Ureterovaginal fistulae refer to abnormal communications between the lumina of the ureter(s) and the vagina.
Patients usually present with urinary incontinence through the vagina which may be accompanied by fever and chills 1. Symptoms usually begin within 2-4 weeks foll...
The urethra is the terminal segment of the genitourinary system. Because of vastly different anatomy between the sexes, male and female urethras are discussed separately:
Urethral agenesis (or urethral atresia) refers to a situation where there is a congenital absence of the urethra. It can be a cause of fetal obstructive uropathy.
prune belly syndrome 5
bladder agenesis 2
May show a dilate...
Urethral calculi are an uncommon type of urolithiasis, accounting for ~1% of all urinary tract stones.
They almost all occur in males 2 with two peak incidences - one in childhood and the other at 40 years 3.
Most commonly acute lower urinary tract symptoms...
Various radiological and surgical instruments, including urethral clamps, have been developed to try to improve retrograde/ascending urethrogram (RUG/ASU) and voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) technique in males. These are very rarely (if ever) used anymore.
This device has a metall...
Urethral diverticulum, or urethrocoele, is a focal outpouching of the urethra. It should not be confused with a ureterocoele of the distal ureter.
Urethral diverticula occur far more frequently in women than in men and are estimated to occur in 1-6% of women, especially those with...
Urethral diverticulum adenocarcinoma is a rare occurrence in a urethral diverticulum.
Urethral diverticulum seen in ~0.6-6% of women. In small series, only 3-6% of resected urethral diverticula show adenocarcinoma 3-4.
Urinary frequency, urgency, burning mictur...
Urethral duplication is a rare condition in which either a part or the entire urethra is duplicated. It usually occurs in the sagittal plane and the more dorsal copy is usually the duplication.
A urethral duplication may occur due to a variety of developmental miscues. In a woman, it...
Urethral injuries can result in long-term morbidity and most commonly result from trauma. The male urethra is much more commonly injured than the female urethra and is the focus of this article.
In the setting of trauma, the classic triad of blood of the external urethral...
Urethral strictures are relatively common and typically occur either in the setting of trauma or infection.
The demographics of the affected population is dictated by the aetiology, but in general, it is safe to say that adult males make up the vast majority of cases.
Urethrography refers to the radiographic study of the urethra using iodinated contrast media and is generally carried out in males.
When the urethra is studied with instillation of contrast into the distal/anterior urethra it has been referred to as
retrograde urethrography (RUG)...
The urinary bladder (more commonly just called the bladder) is a distal part of the urinary tract and is an extra-peritoneal structure located in the true pelvis.
The bladder has a triangular shape with a posterior base, an anterior apex and an inferior neck with two inferolatera...
There are numerous causes of urinary bladder diverticula:
Primary (congenital or idiopathic)
Hutch diverticulum (in paraureteral region)
Bladder outlet obstruction
bladder neck stenosis
posterior urethral valve
prostatic enlargement (hypertrophy; carcinoma)
Bladder diverticulum are outpouchings from the bladder wall, whereby mucosa herniates through the bladder wall. They may be solitary or multiple in nature and can vary considerably in size.
There are two peaks - one at 10 years and the other at 60-70 years 2.
Herniation of the urinary bladder is a relatively uncommon but not a rare condition. It occurs when the urinary bladder or ureter herniates into the inguinal canal, scrotal sac or femoral canal. Herniations through ischiorectal, obturator or abdominal wall openings have also been described. Blad...
Urinary bladder rupture is usually seen in the context of significant trauma.
Bladder rupture can be categorised into five types depending on the location and extent of the rupture.
This is commonly seen but sometimes not classed as true rupture, since...
Causes of urinary bladder wall or lumen calcification include:
schistosomiasis of the urinary tract
calculus in a urachal cyst or in a bladder divertic...
Urinary diversion is created after the removal of the urinary bladder (radical cystectomy or cystoprostatectomy, usually done to treat invasive bladder cancer).
There are three main varieties:
neobladder formed from a segment of ileum (i.e. ileal conduit, also known as a "Bricker conduit")
The urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureter, bladder and urethra. With the exception of the urethra, this is equitable in both males and females. It spans the abdomen and pelvis, from the upper abdomen to the extreme pelvis, being inextricably linked with the genital system.
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common clinical condition involving the bladder (cystitis) and kidneys (pyelonephritis). It is commonly divided into 'uncomplicated' and 'complicated' infections.
UTIs occur when there is bacterial colonisation of the uroepithelium and a subsequent...
Urinomas, or uriniferous fluid collections, are urine collections usually found in the retroperitoneum, most commonly in the perirenal space, as a consequence of renal track leakage caused by urinary obstruction, trauma, or post-instrumentation.
Although there is no definitive dis...
Urinothorax is a rare cause of pleural effusion due to the accumulation of urine within the pleural space.
Patients present with varying degrees of respiratory distress depending on the amount of fluid that has accumulated 1,3.
The aetiology of urinothorax can...
The urogenital curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core genitourinary knowledge.
Topics pertaining to the urinary tract (kidneys, ureter, bladder, urethra), adrenal glands, prostate penis, scrotal content (testes, ...
Urolithiasis refers to the presence of calculi anywhere along the course of the urinary tracts. For the purpose of the article, the terms urolithiasis, nephrolithiasis and renal or kidney stones are used interchangeably, although some authors have slightly varying definitions of each.
Ultrasound abdomen is one of the tests that is commonly used in the assessment of patients with abdominal pain. It is particularly useful for the assessment of solid organs and fluid-filled structures.
This is a summary article; we do not have a more in-depth reference articl...
The ubiquitous USB flash drive (or USB stick) may be an odd article on a radiology website, but those who report a lot of chest radiographs will be aware that it can be often be confused for an implantable loop recorder device.
Whilst USB drives come in a variety of shap...
US carotids is a standard test performed in the assessment of cranial arterial blood supply.
This is a summary article; we do not have a more in-depth reference article.
assessment of carotid stenosis
This style guide article outlines the use of racial terminology on Radiopaedia.org.
Race and ethnicity is a complex topic with a history of, and potential use for, discrimination. There are many issues in the use of race in medicine, mainly centred on definition, identification and ...
The U sign denotes the characteristic "U" shaped appearance of the subcentral gyrus which surrounds the inferolateral end of the central sulcus and abuts the lateral (Sylvian) fissure. It has been found, at least in one study, to be the most reliable anatomical feature to identify the central su...
Using e.g. in Radiopaedia.org articles is common and good practice. However, it is important to use e.g. consistently across the site.
It should be remembered that when using e.g., the user is trying to give an example, not an exhaustive list.
There are many causes of m...
Usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is one of the morphological and pathological patterns of interstitial lung disease.
On imaging, it usually presents with a patchy craniocaudal gradient of peripheral septal thickening, bronchiectasis, and honeycombing.
In the past, the term UIP ...
American Thoracic Society (ATS) criteria for the histopathological diagnosis of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) are as follows:
advanced subpleural or paraseptal fibrosis +/- honeycombing
patchy temporally heterogeneous fibrosis
the absence of features against UIP
Uterine agenesis is the extreme of Mullerian duct anomalies (Class I) where there is a complete absence of uterine tissue above the vagina.
The uterine agenesis-hypoplasia spectrum accounts for ~10-15% of all Müllerian duct anomalies.
Uterine arteriovenous malformations (UAVM) result from formation of multiple arteriovenous fistulous communications within the uterus without an intervening capillary network.
Presentation can vary. UAVMs can cause life-threatening massive bleeding in young women. Bleedin...
The uterine artery is seen bilaterally and is a branch of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery.
It runs medially in the pelvis, within the base of the broad ligament, to the outer surface of the uterus. From lateral to medial it has a descending, transverse ...
Uterine artery embolisation (UAE) is an interventional radiological technique to occlude the arterial supply to the uterus and is performed for various reasons.
Uterine artery embolisation has been practised for more than 20 years for controlling haemorrhage following delivery / aborti...
Uterine artery embolisation (UAE) is used as an alternative to hysterectomy in selected patients and MRI assessment is key in allowing not only pre-procedure assessment but also assessing post-procedural outcome.
For a general discussion of the underlying condition refer to the article on ute...
Uterine artery flow notching refers to phenomenon observed in uterine arterial Doppler ultrasound assessment.
The presence of notching after 22 weeks is associated with several other conditions including adverse pregnancy outcomes. These include
pregnancy induced hyper...
Uterine artery pseudoaneurysm (UAP) is a rare cause of secondary postpartum haemorrhage.
UAP usually presents as delayed (secondary) postpartum haemorrhage, that is per vaginal bleeding which occurs more than 24 hours and up to 6 weeks postpartum. However, some reported ...
Uterine biophysical profile refers to assessment of uterus to produce a successful conception and implantation environment.
Uterine scoring system for reproduction (USS)
The uterine scoring system for reproduction comprises the following parameters, taken in mid-cycle:
1. endometrial thickne...
Uterine choriocarcinomas are one of the commonest choriocarcinomas and are often associated with gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD).
These tumours typically occur in women of childbearing age as a gestational choriocarcinoma. Most such cases present within one year of an ant...
Uterine dehiscence is, usually, used to refer to the process of gradual myometrial rupture without a rupture of membranes. However, the term is used synonymously with uterine rupture by some authors. It is often described in the context of C-section scar where it is also termed an incisional deh...
Uterine duplication anomalies are a group of Müllerian duct anomalies where fusion of the Müllerian duct associated structures fail to some degree:
uterus didelphys: class III
bicornuate uterus: class IV (second commonest duplication anomaly)
septate uterus: class V (commonest duplication ano...
Uterine enlargement can occur in a number of situations from both diffuse and focal processes. These include:
gestation related events
normal intrauterine pregnancy
molar pregnancy - gestational trophoblastic disease
postpartum uterus - still larger than usual
Uterine leiomyomas, also referred as uterine fibroids, are benign tumours of myometrial origin and are the most common solid benign uterine neoplasms. Commonly an incidental finding on imaging, they rarely cause a diagnostic dilemma. There are various medical, surgical and interventional treatme...
Uterine leiomyosarcomas are malignant uterine tumours that arises from the myometrium. The uterus is the commonest location for a leiomyosarcoma.
Typically present in women in the 6th decade. They account for up to one-third of uterine sarcomas but only ~8% of all uterine cancers ...
Uterine lipoleiomyomas result from degeneration of smooth muscle cells in an ordinary leiomyoma and represent a rare benign tumour of the uterus 1.
Lipoleiomyomas have a reported incidence of 0.03-0.20% and are typically found in postmenopausal patients with typical uterine leiomy...
Uterine lymphoma refers to involvement of the uterus with lymphoma. Some authors also place lymphoma of the uterine cervix under this group.
It is rare condition with initial uterine involvement occurring in only 1% of patients with lymphoma 3. However, uterine involvement is more...
Uterine perforation represents a serious complication that can occur as a result of any type of intrauterine procedure or implantation. Some authors use the term uterine rupture synonymously with the term uterine perforation.
IUCD insertion: IUCD related uterine perforation
Uterine rupture is a rare but nevertheless potentially catastrophic complication that can occur in pregnancy.
The incidence rate in pregnancy is at 0.05% 6.
Uterine rupture is usually an acute presentation with haemodynamic instability and abdominal disc...
Uterine sarcoma is a malignant uterine tumour thats is composed of part or all sarcomatous (mesodermal) elements. They however account for a minority of all uterine malignancies (1-6% 3-4).
They can be broadly classified as pure or mixed 4:
malignant mixed Mu...
Uterine smooth muscle tumours of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP) is a recently defined entity by the World Health Organisation for a heterogeneous group of uterine smooth muscle tumours that cannot be histologically diagnosed as unequivocally benign or malignant 1.
The uterine tube, also known as the fallopian tube, is a paired structure that bridges between each ovary and the uterus and functions to convey the mature ovum from the former to the latter. If conception occurs, it normally does so within the tube. It can be affected by a wide range of patholo...
Uteroplacental blood flow assessment is an important part of fetal well-being assessment and evaluates Doppler flow in the uterine arteries and rarely the ovarian arteries.
In a non-gravid state and at the very start of pregnancy the flow in the uterine artery is of high pulsatility ...
The uterus is a hollow, thick-walled, muscular organ of the female reproductive tract that lies in the lesser pelvis.
The uterus has an inverted pear shape. In the adult, it measures about 7.5 cm in length, 5 cm wide at its upper part, and nearly 2.5 cm in thickness. It weighs ...
Uterus didelphys is a type of Müllerian duct anomaly (class III) where there is a complete duplication of uterine horns as well as duplication of the cervix, with no communication between them.
Didelphic uteri account for approximately ~8% (range 5-11%) of Müllerian duct anomali...
The uvea (also called the uveal layer or vascular tunic) is the middle three layers that make up the eye. It is the pigmented layer and its main function is of nutrition and gas exchange. It sits between the retina (innermost layer) and sclera.
It is traditionally split up into three anatomica...
Vacuum-assisted therapy, also known vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) or negative pressure wound therapy, refers to a device used in the treatment of acute or chronic wounds.
foam dressing applied on the wound
covering transparent adhesive membrane
vacuum source: VAC ...
VACTERL is an acronym that describes a non-random constellation of congenital anomalies. It is not a true syndrome as such and is equivalent to the VATER anomaly.
The estimated incidence is 1 in 10,000-40,000 births 3.
The acronym VACTERL derives from:
V: vertebral an...
The VACTERL-H association is a rare non-random association which bears the features of the standard VACTERL association with added fetal hydrocephalus.
Unlike the standard VACTERL association which is sporadic, the VACTERL-H is hereditary with both X-linked 3 and autosomal recessive 2 inheritan...
Vacuum phenomenon in the shoulder refers to the presence of intra-articular gas in the shoulder joint. It is a very common occurrence, particularly in external rotation. This can cause circular or linear areas of low signal intensity on GRE MR images of the shoulder obtained with external rotati...
A vagal nerve stimulator (VNS) is an implantable device used in patients with intractable epilepsy. It is considered to be an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of refractory seizure disorders.
The device is somewhat similar in appearance to a pacemaker with the 'box' typically inserted into t...
The vagina is a midline fibromuscular tubular structure positioned in the female perineum extending superiorly to the cervix and uterus in the pelvis.
The vagina is 8-10 cm in length, extending posterosuperior from the vestibule through the urogenital diaphragm to the uterus. Th...
The vaginal artery is a branch of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery, and should not to be mistaken with the vaginal branch of the uterine artery. It is often considered to be a homolog of the inferior vesical artery, which is present only in males.
origin: anterior div...
Vaginal atresia refers to a spectrum of anomalies comprising of failure to form a part or all of the vagina.
It is considered the second most common cause of primary amenorrhea. The estimated
Incidence is at ~ 2 in 10000 women.
The most common symptom...
The staging of primary vaginal cancer covers for all histological sub types and is as follows
FIGO staging system
stage 0: carcinoma in situ
stage I: tumour confined to vagina
stage II: invasion of paravaginal tissues but no extension beyond pelvic side walls
stage III: extension to pelvic ...
A vaginal leiomyoma is an extremely rare entity and falls under extra uterine pelvic leiomyomas.
They are extremely rare with only ~ 300 cases reported in literature 3.
It may occur anywhere along the vaginal canal and is usually localized, mobile, non-tender, and cir...
Vaginal lymphoma can refer to:
secondary involvement of the vagina (secondary vaginal lymphoma) from widespread generalised lymphoma
usually comprises of diffuse large cell B non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (DLBCL) 2
primary vaginal lymphoma
A vaginal pessary is a device inserted into the vagina which can either be mechanical or pharmaceutical.
A mechanical pessary is most commonly used to treat uterine prolapse. It is also used to treat stress urinary incontinence, a retroverted uterus, cystocoele and rectocoele. A bewildering arr...
Vaginal stenosis refers to a narrowing of the vagina, it can be congenital or acquired.
Acquired causes include
scarring from prior pelvic irradiation - brachytherapy
Depending on the site of stenosis and state of menstruation there can be a...
Vagoglossopharyngeal neuralgia is an uncommon presentation of glossopharyngeal neuralgia where the typical symptoms of pain are associated with cardiac symptoms including arrhythmias, asystole, and syncope.
It is believed to be due to complex interconnections between the nervus intermedius, the...
The vagus nerve is the tenth cranial nerve and provides the bulk of the parasympathetic input to the gastrointestinal system and to the heart. It is a complex mixed sensory, motor and parasympathetic nerve.
The vagus nerve arises as multiple rootlets at the ...
The valence shell of an atom is the outermost shell of the electron cloud. It plays a large part in determining the chemical, thermal, optical and
electrical properties of the element. This occurs because it often not
full and movement of electrons may occur between it and a) electrons
Valentino syndrome, or Valentino appendix, refers to a clinical syndrome of right lower quadrant or right iliac fossa pain secondary to a perforated peptic ulcer. It is an important differential diagnosis for acute appendicitis.
Although thought to be a very rare manifestation of ...
The terms valgus and varus refer to angulation (or bowing) within the shaft of a bone or at a joint.
It is determined by the distal part being more medial or lateral than it should be. Whenever the distal part is more lateral, it is called valgus. Whenever the distal part is more medial, it is ...
The Valsalva manoeuvre is the forced expiration of air against a closed airway, resulting in increased intra-abdominal, intrathoracic and pharyngeal pressure. It can be performed against a closed glottis or by one closing the mouth and pinching the nose while forcibly exhaling.
It is commonly u...
The valvulae conniventes, also known as Kerckring folds, plicae circulares or just small bowel folds, are the mucosal folds of the small intestine, starting from the second part of the duodenum, they are large and thick at the jejunum and considerably decrease in size distally in the ileum to di...
Valvular heart diseases, or cardiac valvulopathies, describe any acquired or congenital disease affecting one or more of the four cardiac valves.
This is a general index article that classifies cardiac valvulopathies depending on which valve(s) is affected 1. See individual articles for in-dept...
Van Buchem disease (VBD) is an extremely rare hereditary sclerosing bone dysplasia, also known as hyperostosis corticalis generalisata. This disease is characterised most notably by mandibular enlargement and thickening of the skull.
Less than 30 cases have been reported in the li...
The Vancouver classification of periprosthetic hip fractures proposed by Duncan and Masri is the most widely used classification system. It takes into account the fracture site, the status of the femoral implant, and the quality of surrounding femoral bone stock.
type A: fractures involve the t...
van der Woude syndrome (VWS) is characterized by the association of congenital lower lip fistulae / pits with cleft lip and / or palate.
It is one of the most common clefting syndromes in humans 1. VWS individuals have a high prevalence of hypodontia.
It carries anautoso...
Vanishing vertebrae is a rare ischaemic manifestation of sickle cell disease, in which a completely infarcted vertebral body literally disappears or vanishes, as a result of infarction. In the few reported cases, the posterior elements remain intact.
codfish or h-shaped vertebrae
Vanishing white matter disease (VWM), also known as childhood ataxia with central hypomyelination (CACH), is an exceedingly rare entity only fully described in 1997, but due to its name sometimes over-represented in differentials for white matter disease.
Most cases are encountere...
Variably protease sensitive prionopathy (VPSPr) is a very rare type of sporadic human prion disease that was first described in 2008.
Clinical presentation is varied, but most patients demonstrate a combination of:
progressive neuropsychiatric features: dementia and psyc...
Variant anatomy of the aortic arch occurs when there is failure of normal aortic development. It results in a number of heterogenous anomalies of the aorta and its branch vessels.
Normally, the aorta ascends in the superior mediastinum to the level of the sternal notch before arc...
Variation in hepatic arterial anatomy is seen in 40-45% of people. Classic branching of the common hepatic artery from the coeliac artery, and the proper hepatic artery into right and left hepatic arteries to supply the entire liver, is seen in 55-60% of the population.
In general, the common ...
There can be several variations with cord insertion into the placenta:
central insertion (~90%): normal situation
eccentric cord insertion: lateral insertion of the umbilical cord >2 cm from the placental margin
term sometimes used synonymously with marginal cord insertion
marginal cord inse...
There can be many variations in fetal presentation which is determined by which part of the fetus is projecting towards the internal cervical os. This includes:
cephalic presentation: fetal head presenting towards the internal cervical os, considered normal and occurs in the vast majority of b...
There can be several variations in placental morphology. These include:
single lobed discoid placenta (single disc): most common scenario
bilobed placenta: two near equal size lobes
succenturiate lobe(s): one of more smaller accessory lobes
circumvallate placenta: rolled placental edges with...
Varicella pneumonia is a type of viral pneumonia. It is a common cause of multiple small round calcific lung lesions. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) most commonly causes self-limited benign disease (chickenpox) in children. However, in adults it tends to cause significant complications such as VZV...
Varicella zoster virus (VZV) encephalitis can be due to either an immune reaction to primary infection or reactivation of latent infection in cranial nerve or dorsal root ganglia following childhood chickenpox.
Manifestations following primary infection include:
Varicocele grading can be done variably. The most elaborate and accepted grading was given by Sarteschi, which is briefed below.
For a general discussion of this condition refer to the article: varicocele.
first do a baseline grey scale study in supine position and measure the dia...
Varicocoele is the dilatation of the pampiniform plexus of veins, a network of many small veins found in the male spermatic cord. It is the most frequently encountered mass of the spermatic cord.
The estimated incidence is at ~15% of general male population and ~40% of subfertile ...