Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

11,551 results found
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Transitional vertebra

Transitional vertebra is one that has indeterminate characteristic and features of vertebrae from adjacent vertebral segments. They occur at the junction between spinal morphological segments: atlanto-occipital junction atlanto-occipital assimilation: complete or partial fusion of C1 and the o...
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Transition zone

The transition zone of a nerve describes a roughly 2 mm length region where the myelin sheath changes from central to peripheral type.  This zone is susceptible to mechanical irritation and is implicated in neurovascular compression syndromes such as trigeminal neuralgia (CN V), hemifacial spasm...
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Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt

Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is a treatment for portal hypertension in which direct communication is formed between a hepatic vein and a branch of the portal vein, thus allowing some proportion of portal flow to bypass the liver. The target portosystemic gradient after TI...
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Transjugular renal biopsy

Transjugular renal biopsy can be performed to obtain an adequate tissue sample for histopathologic diagnosis on renal dysfunctions. It is usually performed in high-risk patients in whom percutaneous renal biopsy is not feasible or is contraindicated. This is also useful in morbidly obese patient...
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Transmantle sign (brain)

The transmantle sign is an MRI feature of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD), almost exclusively seen in type II focal cortical dysplasia (Taylor dysplasia - also known as transmantle cortical dysplasia for this reason). However, it is not always present, seen in ~45% (range 21-72%) of patients with...
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Transplant renal arterial pseudostenosis

Transplant renal arterial pseudostenosis is uncommon. It is a lesion in the iliac artery proximal to the implantation of the transplant renal artery. Epidemiology Uncommon, although as the population of renal transplant recipients has become older and more diabetic, the incidence of this disea...
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Transposition of inferior vena cava

Transposition of inferior vena-cava (also known as left sided IVC) refers to a variant course of the inferior vena cava. It is the most common anomaly of IVC and occurs due to persistence of left supracardinal vein. Diagnosis of left sided IVC is important for planning of vascular procedures l...
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Transposition of the great arteries

Transposition of the great arteries (TGA) is the most common cyanotic congenital cardiac anomaly with cyanosis in the first 24 hours of life. It accounts for up to 7% of all congenital cardiac anomalies 1  and can be assessed with echocardiography, gated cardiac CT, or cardiac MRI. Epidemiology...
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Transpyloric plane

The transpyloric plane, also known as Addison's plane, is an imaginary axial plane located midway between the jugular notch and superior border of pubic symphysis, at approximately the level of L1 vertebral body. It an important landmark as many key structures are visualised at this level, altho...
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Transrectal ultrasound

Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) is a technique that is used most commonly to evaluate the prostate gland, including ultrasound-guided prostate biopsies depth of invasion of colon/rectal cancer (for staging purposes) It can also be used for guidance in placing a transrectal drain, or in rare pro...
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Transsphenoidal hypophysectomy

Transsphenoidal hypophysectomy is a commonly used surgical approach for pituitary region masses, with many significant advantages over open craniotomy.  History The transsphenoidal approach was first described in 1907 by Schloffer, modified by Halstead and subsequently popularised by Harvey Cu...
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Transsphenoidal basilar skull fracture

Transsphenoidal basilar skull fractures are a particularly serious type of basilar skull fracture usually occurring in the setting of severe traumatic brain injury and with potential for serious complications including damaging the internal carotid arteries and optic nerves as well as high incid...
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Transtentorial herniation

Transtentorial herniation is a type of cerebral herniation. There are two types: descending transtentorial herniation, more frequently known as uncal herniation ascending transtentorial herniation, which is less common than uncal herniation
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Transudate

A transudate is a collection of fluid that has a relatively low specific gravity and protein concentration. They occur secondary to increased hydrostatic pressure or reduced colloid oncotic pressure: left ventricular failure (increased hydrostatic pressure) hypoalbuminaemia (decreased colloid ...
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Transureteroureterostomy

Transureteroureterostomy (TUU) is a procedure in which one ureter is divided and then connected (re-routed) into the other. It is performed when a distal ureter needs to be bypassed and can be performed instead of a psoas hitch or Boari flap. It may be preferable if the patient has had prior rad...
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Transurethral resection of the prostate

Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is a traditional therapy for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and prostatism from benign prostatic hyperplasia. TURP results in characteristic imaging features. Indications acute urinary retention recurrent infection recurrent haematuria azo...
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Transversalis fascia

Transversalis fascia is the lining fascia of the anterolateral abdominal wall which lies between the transversus abdominis muscle and peritoneum. Gross anatomy The transversalis fascia, inferior diaphragmatic fascia, pelvic fascia and iliacus fascia  form a continuous lining of the abdominal a...
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Transverse acetabular ligament

The transverse acetabular ligament is part of the labrum but has no cartilage cells. Its strong, flat fibres cross the acetabular notch forming a foramen through which vessels and nerves enter the joint.
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Transverse arch

The transverse arch of the foot is an arch in the coronal plane formed by the three cuneiforms, the cuboid, and the bases of the five metatarsals. They are held together by the deep transverse metatarsal ligaments. The peroneus longus and tibialis posterior tendons assist in maintaining the curv...
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Transverse cerebellar diameter

In obstetric imaging, the fetal transverse cerebellar diameter (TCD) is often measured as an additional fetal biometric parameter. It is measured as the maximal diameter between the cerebellar hemispheres on an axial scan. The value of the transverse cerebellar diameter in mm's is considered rou...
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Transverse cervical artery

The transverse cervical artery, also known as the cervicodorsal trunk, is 1 of the 4 branches of the thyrocervical trunk (off the first part of the subclavian artery). It is a short artery that bifurcates into the superficial and deep branches, both which course superficially and laterally acro...
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Transverse cervical nerve

The transverse cervical nerve, also known as the superficial cervical nerve, cutaneous cervical nerve or anterior cutaneous cervical nerve of the neck, is a cutaneous branch of the cervical plexus that innervates the skin covering the anterior cervical region. Gross anatomy Origin The transve...
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Transverse colon

The transverse colon is the longest and most mobile part of the large intestine. It measures up to 45 cm in length.  Gross anatomy The transverse colon is the continuation of the ascending colon from the right colic flexure. It passes from the right to left hypochondrium in a downward convex p...
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Transverse fracture

Transverse fractures are complete fractures that traverse the bone perpendicular to the axis of the bone. The fracture involves the cortex circumferentially and there may be displacement. The term is predominantly used in the context of fractures of long bones although other types of bones may ...
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Transverse ligament of the hip

The transverse ligament of the hip bridges the acetabular notch (located anteroinferiorly along the margin of the acetabulum) and joins the two ends of the acetabular labrum, thus forming a complete ring. Beneath it (through the acetabular foramen) pass nutrient vessels which enter the ligamentu...
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Transverse ligament of the knee

The transverse ligament of the knee is a ligament within the anterior aspect of the knee joint. Gross anatomy The transverse ligament is a variable band-like intracapsular knee ligament. It attaches transversely across the anterior aspects of the convex margins of the medial and lateral menisci.
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Transverse mesocolon

The transverse mesocolon is a broad, meso-fold of peritoneum, which connects the transverse colon to the posterior wall of the abdomen. It is continuous with the two posterior layers of the greater omentum, which, after separating to surround the transverse colon, join behind it, and are contin...
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Transverse metaphyseal lines (mnemonic)

Common causes of transverse metaphyseal lines can be remembered using the mnemonic: DENSE LINES PRINCES Mnemonic DENSE LINES D: D-vitamin intoxication E: elemental arsenic and heavy metals (lead, bismuth, phosphorus) N: normal variation S: systemic illness E: estrogen to mother during p...
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Transverse muscle of the tongue

The transverse muscle of the tongue is one of the 4 intrinsic muscles of the tongue which alters the shape of the tongue mass, being entirely confined to the tongue without an attachment outside the tongue (like the extrinsic muscles of the tongue). Gross anatomy The muscles fibres attach prox...
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Transverse myelitis

Acute transverse myelitis (ATM) is an inflammatory condition affecting both halves of the spinal cord and associated with rapidly progressive motor, sensory, and autonomic dysfunction. It is mostly imaged with MRI, which generally shows a long segment (3-4 segments or more) of T2 increased sign...
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Transverse pericardial sinus

The transverse pericardial sinus is the transverse communication between the left and right parts of the pericardial space proper behind the two outflow arteries of the heart.   Gross anatomy It is superior to the left atrium and posterior to the intrapericardial parts of the pulmonary trunk a...
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Transverse process fracture

Transverse process fractures are a common sequelae of trauma, although they are considered a minor and stable lumbar spine fracture. There is strong association between transverse process fractures and other traumatic injuries. Pathology Transverse process fracture most commonly occur in the u...
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Transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap

Transplantation of a transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap is a commonly used surgical procedure for breast reconstruction following mastectomy. An autologous myocutaneous flap consisting of abdominal skin, subcutaneous fat, the rectus abdominis muscle, and adjoining vasculature ...
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Transverse sinus

The transverse sinus is one of the dural venous sinuses and drains the superior sagittal sinus, the occipital sinus and the straight sinus, and empties into the sigmoid sinus which in turn reaches the jugular bulb. The two transverse sinuses arise at the confluence of the three aforementioned s...
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Transverse temporal bone fractures

Transverse temporal bone fractures are orientated perpendicular to the long axis of the petrous temporal bone, with the line of force running roughly anterior to posterior. Although more current classifications of the extent of temporal bone fractures focus on the integrity of the otic capsule r...
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Transverse vaginal septum

Transverse vaginal (transvaginal) septum (TVS) is a type of rare congenital uterovaginal anomaly (class II under the Rock and Adam classification). Epidemiology It is rare with a frequency of 1 in 70,000 females. Clinical presentation In the case of a complete septum, patients commonly prese...
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Transversospinalis group

The transversospinalis group is the deep layer of the intrinsic back muscles. These muscles lie between the transverse and spinous processes and are grouped by length of the fascicles, as well as region covered. The groups are rotatores, multifidus, and semispinalis. Gross anatomy Rotatores T...
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Transversus abdominis muscle

The transversus abdominis muscle, named according to the direction of its muscle fibres, is one of the flat muscles that form the anterior abdominal wall. It is deep to the internal oblique muscle and ends in the anterior aponeurosis, which ultimately blends with the linea alba.  Summary origi...
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Transversus thoracis muscle

The transversus thoracis muscle is the most anterior muscle of the inner layer (external intercostal, internal intercostal and transversus thoracis) of the thoracic wall.   Gross anatomy The transversus thoracis is a thin band of muscle and tendon arising from the lower posterior surface of th...
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Trapdoor fracture

A trapdoor fracture is a fracture of the orbital floor where the inferiorly displaced blowout fracture recoils back to its original position and potentially entraps contents of the orbit. It is seen in children and young adults due to the elasticity of the orbital floor. These fractures may be s...
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Trapezium

The trapezium (greater multangular) is one of the eight carpal bones of the hand. It is the most lateral (radial) bone of the distal row, located between the scaphoid and the first metacarpal bone . It articulates with the scaphoid proximally, the trapezoid medially, and the thumb and index meta...
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Trapezium fracture

Trapezium fractures are uncommon carpal bone injuries. They can either occur in isolation or combination with another carpal bony injury. Epidemiology Isolated fractures of the trapezium are only thought to account for 3-5% of all carpal fractures 1-2. Pathology They can be broadly classifie...
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Trapezium secondarium

The trapezium secondarium (or trapezium secundarium or secondary trapezium) is an accessory ossicle of the wrist. It can be seen adjacent to the tubercle of the trapezium superomedially 1,2. Embryology According to Pfitzner, the trapezium secondarium is one of four potential secondary ossifica...
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Trapezius muscle

The trapezius muscle is a large, broad superficial muscle of the posterior neck and back. It gains its name from its diamond shape. Along with sternocleidomastoid muscle, it is invested by the superficial layer of the deep cervical fascia, which splits around it.  Summary origin: superior nuch...
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Trapezoid

The trapezoid bone (also known as the os trapezoideum or the lesser multangular) is the smallest carpal bone in the distal row, sitting lateral to the capitate.  Gross anatomy Osteology The trapezoid is an irregular, boot-shaped bone. The dorsal surface is larger than the palmar surface and i...
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Trapezoid ligament

The trapezoid ligament is one of two components forming the coracoclavicular (CC) ligament. The conoid ligament is the other component. Gross anatomy The trapezoid ligament is a broad quadrilateral ligament that is quite thin. Its positioned almost horizontally. It is the anterolateral part of...
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Trapped lung

Trapped lung, also known as unexpandable/unexpanded lung, is a term used where there is non-expandable lung after fluid removal, often thoracentesis. It is similar to but not entirely synonymous with the term lung entrapment, which is a similar condition but caused by active pleural disease rath...
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Trapped ventricle

Trapped ventricle, also known as isolated ventricle, is a condition in which there is an obstruction to the entry and exit path of CSF through the ventricle. Clinical presentation The presentation is that of increased intracranial pressure due to expanded trapped ventricle. trapped temporal h...
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Trauma CT thorax review areas (mnemonic)

Trauma CT thorax review areas are useful to reduce the potential for error, which is higher than usual given the larger number of images requiring review, and the often present time pressures and the potential presence of numerous concurrent injuries (see CT polytrauma).  Using some standard re...
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Trauma films (summary approach)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Trauma films are ubiquitous in an orthopaedic attachment and also in the Emergency Department. In most cases, a trauma film will come with two views. It is important that you review both films because in some cases a fract...
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Trauma in pregnancy

Trauma is a leading cause of mortality in pregnancy. Pregnancy increases the incidence and severity of abdominal trauma in females.  Epidemiology Trauma affects up to 7% of pregnancies, and the incidence of pregnancy in level 1 trauma patients is estimated to be ~2% 1.  Pathology Aetiology ...
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Traumatic abdominal wall hernia

Traumatic abdominal wall hernia describes traumatic disruption of musculature and fascia of anterior abdominal wall without skin penetration. Clinical presentation Abdominal skin ecchymosis or abrasions may be seen. Pathology Traumatic abdominal wall hernia is caused by blunt trauma to the a...
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Traumatic abruption placenta scale

The traumatic abruption placenta scale (TAPS) was devised to stratify placental injury findings on CT. Since placental abruption is a concern in a pregnant patient who has undergone traumatic injury, CT is occasionally the first imaging modality used to evaluate the placenta. 0: normal homogene...
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Traumatic aortic injury

Traumatic aortic injury (TAI) is most often caused by blunt trauma (refered to as BTAI) and is best described in terms of injury location, type and and severity: abdominal aortic injury aortic pseudoaneurysm thoracic aortic injury minimal aortic injury See traumatic aortic injury in the exam.
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Traumatic aortic injury in the exam

Getting a film with traumatic aortic injury in the exam is one of the many exam set-pieces that can be prepared for.  This is one of the cases you should look and not speak for 10 seconds as there tends to be a lot of findings on the film of patients with traumatic aortic injury. Description ...
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Traumatic brain injury

Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are common and come with a large cost to both society and the individual. Imaging, particularly CT, plays a key role in accurate diagnosis, classification and follow-up.  They can be broadly divided into closed and penetrating head injuries 4: closed head injury ...
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Traumatic neuroma

Traumatic neuromas may occur from acute or chronic injury to a nerve. Clinical presentation The patient presents with a focal area of pain and tenderness to palpation. There should be a history of injury to the area. Surgery is a common source of traumatic neuromas (e.g. ilioinguinal pain post...
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Traumatic spinal cord injury

Traumatic spinal cord injury can manifest as a wide variety of clinical syndromes resulting from damage to the spinal cord or its surrounding structures. It can result from minor injury if the spine is weakened from disease such as ankylosing spondylitis or if there is pre-existing spinal stenos...
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Traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage

Traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage (tSAH) is a common injury, and trauma is the most common cause of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH).  Epidemiology Traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage occurs in ~35% (range 11-60%) of traumatic brain injuries 1.  Pathology Traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage is ...
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Treacher Collins syndrome

Treacher Collins syndrome, also known as mandibulofacial dysostosis, is an autosomal dominant genetic abnormality and results from bilateral malformations of 1st and 2nd branchial arches.  Epidemiology The incidence is estimated at approximately 1 in 50,000 live births, with 60% of cases being...
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Treatment and prognosis (article structure)

Treatment and prognosis is one of the main subheadings in a standard article.  Location The "Treatment and prognosis" subheading is located after "Radiographic features" and before "History and etymology".  Structure Pertinent information regarding the treatment of the condition including op...
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Tree-in-bud sign (lung)

Tree-in-bud sign or pattern describes the CT appearance of multiple areas of centrilobular nodules with a linear branching pattern. Although initially described in patients with endobronchial tuberculosis, it is now recognised in a large number of conditions. Pathology Pathogenesis The tree-i...
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Trethowan sign

The Trethowan sign is used to diagnose slipped capital femoral epiphysis (also called slipped upper femoral epiphysis). In this sign, the line of Klein passes above the femoral head. It is best done on both AP and true lateralcit projections. On the AP view of a normal hip, the Klein line inter...
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Triangle of Guillain and Mollaret

The triangle of Guillain and Mollaret, also known as the dentatorubro-olivary pathway, has three corners 1: red nucleus inferior olivary nucleus contralateral dentate nucleus Rubro-olivary fibres descend from the parvocellular division of each red nucleus along the central tegmental tracts t...
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Triangle of safety

The triangle of safety is an anatomical region in the axilla that forms a guide as to the safe position for intercostal catheter (ICC) placement. With the arm abducted, the apex is the axilla, and the triangle is formed by the: lateral border of the pectoralis major anteriorly lateral border o...
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Triangles of the neck

The triangles of the neck are surgically focussed divisions of the neck, first described from early dissection-based anatomical studies which predated cross-sectional anatomical description based on cross-sectional imaging (see deep spaces of the neck). The neck can be divided into anterior and...
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Triangular cord sign (biliary atresia)

The triangular cord sign is a triangular or tubular echogenic cord of fibrous tissue seen in the porta hepatis at ultrasonography and is relatively specific for the diagnosis of biliary atresia 1,2. This sign is useful in the evaluation of infants with cholestatic jaundice, helping in the diffe...
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Triangular fibrocartilage complex

The triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) is a complex structure that is a major contributor to the stability of the wrist.  Gross anatomy The TFCC is located on the ulnar aspect of the wrist joint between the ulna and the lunate and triquetrum of the proximal carpal row. It has an elongate...
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Triangular space of cruciate ligaments

Triangular space of cruciate ligaments (TSC) is defined as the potential extrasynovial space between anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments of the knee joint. Gross anatomy Boundaries anteriorly: anterior cruciate ligament posteriorly: posterior cruciate ligament inferiorly: tibial plate...
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Triangulation

Triangulation is a technique for determining if a questionable structure is genuine or superimposition of structures. Technique hang the CC, MLO, and 90° lateral films (in that order) on the view box the nipple on each film must be at the same level use a ruler and place one end over the les...
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Tributaries of the inferior vena cava (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the tributaries of the inferior vena cava is: I Like To Rise So High Mnemonic I: common iliac veins L: lumbar veins T: right testicular (gonadal) vein R: renal veins S: suprarenal veins H: hepatic veins
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Triceps bony avulsion

Avulsion injury of the triceps tendon is an uncommon injury. It is one of the least common injuries to elbow but is nevertheless commoner than an intramuscular triceps tear. Clinical presentation Patients usually usually present with regional pain, swelling and inability to extend to the elbow...
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Triceps brachii

The triceps brachii, which often referred to simply as the triceps is a three-headed muscle in the posterior compartment of the arm. Summary origin long head: infraglenoid tubercle of the scapula medial head: posterior humerus, inferior to the radial groove, medial intermuscular septum late...
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Triceps coxae

The triceps coxae is the tricipital (three headed) collection of 3 of the muscles in the posterior hip which act together on the hip, primarily to laterally rotate the extended thigh. It comprises (in order from superior to inferior) the superior gemellus, obturator internus and inferior gemellu...
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Triceps surae

Triceps surae is another term used for the calf muscles, more specifically 2 of the 3 muscles of the superficial posterior compartment of the leg: medial and lateral heads of the gastrocnemius muscle soleus muscle The group of muscles are innervated by the tibial nerve and form the Achilles t...
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Trichilemmomas

Trichilemmomas are important due to their invariable association with Cowden syndrome. They are a benign cutaneous neoplasm that usually present on the head or face as a smooth or verrucoid lesion, and may be single or multiple. They may be mistaken for a basal cell carcinoma.
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Tricuspid atresia

Tricuspid atresia is a cyanotic congenital cardiac anomaly which is characterised by agenesis of the tricuspid valve and right ventricular inlet. There is almost always an obligatory intra-atrial connection through either an ASD or patent foramen ovale (PFO) in order for circulation to be comple...
Article

Tricuspid valve

The tricuspid valve is one of the four cardiac valves. It is the atrioventricular valve that allows blood to flow from the right atrium to the right ventricle. It opens during diastole and closes during systole. The valve has anterior, posterior and septal leaflets (cusps), the bases of which at...
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Tricuspid valve regurgitation

Tricuspid valve regurgitation, also known as tricuspid valve insufficiency or tricuspid valve incompetence, is a valvulopathy that describes leaking of the tricuspid valve during systole that causes blood to flow in the reverse direction from the right ventricle into the right atrium. Epidemiol...
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Tricuspid valve stenosis

Tricuspid valve stenosis is a valvulopathy that describes narrowing of the opening of the tricuspid valve between the right ventricle and the right atrium. Epidemiology MS is seen more commonly in women and in countries, generally developing nations, where rheumatic fever is common 1,2. Clini...
Article

Trident acetabulum

Trident acetabulum is an appearance which can be seen in several skeletal dysplasias 1. It is characterised by small bony spurs at the medial and lateral acetabular margins with a more subtle central spur, resembling a trident, the three-pronged spear of classical Greece 1. The trident is most ...
Article

Trident hand

A trident hand is a description where the hands are short with stubby fingers, with a separation between the middle and ring fingers.  The appearance mimics a trident, the three-pronged spear of classical Greece. The trident is most commonly associated with the sea god Poseidon in Greek mytholo...
Article

Trident sign (CNS)

The trident sign describes the typical appearances of the pons in osmotic demyelination syndrome, whereby the symmetrical high T2/FLAIR signal abnormality centrally in the pons is shaped like a trident, the three-pronged spear of classical Greece 1. The trident is most commonly associated with t...
Article

Trigeminal nerve

The trigeminal nerve is the fifth cranial nerve and its primary role is relaying sensory information from the face and head, although it does provide motor control to the muscles of mastication. It is both large and complicated and has multiple brainstem nuclei (sensory and motor) as well as man...
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Trigeminal nerve branches (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for remembering the names of the skull foramina that the division of the trigeminal nerve (CN V) pass through is: Standing Room Only Mnemonic standing: superior orbital fissure (ophthalmic division of trigeminal nerve) room: foramen rotundum (maxillary division of trigeminal nerve...
Article

Trigeminal neuralgia

Trigeminal neuralgia or tic douloureux corresponds to a clinical manifestation of sudden severe paroxysms of excruciating pain on one side of the face which usually lasts a few seconds to a few minutes, involving one or more branches of the trigeminal nerve (CN V). Vascular compression is the mo...
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Trigeminal neuralgia protocol (MRI)

MRI protocol for trigeminal neuralgia assessment is a group of MRI sequences put together to best approach a possible cause for this condition. The diagnosis of trigeminal neuralgia is based on patient's history, and an imaging study is usually indicated when alert signs are noted. Imaging can ...
Article

Trigeminal schwannoma

Trigeminal schwannomas are uncommon slow-growing encapsulated tumours composed of schwann cells. They are the second most common intracranial schwannoma, far less common than acoustic schwannoma, and has a predominantly benign growth.  Epidemiology  Patients usually present in middle age, typi...
Article

Trigger finger

A trigger finger is a type of stenosing tenosynovitis. It develops due to repetitive microinjury from frequent flexion-extension movements of the fingers - professional requirement or requirement of a sports activity. The repetitive microtrauma results in thickening of the flexor tendon sheath a...
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Trigger thumb

Trigger thumb (or flexor pollicis longus stenosing tenosynovitis) is a specific type of trigger finger involving the thumb. Clinical presentation May present as a transient locking of the thumb in flexion, followed by a painful snapping sensation during extension Radiographic features Ultras...
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Trigger toe

A trigger toe (or hallux saltans if it involves the 1st toe) refers to a uncommon situation where active plantar flexion causes the toes to catch in flexion and the patient is then unable to extend them. It can arise from a number of pathologies and if it involves the great (1st) toe a common pa...
Article

Trigonocephaly

Trigonocephaly refers to the triangular appearance of the frontal skull created by premature fusion of the metopic suture (metopic craniosynostosis) 2.  Trigonocephaly accounts for around 5% of all craniosynostosis cases. Pathology The metopic suture divides the frontal bones in the midline. I...
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Trilateral retinoblastoma

Trilateral retinoblastoma refers to the combination of retinoblastoma (usually bilateral) and pineoblastoma. This relationship highlights the close relationship between these highly aggressive small round blue cell tumours. It affects only a minority of patients with retinoblastoma (1.5-5%) and...

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