Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

11,560 results found
Article

Hiccup

Hiccups (or hiccoughs), medical term singultus, are an unpleasant phenomenon, experienced by everyone on occasion, and usually self-limiting. However the much rarer intractable chronic form can be extremely debilitating. Epidemiology Hiccups are a symptom that has probably been experienced by ...
Article

Listeria rhombencephalitis

Listeria rhombencephalitis is a particular form of listerial encephalitis that affects primarily the hindbrain (brainstem and cerebellum). Listeria monocytogenes is cited as the most common aetiology for rhombencephalitis, typically seen in the elderly, and resulting in significant morbidity and...
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Lateral medullary syndrome

Lateral medullary syndrome, (or Wallenberg syndrome) is an acute ischemic infarct due to occlusion of the vessels supplying the lateral medulla oblongata; most commonly occlusion of intracranial portion of the vertebral artery followed by PICA and its branches 1-3. This syndrome is characterised...
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Jefferson fracture

Jefferson fracture is the eponymous name given to a burst fracture of C1. It was originally described as a four-part fracture with double fractures through the anterior and posterior arches, but three-part and two-part fractures have also been described. Pathology Mechanism A typical mechanis...
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X-ray artifacts

Artifacts can present in a variety of ways including abnormal shadow noted on a radiograph or degraded image quality and have been produced by artificial means from hardware failure, operator error and software (post-processing) artifacts.  There are common and distinct artifacts for film, comp...
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Couinaud classification of hepatic segments

The Couinaud classification (pronounced kwee-NO) is currently the most widely used system to describe functional liver anatomy. It is the preferred anatomy classification system as it divides the liver into eight independent functional units (termed segments) rather than relying on the tradition...
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Craniopharyngioma

Craniopharyngiomas are relatively benign (WHO grade I) neoplasms that typically arise in the sellar/suprasellar region. They account for ~1-5% of primary brain tumours, and can occur anywhere along the infundibulum (from the floor of the third ventricle, to the pituitary gland). There are two p...
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Dysphagia

Dysphagia refers to subjective awareness of difficulty or obstruction during swallowing. It is a relatively common and increasingly prevalent clinical problem. Odynophagia is the medial term for painful swallowing. Fluoroscopy is the mainstay of imaging assessment but manometry can help evaluat...
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AO classification of thoracolumbar injuries

The AO classification of thoracolumbar injuries aims to simplify and universalise the process of classifying spinal injuries and improve interobserver and intraobserver reliability 3. The AOSpine thoracolumbar classification system consists of only three classes of thoracolumbar injuries. Unlik...
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CT guided percutaneous drainage

CT guided percutaneous drainage is one form of image-guided drainage, allowing minimally invasive treatment of collections, potentially anywhere in the body. Although less commonly used than ultrasound guidance, it is particularly valuable in gaining access to deeper or more posterior parts of t...
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Ureterocoele

Ureterocoeles represent congenital dilatation of the distal-most portion of the ureter. The dilated portion of the ureter may herniate into the bladder secondary to the abnormal structure of vesicoureteric junction (VUJ). Epidemiology Most ureterocoeles are congenital, usually associated with ...
Article

Extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF)

Extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) is a form of lumbar surgical spinal fusion developed in 2001 to be a safer alternative to the older anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) developed in the 1950s 1,2. Unlike an ALIF, an XLIF is performed from a lateral trans-psoas approach and does not r...
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Spinal fusion

Spinal fusion is a broad term to denote the joining of two or more adjacent vertebral segments. Fusion can be congenital or acquired as a direct result of disease or deliberately following spinal surgery.  Congenital fusion Fusion of two or more adjacent segments is encountered either as an is...
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Thoracolumbar injury classification and severity score (TLICS)

The thoracolumbar injury classification and severity score (TLICS), also sometimes known as the thoracolumbar injury severity score (TISS), was developed by the Spine Trauma Group in 2005 to overcome some of the perceived difficulties regarding the use of other thoracolumbar spinal fracture clas...
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Thoracolumbar spinal fracture classification systems

The two most commonly currently used thoracolumbar spinal fracture classification systems are the AO classification and the TLICS although a number of other classification systems have been proposed over the years 1. Each has benefits and drawbacks and each incorporates various features in an at...
Article

Klippel-Feil syndrome

Klippel-Feil syndrome is a complex heterogeneous entity that results in cervical vertebral fusion. Two or more non-segmented cervical vertebrae are usually sufficient for diagnosis. Epidemiology There is a recognised female predilection 1. Klippel-Feil syndrome has an incidence of 1:40,000-42,...
Article

Fibroxanthoma of bone

Fibroxanthoma of bone is a confusing term that is sometimes used to encompass non-ossifying fibroma and fibrous cortical defect, and at other times synonymously with just non-ossifying fibromas. As non-ossifying fibroma and fibrous cortical defect are histologically the same, and differ only in ...
Article

Page kidney

Page kidney refers to the phenomenon of hypertension that develops following long-standing compression of renal parenchyma by subcapsular renal collection, e.g. haematoma, seroma, urinoma. Pathology Compression of the renal parenchyma results in compression of the renal vessels, which leads to...
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Medical abbreviations and acronyms (X)

This article contains a list of commonly used medical abbreviations and acronyms that start with the letter X and may be encountered in medicine and radiology (please keep in alphabetic order). A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L -M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z ...
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Dravet syndrome

Dravet syndrome, previously known as severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy (SMEI), is a rare form of epilepsy usually presenting in the first 1-2 years of life. Clinical presentation The typical presentation occurs during the first six months to one year of life as tonic-clonic seizures in a fe...
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Klinefelter syndrome

Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is a chromosomal anomaly, which in most cases is characterised by 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is 0.15-0.2% of live births. Clinical presentation the testes are normal prior to puberty and small in post pubertal testes...
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Fetal valproate syndrome

Fetal valproate syndrome (FVS) is a potential embryopathy that can occur as a result from maternal intake of valproic acid (sodium valproate) during pregnancy. Clinical presentation There is a wide clinical spectrum which includes neural tube defects mental retardation craniofacial anomalie...
Article

LI-RADS

LI-RADS (Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System) is both a set of standardised terminology and a classification system for imaging findings in liver lesions. The LI-RADS score for a liver lesion is an indication of its relative risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The classification system ...
Article

Popliteal venous aneurysm

Popliteal venous aneurysms are rare than those of the popliteal artery and are mostly asymptomatic. However, due to the disturbance of the venous blood flow, they can lead to potentially life-threatening consequences, such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). Epidemiology ...
Article

Chronic kidney disease

Chronic kidney disease (CKD), also known as chronic renal failure, is a progressive loss of glomerular function caused by a long-standing renal parenchymal disease. It is present when the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 for three consecutive months or greater than...
Article

Ultrasound-guided spinal anaesthesia

With the growing incidence of obesity in the western world, ultrasound-guided anaesthesia is becoming more common. Spinal anaesthesia is traditionally administered by identifying relevant surface anatomy and imaging is rarely used for pre-procedural identification of structures.  Indications l...
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Valproate-induced hyperammonaemic encephalopathy

Valproate-induced hyperammonaemic encephalopathy (VHE), also known as valproic acid-induced hyperammonaemic encephalopathy, is a rare type of non-cirrhotic hyperammonaemic encephalopathy caused by use of sodium valproate, a drug commonly used as an anti-epileptic and mood stabiliser. Epidemiolo...
Article

Hepatic encephalopathy

Hepatic encephalopathy, also known as portosystemic encephalopathy, refers to a spectrum of neuropsychiatric abnormalities occurring in patients with liver dysfunction and portal hypertension. It results from exposure of the brain to excessive amounts of ammonia.  Terminology Hepatic encephalo...
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Contrast-induced nephropathy

Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) describes an association between intravenous or intraarterial contrast administration and renal impairment, but increasingly the evidence shows that contrast is not the cause of the renal impairment and that confounding factors such as sepsis are likely to be r...
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Patella alta

Patella alta, or a high riding patella, describes a situation where the position of the patella is considered high. It may be idiopathic or may result secondary to a patellar tendon rupture.  Epidemiology Associations Several conditions are known to be associated with patella alta, including:...
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Blake's pouch cyst

Blake's pouch cyst is a cystic appearing structure that represents posterior ballooning of the inferior medullary velum into the cisterna magna, below and posterior to the vermis that communicates with an open fourth ventricle. It is caused by a failure of regression of Blake's pouch secondary t...
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Senile calcific scleral plaques

Senile calcific scleral plaques, also known as senile scleral plaques (SSP), are benign scleral degenerations common in elderly individuals. They are a common incidental finding on CT imaging. Epidemiology The prevalence of SSP increases with age, from ~2.5% at age 60, to 25% at age 80 years a...
Article

Internal carotid artery dissection

Internal carotid artery dissection, like arterial dissection elsewhere, is a result of blood entering the media through a tear in the intima 1 and is a common cause of stroke in younger patients. Epidemiology Dissection may occur at any age, but is a common cause of stroke in young patients (2...
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Normal head and neck imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the head and neck and surrounding structures, divided by region and modality. Neck For normal spinal imaging, please see: normal spinal imaging Plain radiographs soft tissue: example 1 soft tissue: example 2 CT soft tissue contrast: exampl...
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Rokitansky nodule

A Rokitansky nodule or dermoid plug refers to a solid protuberance projecting from an ovarian cyst in the context of a mature cystic teratoma. It often contains calcific, dental, adipose, hair and/or sebaceous components 1.  History and etymology It is named after Carl von Rokitansky (1804-187...
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Transitional cell carcinoma (urinary tract)

Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), also called urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC), is the most common primary malignancy of the urinary tract and may be found along its entire length, from the renal pelvis to the bladder.  As imaging findings and treatment vary according to where along the urinary...
Article

Left superior intercostal vein

The left superior intercostal vein drains the left posterosuperior hemithorax and is considered to be part of the azygos venous system even though it does not directly drain into the azygos vein.  Gross anatomy Origin and course The left superior intercostal vein forms by the union of the 2nd...
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Left anterior descending artery

The left anterior descending (LAD) artery, also known as the anterior interventricular branch, is a branch of the left coronary artery.  Gross anatomy It descends along the inteventricular groove. It can be divided into proximal, mid and distal segments and this helps to differentiate the nam...
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Trochlear apparatus calcification

Trochlear apparatus calcification in the orbit is a common incidental finding on CT of the head, found in ~12.5% of patients. There is no association with diabetes mellitus but an association has been demonstrated with autoimmune disease and elevated ALP 1,2. 
Article

Intracranial epidermoid cyst

Intracranial epidermoid cysts are relatively common congenital lesions which account for about 1% of all intracranial tumours. They result from inclusion of ectodermal elements during neural tube closure, and typically present in middle age due to mass effect on adjacent structures. Their conten...
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Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the tracheobronchial tree

Adenoid cystic carcinomas of the tracheobronchial tree are a type of low-grade tracheal tumour. They are considered to be the second most common primary tumour of the trachea. Epidemiology They are usually first recognised in patients in their 4th and 5th decades. There is no recognised gender...
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Calcification of the globe (differential)

Calcification of the globe has many causes, varying from the benign to malignant. When calcification is seen of the posterior half of the globe, it could relate to any of the layers (scleral, choroidal or retinal), as it is not possible to separate them out on CT. Retinal drusen: 1% population...
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Vascular malformations and tumours

Vascular malformations and tumours are a heterogeneous group of lesions that may affect the arterial, capillary, venous or lymphatic system or any combination thereof. They encompass a bewildering range of lesions,  syndromes, and masses ranging from the relatively common (e.g. infantile haemang...
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Subcapsular perirenal haematoma

A subcapsular perirenal haematoma is a form of perirenal haematoma where blood accumulates beneath the renal capsular margin. Pathology It can arise from a number of causes trauma, important in assessing renal trauma grading post procedural, e.g. extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) ...
Article

Bronchial carcinoid tumour

Bronchial carcinoid tumours are carcinoid tumours primarily occurring in relation to a bronchus. They were previously incorrectly termed as bronchial adenomas. They usually occur in association with a segmental or larger bronchus. Epidemiology Typically affects patients from 3rd to 7th decades...
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Aortoiliac occlusive disease

Aortoiliac occlusive disease refers to complete occlusion of the aorta distal to the renal arteries. Terminology When the clinical triad of impotence, pelvis and thigh claudication, and absence of the femoral pulses are present, it may also be called Leriche syndrome, which usually affects you...
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Lung cancer (staging - IASLC 8th edition)

The IASLC (International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer) 8th edition lung cancer staging system was introduced in 2016 and supersedes the IASLC 7th edition.  It is as follows: TNM system T: primary tumour Tx: primary tumour cannot be assessed or tumour proven by the presence of mal...
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Cancer staging list

Cancer staging using a number of systems to help direct treatment and aid prognosis.  Staging systems TNM FIGO (in gynaecological cancer) Dukes staging system Examples Breast breast cancer staging Chest lung cancer staging malignant pleural mesothelioma staging Gastrointestinal oesop...
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Intracranial hypotension

Intracranial hypotension, also known as craniospinal hypotension is defined as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure <7 cm H2O in patients with clinical presentation compatible with intracranial hypotension, which are postural headache, nausea, vomiting, neck pain, visual and hearing disturbances, ...
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Small cell lung cancer (staging - superseded)

Previously, small cell lung cancer (SCLC) was not staged in the same manner as non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but since 2013 both are staged using the IASLC (International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer) lung cancer staging system (currently in its 8th edition, published in 2016)....
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Lung cancer (staging - IASLC 7th edition - superseded)

The IASLC (International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer) 7th edition lung cancer staging system was proposed in 2010 and has now been updated and superseded by the 8th edition, published in 2016. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) used to be staged di...
Article

Focal nodular hyperplasia

Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a regenerative mass lesion of the liver and the second most common benign liver lesion (most common is a haemangioma). Many FNHs have characteristic radiographic features in multimodality imaging, but some lesions may be atypical in appearance. FNHs are typical...
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EDiR day 2 exam

The EDiR day 2 exam was part of the European Diploma in Radiology. It was held on the second day of a two-day exam and was divided into two parts. Only candidates that passed day 1 were eligible for the day 2 examination. The examination was oral, and there was one examiner per candidate (30 min...
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EDiR day 1 exam

Until March 2016 the European Diploma in Radiology was a two-day exam.  EDiR day 1 exam was divided into two parts: part 1 short cases (SCs): computer-based (90 minutes) multiple response questions (MRQs): computer-based (90 minutes) part 2 skills examination: practical-oriented cases, com...
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European Society of Radiology

The European Society of Radiology (ESR) was formed in 2005 from the amalgamation of the European Congress of Radiology (ECR) and the European Association of Radiology (EAR).  Leadership Chairpersons of the ESR Board of Directors Bernd Hamm                   2018-2019 Paul M Parizel          ...
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Pulmonary hypertension (2013 classification)

In 2013, the 5th World Symposium on pulmonary hypertension took place in Nice, France and modified the classification system for pulmonary hypertension.  The modified system divides pulmonary hypertension into five groups: group 1: pulmonary arterial hypertension (disorders of the pulmonary ar...
Article

Phlegmasia cerulea dolens

Phlegmasia cerulea dolens (PCD) is an uncommon complication of deep venous thrombosis, which results from extensive thrombotic occlusion of the major and collateral veins of an extremity (usually the legs). Epidemiology Left leg is more commonly affected than the right 4. Risk factors Risk f...
Article

International Day of Radiology

The International Day of Radiology (IDOR) is an annual celebration held on the anniversary of the date of discovery of x-rays, i.e. November 8th 1895. The sixth annual celebration was held on November 8th 2017.  History The day, first commemorated in 2012, started as, and remains, a joint ente...
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Tracheal masses

The differential for tracheal masses can be rather wide. For a single mass consider: metastasis  direct invasion from adjacent organ (lung, thryoid,esophagus) distant metastsis ( such as melanoma)  primary neoplasms: squamous cell carcinoma: commonest primary tracheal malignancy 2 ~50 % a...
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Medical abbreviations and acronyms (E)

This article contains a list of commonly used medical abbreviations and acronyms that start with the letter E and may be encountered in medicine and radiology (please keep in alphabetic order). A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L -M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z ...
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Tuberculosis (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Tuberculosis is a non-bacterial multisystem infection that often affects the lungs. It may be a primary tuberculous infection, secondary infection or appear as chronic scarring. TB may also be seen on a chest x-ray as lymph...
Article

Extraskeletal osteosarcoma

Extraskeletal osteosarcoma (ESOS) is a rare mesenchymal malignant tumour that occurs in the retroperitoneum and soft tissue of extremities without any attachment to bone. Epidemiology Extraskeletal osteosarcoma in contrast to other subtypes of osteosarcoma occurs infrequently in individuals un...
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Slash

A slash (the forward slash in English is formally called the solidus) is used mainly as a substitute for the word 'or'. Radiopaedia.org follows standard English style with no space either preceding or following a slash. A slash is often used to avoid indicating a preference for one of the terms ...
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European Diploma in Radiology exam structure

In March 2016, the European Diploma in Radiology (EDiR) exam structure was updated from a two-day exam with a viva voce component, to a single day exam 1. The current exam structure consists of three parts: multiple response questions (MRQs) computer-based (90 minutes) short cases (SCs) com...
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Pulmonary hypertension

Pulmonary hypertension is defined as a resting mean pulmonary arterial pressure of 25 mmHg or greater at right heart catheterisation, which is a haemodynamic feature that is shared by all types of pulmonary hypertension. A resting mean pulmonary arterial pressure of 20 mmHg or less is considered...
Article

Os peroneum

An os peroneum is a small accessory bone located at the lateral plantar aspect of the cuboid within the substance of the peroneus longus tendon as it arches around the cuboid. It is very common, seen in up to 26% of feet 1. Differential diagnosis It should not be mistaken for: os vesalianum ...
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Apophysis of the proximal 5th metatarsal

The apophysis of the proximal 5th metatarsal lies laterally and is oriented longitudinally parallel to the shaft. Apophysis of the fifth metatarsal base appears on plain radiographs at age 12 for boys and 10 for girls. Fusion of the apophysis to the metatarsal base usually occurs within the fol...
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Fractures of the proximal fifth metatarsal

The proximal 5th metatarsal is the site of a number of fractures and variants which mimic fractures. These include: stress fracture of the 5th metatarsal Jones fracture avulsion fracture of the proximal 5th metatarsal os vesalianum or os peroneum normal apophysis of the proximal 5th metatar...
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Avulsion fracture of the 5th metatarsal styloid

Avulsion fracture of the 5th metatarsal styloid, also known as a pseudo-Jones fracture or a dancer fracture, is one of the more common foot avulsion injuries and accounts for over 90% of fractures of the base of the 5th metatarsal. Despite what should be a simple entity, controversy exists, as ...
Article

Jones fracture

A Jones fracture is an extra-articular fracture at the base of the fifth metatarsal.  Pathology It is a transverse fracture at the base of the fifth metatarsal, 1.5 to 3 cm distal to the proximal tuberosity at the metadiaphyseal junction, without distal extension.  Mechanism The fracture is ...
Article

Solitary ill-defined osteolytic lesion (differential)

Ill-defined solitary osteolytic lesions can be caused by following entities 1: intraosseous haemangioma chondroblastoma osteoblastoma giant cell tumour fibrosarcoma of bone malignant fibrous histiocytoma chondrosarcoma osteosarcoma Ewing's sarcoma angiosarcoma multiple myeloma intrao...
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Osteogenesis imperfecta

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) refers to a heterogeneous group of congenital, non-sex-linked, genetic disorders of collagen type I production, involving connective tissues and bones.  The hallmark feature of osteogenesis imperfecta is osteoporosis and fragile bones that fracture easily, as well a...
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Osteogenesis imperfecta classification

The several forms of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) have been classified, representing wide variation in appearance and severity, and clinical features vary widely not only between types but within types. Classification OI was initially classified by type according to a scheme developed by Dr Da...
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Facial fractures

Facial fractures are commonly caused by blunt or penetrating trauma sustained during motor vehicle accidents, assaults, and falls. The facial bones are thin and relatively fragile making them susceptible to injury. Epidemiology Males are affected more commonly than females and facial fractures...
Article

Left lower lobe posterior segment

The left lower lobe posterior or posterior basal segment is one of the four bronchopulmonary segments of the left lower lobe. It is the most inferoposterior of the segments in the left lower lobe, below the superior segment. Related pathology Due to its low and posterior position, pathology in...
Article

Left lower lobe lateral segment

The left lower lobe lateral or lateral basal segment is one of the four bronchopulmonary segments of the left lower lobe. It is the most inferolateral of the segments in the left lower lobe, below the superior segment.
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Left lower lobe anteromedial segment

The left lower lobe anteromedial segment (or cardiac segment) is one of the bronchopulmonary segments of the left lower lobe. It is the most anteromedial of the segments within the base of the left upper lobe. It is the equivalent segment merger of the anterior and medial segments of the right ...
Article

Left upper lobe inferior lingular segment

The left upper lobe inferior lingular segment is one of the four bronchopulmonary segments of the left upper lobe. It lies below the superior lingular segment of the left upper lobe.
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Left upper lobe superior lingular segment

The left upper lobe superior lingular segment is one of the four bronchopulmonary segments of the left upper lobe. It lies below the apicoposterior and anterior segments of the left upper lobe.
Article

Left main bronchus

The trachea bifurcates into the right and left main bronchi at the level of the carina, supplying air to the right and left lungs respectively. Each main or primary bronchus enters the hilum of its lung and gives rise to secondary lobar bronchi, which further divide into tertiary segmental bronc...
Article

Tracheobronchial tree

The tracheobronchial tree is the branching tree of airways beginning at the larynx and extending inferiorly and peripherally into the lungs as bronchioles. The luminal diameter decreases as the branching increases more peripherally into the lungs. The walls of the airway down to the level of the...
Article

Left upper lobe bronchus

The left main bronchus divides into the left upper lobe bronchus and the left lower lobe bronchus. It is one of the secondary lobar bronchi. Gross Anatomy The left upper lobe bronchus is very short and divides immediately into the segmental bronchi.  There are usually 10 individual segmental b...
Article

Left lower lobe bronchus

The left main bronchus divides into the left lower lobe bronchus and the left upper lobe bronchus. It is one of the secondary lobar bronchi. Gross anatomy The left lower lobe bronchus is very short and divides immediately into the segmental bronchi.  There are usually 10 individual segmental b...
Article

Secondary lobar bronchi

The secondary lobar bronchi or just lobar bronchi are the first subdivision of the main (or primary) bronchi. Like the primary and tertiary bronchi, they are conducting airways that are lined by cartilage rings. The left main bronchus gives rise to 2 secondary bronchi: left upper lobe bronchus...
Article

Left lower lobe superior segment

The left lower lobe superior or apical segment is one of the four bronchopulmonary segments of the left lower lobe. It is the most apical of the segments in the left lower lobe, posterior to the upper aspect of the oblique fissure and apicoposterior segment of the left upper lobe. Related patho...
Article

Solitary well defined osteolytic lesion (differential)

Well defined solitary osteolytic lesions can be seen with following conditions 1-2: subchondral geodes or cysts intraosseous ganglion intraosseous tophus(gout)  unicameral bone cyst aneurysmal bone cyst glomus tumour enchondroma epidermoid inclusion cyst chondroblastoma non-ossifying f...
Article

Intraosseous ganglion

An intraosseous ganglion is a benign subchondral radiolucent lesion without degenerative arthritis.  Epidemiology  Tends to occur in middle age. Clinical presentation Patients may have mild localised pain. Pathology They are uni-/multilocular cysts surrounded by a fibrous lining, containin...
Article

WHO histological classification of benign renal neoplasms

Benign renal tumours were histologically classified according to the WHO in 2004 as follows 1: Renal cell tumours renal oncocytoma renal papillary adenoma - renal adenoma Metanephric tumours metanephric adenoma of kidney metanephric adenofibroma of kidney metanephric stromal tumour of kid...
Article

Renal cell carcinoma (TNM staging)

Renal cell carcinoma staging using the TNM staging system for renal cell carcinoma. Older but still widely used system in some practices is the Robson staging system. TNM staging (7th edition) T T1 T1a: tumour confined to kidney, <4 cm T1b: ltumour confined to kidney, >4 cm but <7 cm T2: l...
Article

Lisfranc injury

Lisfranc injuries, also called Lisfranc fracture-dislocations, are the most common type of dislocation involving the foot and correspond to the dislocation of the articulation of the tarsus with the metatarsal bases. Pathology Anatomy The Lisfranc joint is the articulation of the tarsus with ...
Article

Renal oncocytoma

Renal oncocytoma is a relatively benign renal tumour. The main clinical importance of this lesion is the difficulty in pre-operatively distinguishing it from renal cell carcinomas, as epidemiology, presentation, imaging and even histology can be very similar.  Epidemiology Renal oncocytomas ac...
Article

Bone tumours

There are a bewildering number of bone tumours with a wide variety of radiological appearances: bone-forming tumours osteoid osteoma osteoblastoma bone island / enostosis osteopoikilosis osteoma osteosarcoma cartilage-forming tumours enchondroma enchondromatosis-Ollier disease Maffucc...
Article

Osteosarcoma

Osteosarcomas are malignant bone forming tumours and the second most common primary bone tumour after multiple myeloma. They account for ~20% of all primary bone tumours and occur in primary and secondary forms, each with different epidemiology and distribution. Although plain radiography can pr...

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