffuse...
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Tracheal masses

The differential for tracheal masses can be rather wide. For a single mass consider: metastasis  direct invasion from adjacent organ (lung, thyroid, oesophagus and larynx) distant metastasis (e.g. melanoma, breast, renal and colon cancer)  primary neoplasms: squamous cell carcinoma: common...
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Testicular descent

Testicular descent occurs after the fourth month of fetal life. The testes are derived from the gonadal ridge medial to the mesonephric ridge of the intermediate cell mass. An elongated diverticulum of the peritoneal cavity, the processus vaginalis precedes the testis through the inguinal canal ...
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Testis

The testes, also known as the testicles, are the male gonads and are contained within the scrotum. The testes are responsible for the production of sperm and testosterone. Gross anatomy At birth, testes measure approximately 1.5 cm (length) x 1 cm (width), reaching ~4 mL volume at puberty 1. ...
Article

Juxtacortical chondroma

Juxtacortical chondromas, also known as periosteal chondromas, are rare benign chondral tumours that arise from the periosteum of tubular bones. They are thought to account for ~2% of benign bone tumours. Epidemiology They tend to present around the 2nd to 4th decades. There is a recognised ma...
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Scarpa's fascia

Scarpa's fascia is a membranous layer of superficial fascia that extends over the lower thoracic and anterior abdominal wall, anterior to the midaxillary lines. Here, fibrous septa of subcutaneous tissue are condensed beneath the fat into a thin but strong membrane. The fascia allows the subcuta...
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Olecranon bursa

The olecranon bursa is a bursa located in the subcutaneous tissue that overlies the olecranon process of the proximal ulna. The floor of the bursa lies on the triceps brachii tendon and olecranon, while the roof is in contact with the overlying subcutaneous tissue 1. It is a thin-walled sac line...
Article

Greater (descending) palatine artery

The greater (descending) palatine artery is a branch of the third part of the maxillary artery which passes through the greater palatine foramen to supply most of the hard palate. Gross anatomy After branching off from the third (pterygopalatine) part of the maxillary artery, the greater palat...
Article

Sliding sign

The loss of the normal sliding sign is a dynamic sonographic sign performed during transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) of women with suspected pelvic peritoneal endometriosis. It indicates pouch of Douglas (POD) involvement and obliteration and is suggestive of deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE). ...
Article

Smouldering multiple myeloma

Smouldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is a precursor to multiple myeloma. Clinical presentation Similar to MGUS patients, smoulder multiple myeloma patients are asymptomatic. Diagnostic criteria The criteria for smouldering multiple myeloma diagnosis according to the International Myeloma Worki...
Article

Intertrochanteric line

The intertrochanteric line, not to be confused with the intertrochanteric crest, is a ridge on the femur that is located on the anterior aspect of the junction of the femoral neck and shaft. It traverses between the greater and lesser trochanters and distally is continuous with the spiral line o...
Article

Ligamentum venosum

The ligamentum venosum is a fibrous remnant which travels superiorly from the porta hepatis of the liver to the inferior vena cava. It is often obliterated in adults.  In the fetus, it is patent and known as the ductus venosus which shunts blood returning from the placenta in the umbilical vein...
Article

Normal postmortem changes in the central nervous system

Normal central nervous system postmortem changes refers to the expected changes seen in the central nervous system with postmortem imaging. Radiographic features CT loss of grey-white matter differentiation 1,2 intracranial and intravascular gas (due to putrefaction) 1,2 hyperdensity of the...
Article

Mammography views

There are numerous mammography views that can broadly be split into two groups standard views  supplementary views - additional information or problem solving Standard views Standard views are bilateral craniocaudal (CC) and mediolateral oblique (MLO) views, which comprise routine screening ...
Article

Medial circumflex femoral artery

The medial circumflex femoral artery is a branch of the profunda femoris that arises close to its origin. It provides oxygenated blood to the femoral neck and damage to the artery or involvement in pathological processes may result in decreased flow and avascular necrosis of the femoral head. S...
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Postmortem and forensic curriculum

The postmortem and forensic curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of topics that represent core knowledge pertaining to forensic and postmortem radiology.  Definitions Postmortem radiology: the radiographic examination of the body after death.  Forensic radi...
Article

Ann Arbor staging system

The Ann Arbor staging system is the landmark lymphoma staging classification system for both Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.  It is named after the town of Ann Arbor in the US state of Michigan where the Committee on Hodgkin's Disease Staging Classification met in 1971 to agree on it...
Article

Lymphoma (staging)

There are a number of lymphoma staging systems for both Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma including the Ann Arbor classification, Cotswolds-modified Ann Arbor classification, the Lugano classification and the most current LYRIC classification Evolution of lymphoma staging and treatment ...
Article

Blade of grass sign (Paget disease)

The blade of grass sign, also called the candle flame sign, refers to the lucent leading edge in a long bone seen during the lytic phase of Paget disease of bone.  The blade of grass sign is characteristic of Paget disease of bone. This is akin to osteoporosis circumscripta cranii seen in the s...
Article

Carotid web

Carotid webs, also known as carotid intimal variant fibromuscular dysplasia, are rare vascular pathologies of the internal carotid artery that are an important cause of cryptogenic and recurrent ischaemic stroke. Epidemiology Carotid webs are thought to be very rare, with two case series findi...
Article

Ischaemic stroke

Ischaemic stroke results from a sudden cessation of adequate amounts of blood reaching parts of the brain. Ischaemic strokes can be divided according to territory affected or mechanism. Epidemiology Stroke is the second most common cause of morbidity worldwide (after myocardial infarction) and...
Article

Internal carotid artery

The internal carotid artery (ICA) is a terminal branch of the common carotid artery.  Gross anatomy Origin It arises most frequently between C3 and C5 vertebral level, where the common carotid bifurcates to form the internal carotid and the external carotid artery (ECA). Variations in origin...
Article

Track sign (femur)

The track sign is the presence of two sclerotic lines, running parallel to the long axis of the bone, on a frontal radiograph of the femur. It represents visualisation of the linea aspera-pilaster complex, an anatomic variant 1. The linea aspera is the roughened vertical ridge of bone which run...
Article

Cortical vein sign

The cortical vein sign refers to the presence of superficial cortical veins seen on MRI and CT (particularly with contrast injection) traversing an enlarged subarachnoid space, differentiating it from the similar radiological appearance of a subdural hygroma. Although initially proposed as a me...

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