Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

11,850 results found
Article

Abnormal renal rotation

Abnormal renal rotation (renal malrotation) refers to an anatomical variation in the position of the kidneys, in particular to anomalous orientation of the renal hilum. It may occur unilaterally or bilaterally. It is almost always an asymptomatic incidental finding. Epidemiology Malrotation is...
Article

Diaphragm

The diaphragm is the dome-shaped muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity, enclosing the inferior thoracic aperture. Gross anatomy The muscular fibres of the diaphragm originate around the circumference of the inferior thorax and converge to a common insertion point ...
Article

Paradoxical embolism

Paradoxical embolism is a clinical scenario in which an embolism arising in the venous system crosses into the arterial circulation where it causes tissue infarction. The most common clinically important site of embolisation is the cerebral circulation. Epidemiology The prevalence of paradoxic...
Article

Ventriculus terminalis

The ventriculus terminalis or terminal ventricle of Krause, also known as the 5th ventricle, is an ependymal-lined fusiform dilatation of the terminal central canal of the spinal cord, positioned at the transition from the tip of the conus medullaris to the origin of the filum terminale.  It re...
Article

Macklin effect (pulmonary interstitial emphysema and pneumomediastinum)

The Macklin effect describes one of the pathophysiological processes of pneumomediastinum in blunt chest trauma. The Macklin effect accounts for ~40% of severe blunt traumatic pneumomediastinum. Exclusion of tracheobronchial and oesophageal causes of pneumomediastinum is mandatory to exclude con...
Article

Gastric duplication cyst

A gastric duplication cyst is a rare congenital foregut duplication cyst affecting the stomach. It accounts for less than 10% of all gastrointestinal duplications. The most common site of gastrointestinal tract duplication cysts (GTDCs) is the ileum, followed by oesophagus, large bowel and jejun...
Article

Medullary nephrocalcinosis

Renal medullary nephrocalcinosis is the commonest form of nephrocalcinosis and refers to the deposition of calcium salts in the medulla of the kidney. Due to the concentrating effects of the loops of Henle, and the biochemical milieu of the medulla, compared to the cortex, it is 20 times more co...
Article

Foramen caecum

The foramen caecum represents a primitive tract between the anterior cranial fossa and the nasal space. It is located along the anterior cranial fossa, anterior to the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone and posterior to the frontal bone, within the frontoethmoidal suture. It lies at a variable...
Article

Crohn disease

Crohn disease, also known as regional enteritis, is an idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease characterised by widespread discontinuous gastrointestinal tract inflammation. The terminal ileum and proximal colon are most often affected. Extraintestinal disease is common. Epidemiology The diagnos...
Article

Epibasal fracture of the thumb

Epibasal fractures of the thumb (also called pseudo-Bennett fracture) are two-piece fractures of the proximal first metacarpal bone. They are usually stable, depending on the degree of displacement, and often do not require surgery. It is important to distinguish them from intra-articular fractu...
Article

Cortical nephrocalcinosis

Renal cortical nephrocalcinosis is ~20 times less common than medullary nephrocalcinosis. Pathology Aetiology renal cortical necrosis: common 2 renal infarction/ischaemia sepsis toxaemia of pregnancy drugs snake bites arsenic poisoning extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) haem...
Article

Myxoid uterine leiomyoma

Myxoid uterine leiomyomas are a relatively rare pathological subtype of uterine leiomyomas. Terminology They are not to be confused with myxoid degeneration of a uterine leiomyoma which is a different entity. Pathology Myxoid leiomyomas contain abundant myxoid material between smooth muscle ...
Article

Vaginal leiomyoma

Vaginal leiomyomas are an extremely rare entity and fall under extra-uterine pelvic leiomyomas.  Epidemiology They are extremely rare with only ~ 300 cases reported in literature 3. Pathology It may occur anywhere along the vaginal canal and is usually localized, mobile, non-tender, and circ...
Article

Benign metastasising leiomyoma

Benign metastasising leiomyomas are a rare metastatic phenomenon that is observed when a pelvic leiomyoma is present. Epidemiology Women who have undergone hysterectomy for leiomyomas are most commonly affected. Clinical presentation Patients are usually asymptomatic at presentation. A histo...
Article

Intravenous leiomyomatosis

Intravenous leiomyomatosis (IVLM) is characterised by the extension into venous channels of histologically benign smooth muscle tumour arising from either the wall of a vessel or from a uterine leiomyoma. Terminology Intravenous leiomyomatosis should not be confused with benign metastasising l...
Article

Leiomyoma of the uterine cervix

Leiomyomas of the uterine cervix are an unusual variation in terms of location for a uterine leiomyoma. Epidemiology They are rare and account for ~5% (range 0.6-10%) of uterine leiomyomas 1,4. Clinical presentation Clinical symptoms of cervical leiomyomas, including hypermenorrhea, dysmenor...
Article

Parasitic leiomyoma

Parasitic leiomyomas are considered a type of extra-uterine leiomyoma and present as peritoneal pelvic benign smooth-muscle masses separate from the uterus.  Pathology It likely originates as a pedunculated subserosal leiomyoma that twists and torses from its uterine pedicle. The contact with ...
Article

Lesions of the corpus callosum (differential)

Lesions of the corpus callosum are uncommon and arise from multiple different aetiologies. The lesions can be classified according to underlying pathophysiology 4-6. Congenital agenesis of the corpus callosum enlarged perivascular spaces tubonodular pericallosal lipoma: associated with dysge...
Article

Autoimmune encephalitis

Autoimmune encephalitis, also known as autoimmune limbic encephalitis, is an antibody-mediated brain inflammatory process, typically involving the limbic system, although all parts of the brain can be involved.  Autoimmune encephalitis can be divided broadly into two groups, based on whether or...
Article

Castellvi classification of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae

The Castellvi classification is used for lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LSTV): type I: enlarged and dysplastic transverse (at least 19 mm) Ia: unilateral Ib: bilateral type II: pseudoarticulation of the transverse process and sacrum with incomplete lumbarisation/sacralisation; enlargemen...
Article

Thorotrast

Thorotrast is a radioactive radiographic contrast agent containing thorium dioxide first produced in Germany in 1928 and was in use until the 1950s. It was used primarily for cerebral angiography, and 90% of the estimated 50,000-100,000 patients who received it were studied for this purpose.  T...
Article

Menkes disease

Menkes disease, also known as trichopoliodystrophy or Kinky hair kinky vessel syndrome, is an X-linked recessive disorder that results in a derangement in copper handling. It results in low copper levels and subsequently, deficiency in copper-dependant mitochondrial enzymes.  Epidemiology Menk...
Article

Transposition of the great arteries

Transposition of the great arteries (TGA) is the most common cyanotic congenital cardiac anomaly presenting during the newborn period, with cyanosis in the first 24 hours of life. It accounts for up to 7% of all congenital cardiac anomalies 1  and can be assessed with echocardiography, gated car...
Article

Tetralogy of Fallot

Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is the overall most common cyanotic congenital heart condition with many cases presenting after the newborn period. It has been classically characterised by the combination of ventricular septal defect (VSD), right ventricular outflow tract obstruction (RVOTO), overridi...
Article

Corpus callosum hyperintensity (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the causes of corpus callosum hyperintensity is: I MADE A PHD Mnemonic I: infections (e.g. tuberculosis, varicella, rotavirus, HSV)  M: Marchiafava-Bignami syndrome A: AIDS encephalopathy D: diffuse axonal injury and diffuse vascular injury E: epilepsy  A: a...
Article

Gastric metastases

Gastric metastases are rare, found in less than 2% of patients who die of a carcinoma 6. Epidemiology Usually affects the middle-aged and elderly population. Affects males and females equally without predilection. Clinical presentation The patient may be asymptomatic, but the most common sig...
Article

Sesamoid

Sesamoids, also known as sesamoid bones, are focal areas of ossification within tendons as they pass over joints 1. They can also occur in ligaments and usually measure a few millimeters in diameter. Their function is purported to be to alter the direction of the tendon and modify pressure, ther...
Article

Broad ligament leiomyoma

Broad ligament leiomyomas are extra-uterine leiomyomas that occur in relation to the broad ligament.  Terminology Broad ligament leiomyomas are also referred as a type of parasitic leiomyomas 5. Clinical presentation While in most cases broad ligament leiomyomas are asymptomatic, patients ma...
Article

Subserosal leiomyoma of the uterus

Subserosal uterine leiomyoma is a subtype of uterine leiomyoma that often exophytically projects outwards from a subserosal location. While its exact definition may vary, a leiomyoma is often called subserosal if >50% of the fibroid protrudes out of the serosal surface of the uterus 2.  Clinica...
Article

Intramural uterine leiomyoma

Intramural uterine leiomyoma is the most common type of uterine leiomyoma in terms of location. They are centred primarily within the myometrium. A large intramural uterine leiomyoma can, however, have a submucosal or subserosal component. Clinical presentation They are usually asymptomatic; h...
Article

Bridging vessel sign

The bridging vessel sign refers to an appearance of vessels coursing from the uterus into an adjoining pelvic mass (a vascular bridge). This sign helps to differentiate a pedunculated subserosal uterine leiomyoma from other juxtauterine masses of ovarian, adnexal or bowel origin. Colour and pow...
Article

Adrenal haemorrhage

Adrenal haemorrhage can result from a variety of traumatic and non-traumatic causes. When unilateral, it is often clinically silent. In contrast, bilateral adrenal haemorrhage can lead to catastrophic adrenal insufficiency. Clinical presentation The large majority of patients with unilateral a...
Article

Diffuse peritoneal leiomyomatosis

Diffuse or disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis, also known as leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata, is an exceedingly rare benign disorder characterised by multiple vascular leiomyomas growing along the submesothelial tissues of the abdominopelvic peritoneum. Epidemiology It is usually d...
Article

Submucosal uterine leiomyoma

Submucosal leiomyomas of the uterus refer to a subtype of uterine leiomyoma that primarily projects into the endometrial cavity. They are least common albeit the most symptomatic type of leiomyoma. Clinical presentation Submucosal leiomyomas can be a common source of abnormal uterine bleeding ...
Article

Echogenic fetal bowel

Echogenic fetal bowel is an observation in antenatal ultrasound imaging, in which fetal bowel appears to be brighter than it is supposed to be. It is a soft marker for trisomy 21 and has several other associations. When observed, it needs to be interpreted in the context of other associated abno...
Article

Pancreatic metastases

Pancreatic metastases are uncommon and are only found in a minority (3-12%) of patients with widespread metastatic disease at autopsy . They account for only 2-5% of all pancreatic malignancies. Although essentially any primary may eventually deposit in the panaceas the most common primaries en...
Article

Hypervascular liver lesions

Hypervascular liver lesions may be caused by primary liver pathology or metastatic disease. Differential diagnosis Primary lesions hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) most common hypervascular primary liver malignancy early arterial phase enhancement and then rapid wash out rim enhancement of c...
Article

Ulcerative colitis

Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease that not only predominantly affects the colon, but also has extraintestinal manifestations. Epidemiology Typically ulcerative colitis manifests in young adults (15-40 years of age) and is more prevalent in males but the onset of disease after...
Article

Neonatal respiratory distress (causes)

Causes of neonatal distress can be broadly split into intrathoracic, extrathoracic and systemic: Intrathoracic Medical respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) transient tachypnoea of the newborn (TTN) meconium aspiration syndrome bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)...
Article

Concha bullosa

Concha bullosa (plural: conchae bullosae) (also known as middle turbinate pneumatisation) is a common finding and although associated with deviation of the nasal septum, it is usually of little clinical importance. Epidemiology Concha bullosa is a normal variant and is one of the most common v...
Article

Perianal abscess

Perianal abscess refers to a formed infective-inflammatory collection within the perianal region. It forms part of the broader group of anorectal abscesses. They are often associated with perianal fistulae and are components of grades 2 and 4 fistulae of the St James’ University Hospital classif...
Article

Os trigonum

Os trigonum is one of the bony ossicles of the foot and can be mistaken for a fracture.  It sits posterior to the talus on the lateral foot radiograph and represents a failure of fusion of the lateral tubercle of the posterior process. It is estimated to be present in ~7% of adults 1. The ossic...
Article

Diverticulitis

Diverticulitis is one of the presentations of diverticular disease and is most often a complication of colonic diverticulosis. Differentiating one from the other is critical since uncomplicated diverticulosis is mostly asymptomatic and acute diverticulitis is a potentially life-threatening illne...
Article

Colonic diverticulosis

Colonic diverticulosis refers to the presence of multiple diverticula. It is quite distinct from diverticulitis which describes inflammation and infection of one or multiple diverticula. Epidemiology Diverticulosis is very common in westernised countries and is typically found in older individ...
Article

Calcific tendinitis

Calcific tendinitis (or calcific tendonitis) is a self-limiting condition due to deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite within tendons, usually of the rotator cuff. It is a common presentation of the hydroxyapatite crystal deposition disease (HADD).  Epidemiology Typically this condition affects...
Article

Intracranial epidermoid cyst

Intracranial epidermoid cysts are relatively common congenital lesions which account for about 1% of all intracranial tumours. They result from inclusion of ectodermal elements during neural tube closure, and typically present in middle age due to mass effect on adjacent structures. Their conten...
Article

Ovary

The ovaries are paired female gonads of the reproductive and endocrine systems. They lie within the ovarian fossa on the posterior wall of the true pelvis.  Gross anatomy The ovaries are ovoid in shape and measure approximately 1.5-3.0 cm x 1.5-3.0 cm x 1.0-2.0 cm (length x width x thickness) ...
Article

Spina bifida occulta

Spina bifida occulta is the mildest form of spina bifida and is a type of neural tube defect.  Terminology While typically referring to asymptomatic posterior fusion defects, some authors 5 use it as a broad term that encompasses closed spinal defects such as: diastematomyelia diplomyelia d...
Article

Posterior vertebral fusion anomalies

Posterior vertebral fusion anomalies are relatively common and should not be mistaken for fractures. They are thought to be both pathological (e.g. spondylolysis) but are typically asymptomatic and incidental, and considered as anatomical variants. There are six types of posterior vertebral fusi...
Article

Fetal intra-abdominal cysts (differential)

Fetal intra-abdominal cystic lesions can arise from a number of entities: Physiologic fetal gastric dilatation / fetal gastric bubble (can be pathological if there is a gastric outlet obstruction normal fetal gallbladder Pathologic No colour flow fetal choledochal cyst fetal hepatic cyst ...
Article

RAD-AID

RAD-AID (also known as RAD-AID International) is a US-based international non-profit organisation established to advance the provision of imaging services for medically-underserved populations in the developing world.  Current activities As of July 2018, RAD-AID comprises over 6,000 volunteers...
Article

Caisson disease

Caisson disease is an uncommon diving-related decompression illness that is an acute neurological emergency typically occurring in deep sea divers.  Diving-related decompression illness is classified into two main categories 3: arterial gas embolism secondary to pulmonary decompression barotra...
Article

Striated nephrogram

Striated nephrogram is a descriptive term indicating an appearance of alternating linear bands of high and low attenuation in a radial pattern extending through the corticomedullary layers of the kidney on iodine-based intravenous contrast enhanced imaging. It is important to know that a simila...
Article

Renal infarction

Renal infarction results from interruption of the normal blood supply to part of, or to the whole kidney. The main imaging differential diagnosis includes pyelonephritis and renal tumours. Epidemiology The demographics of affected patients will depend on the underlying cause, although as most ...
Article

Terms used in radiology

There are numerous terms used in radiology that are worth knowing and this is list of some of them.  General cyst pseudocyst dehiscence wound dehiscence exophytic forme fruste incidentaloma in extremis sequelae sine qua non CNS agnosia visual agnosia apraxia holocord presentation...
Article

Exophytic (definition)

Exophytic is a descriptive term used by radiologists/pathologists to describe solid organ lesions arising from the outer surface of the organ of origin. Literally exophytic only refers to those lesions arising from the outer surface, however radiologists and pathologists use the term to include...
Article

Periportal halo

Periportal halo or periportal collar sign is a zone of low attenuation seen around the portal veins on contrast-enhanced CT or hypoechogenicity on liver US. Periportal halos may occur around the central portal veins or their peripheral branches and occurs on both sides of the portal triads. Pat...
Article

Fetal ascites

Fetal ascites refers to the accumulation of free fluid in the fetal abdomen. It is often considered under the same spectrum of hydrops fetalis. Pathology Aetiology any condition that results in hydrops fetalis additional causes include idiopathic bowel perforation (e.g. meconium peritoniti...
Article

Haemangiopericytoma

Haemangiopericytoma is a term formerly used to describe a continuum of mesenchymal tumours with elevated cellularity found throughout the body in soft tissue and bone. After many years of controversy, haemangiopericytomas have been shown to not only share histological features similar to solitar...
Article

Marie Curie

Marie S Curie (1867-1934) was a Polish-born, French scientist known for her work in discovering radioactivity. Her work shaped medicine, warfare and scientific research for countless generations, earning her Nobel prizes in both physics and chemistry 1,3. Early life Maria Salomea Skłodowska wa...
Article

Cortical desmoid

Cortical desmoids, also known as cortical avulsive injuries or the Bufkin lesion, are a benign self-limiting entity. This is a classic "do not touch" lesion, and should not be confused with an aggressive cortical/periosteal process (e.g. osteosarcoma).  Terminology Cortical desmoid is a misnom...
Article

Intramuscular myxoma

Intramuscular myxomas are a rare benign type of soft tissue myxoma most commonly seen in middle-aged women. On imaging, they are often seen in large muscles from the thighs, buttocks, or shoulder girdle, and present as well-defined cystic-like lesions with a surrounding rim of fat.  Epidemiolog...
Article

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) refers to late pathological lung changes that develop several weeks later in infants on prolonged ventilation. Terminology BPD and chronic lung disease of prematurity (CLDP) have often been used interchangeably to describe the condition post-treatment of premat...
Article

Pelvis (Judet view)

The oblique pelvis otherwise known as the Judet view is an additional projection to the pelvic series when there is suspicion of an acetabular fracture. The Judet view is comprised of two projections, first the iliac oblique for assessment of the posterior column and anterior wall of the acetab...
Article

Fetal ovarian cyst

Fetal ovarian cysts refer to an ovarian cyst detected antenatally in a female fetus. They are relatively uncommon and are usually diagnosed in the 3rd trimester 5. Epidemiology From autopsy studies they are found in up to 30% of fetuses 1. Pathology The exact aetiology is not well known at t...
Article

D-dimer

D-dimer is a commonly tested biological marker which is produced by the enzymatic breakdown of cross-linked fibrin which forms the fibrous mesh of a blood clot. The measurement of d-dimer in the circulation acts as a marker of coagulation and fibrinolysis, which can be useful in the diagnosis of...
Article

Heterotopic pregnancy

Heterotopic pregnancy is a rare situation when there is an intra-uterine and extra-uterine (i.e. ectopic) pregnancy occurring simultaneously. Epidemiology The estimated incidence in the general population is estimated at 1:30,000 (for a naturally conceived pregnancy 7). The incidence among pat...
Article

Water-lily sign (hydatid cyst)

The water-lily sign is seen in hydatid infections when there is detachment of the endocyst membrane which results in floating membranes within the pericyst that mimic the appearance of a water lily. It is classically described on plain radiographs (mainly chest X-ray) when the collapsed membran...
Article

Medical abbreviations and acronyms (T)

This article contains a list of commonly used medical abbreviations and acronyms that start with the letter T and may be encountered in medicine and radiology (please keep in alphabetic order). A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L -M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z ...
Article

Hydatid disease

Hydatid cysts result from infection by the Echinococcus, and can result in cyst formation anywhere in the body.  Pathology There are two main species of the Echinococcus tapeworm 1,2: Echinococcus granulosus commoner pastoral: dog is a main host; most common form sylvatic: wolf is a main h...
Article

Cervical enlargement

The cervical enlargement is the source of the spinal nerves that contribute to the brachial plexus and supply the upper limbs. Gross anatomy It is one of two symmetrical enlargements which occupy the segments of the limb plexuses, the other being the lumbosacral enlargement for the lumbar and ...
Article

Avascular necrosis of the hip

Avascular necrosis of the hip is more common than other sites, presumably due to a combination of precarious blood supply and high loading when standing.  Clinical presentation The most common presenting symptom is a pain in the region of affected hip, thigh, groin, and buttock. Although few p...
Article

Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia

Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) is an extremely rare pulmonary disorder at the benign end of the neuroendocrine cells proliferation spectrum. It is mainly seen in non-smoker middle age females with a history of chronic cough or asthma.  On imaging, it is c...
Article

Niemann-Pick disease

Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) is actually a collection of a number of distinct autosomal recessive lysosomal storage diseases. They are divided into two groups of two based on the underlying metabolic deficiency: deficiency of acid sphingomyelinase 1,3,4 Niemann-Pick disease type A (NPD-A) sever...
Article

Niemann-Pick disease type A

Niemann-Pick disease type A (NPD-A) is one of a group of autosomal recessive lysosomal lipid storage disorders (see Niemann-Pick disease) that presents in early childhood and usually progresses to death within a few years. It shares the same enzyme deficiency as Niemann-Pick disease type B (NPD-...
Article

Niemann-Pick disease type C

Niemann-Pick disease type c (NPD-C or just NPC) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder classed under Niemann-Pick disease on account of clinical similarities, namely hepatosplenomegaly and variable involvement of the central nervous system.  Epidemiology NPD-C is inherited as a a...
Article

Niemann-Pick disease type B

Niemann-Pick disease type B (NPD-B), along with Niemann-Pick disease type A (NPD-A), is an autosomal recessive disorder due to acid sphingomyelinase deficiency resulting in abnormal storage of sphingomyelin. Common manifestation of NPD-B include hepatosplenomegaly, thrombocytopaenia and variabl...
Article

Sydney D Rowland

Sydney D Rowland (1872-1917), was the founder and editor of the Archives of Clinical Skiagraphy, the first regular journal of radiology to be published anywhere in the world. Early life Sydney Domville Rowland was born on 29th March 1872. His undergraduate preclinical studies were at Downing ...
Article

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease which results from the reactivation of John Cunningham virus (JC virus) infecting oligodendrocytes in patients with compromised immune systems. It is considered the most common clinical manifestation of John Cunningham v...
Article

Cystic lesions of the liver (differential)

Cystic lesions of liver carry a broad differential diagnosis. These include: simple cysts simple hepatic cyst biliary hamartoma Caroli disease adult polycystic liver disease infectious: inflammatory conditions hepatic abscess pyogenic hepatic abscess amoebic hepatic abscess hepatic hyd...
Article

Carotid body tumour

Carotid body tumour, also known as a chemodectoma or carotid body paraganglioma, is a highly vascular glomus tumour that arises from the paraganglion cells of the carotid body. It is located at the carotid bifurcation with characteristic splaying of the ICA and ECA.  Epidemiology Typically, ca...
Article

Archives of Clinical Skiagraphy

Archives of Clinical Skiagraphy was the first radiology scientific journal in the world with its first edition issued in May 1896. This is only six months after the discovery of x-rays by Wilhelm Roentgen on 8th November 1895.  History Its founder and editor was Sydney D Rowland (1872-1917), a...
Article

Tumours of the chest wall (differentials)

Tumours of the chest wall are varied, some of which are found most often in this region. They can be divided into benign and malignant tumours and into those which arise in the ribcage and those of soft tissue density. Benign Benign tumours include 1,3-4: soft tissue haemangioma: common lym...
Article

Intrabiliary rupture of hepatic hydatid cyst

Intrabiliary rupture of hepatic hydatid cyst is a common complication associated with hepatic hydatid cysts. It is important to appreciate the direct and indirect signs of this condition. Radiographic features The radiological features of intrabiliary rupture of a hepatic hydatid cyst can be c...
Article

Elastofibroma dorsi

Elastofibroma dorsi is a benign soft-tissue tumour with a characteristic location and imaging appearance. Epidemiology It is more frequently seen in older women, with a reported female predilection of 5-13:1. The estimated mean age at diagnosis is around 65-70 years. Clinical presentation El...
Article

Scaphotrapeziotrapezoidal arthritis

Scaphotrapeziotrapezoidal (STT or triscaphe joint) arthritis is common, occurring in ~40% of wrist radiographs. It is typically degenerative (i.e. osteoarthritis) and presents with radial-sided wrist pain in patients over 50 years. 
Article

Subcortical U-fibres

Subcortical U-fibres, also known as short association fibres, represent connections between adjacent gyri of the brain, located within the cortex or immediately deep to it in the very outer parts of the subcortical white matter 1.  They are among the last parts of the brain to myelinate, as lat...
Article

Gastric outlet obstruction

Gastric outlet obstruction is a syndrome resulting from mechanical obstruction of stomach emptying. Pathology Aetiology Gastric outlet obstruction can be due to malignant or benign causes. Malignant adenocarcinoma (second most common 4) GIST lymphoma (less commonly than other malignancies...
Article

Pulmonary metastases

Pulmonary metastases are common and the result of metastatic spread from a variety of primary tumours via blood or lymphatics. This article describes haematogenous pulmonary metastases with lymphangitis carcinomatosis discussed separately. Epidemiology The epidemiology will match that of the ...
Article

Testicular choriocarcinoma

Testicular choriocarcinoma is a type of non-seminomatous germ cell tumour.  Epidemiology Incidence peaks at around 20-30 years of age. Clinical presentation Can be variable with some patients initially presenting with metastates. Pathology It is most commonly detected as a component of a m...
Article

Spontaneous splenic rupture

Spontaneous splenic rupture (SSR) (or atraumatic splenic rupture) is rare, especially when compared to traumatic splenic rupture.  Pathology The pathogenesis of atraumatic splenic rupture is not well understood. Splenomegaly is present in almost all patients (~95%), although rupture of normal ...
Article

Anterior labroligamentous periosteal sleeve avulsion lesion

An anterior labroligamentous periosteal sleeve avulsion (ALPSA) lesion is similar to a Bankart lesion, in that it too is usually due to anterior shoulder dislocation and involves the anterior inferior labrum.  Unlike the Bankart lesion in which the labrum and glenoid periosteum are avulsed from...
Article

Os supratalare

An os supratalare is an accessory ossicle of the foot located at the superior aspect of the talar head or neck. It has a reported incidence of ~1% (range 0.2-2.4%) 1. It is almost always asymptomatic.  Differential diagnosis os supranaviculare is also anatomically seen in close proximity to th...

Updating… Please wait.
Loadinganimation

Alert accept

Error Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

Alert accept Thank you for updating your details.