Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

11,301 results found
Article

Ureterovaginal fistula

Ureterovaginal fistulae refer to abnormal communications between the lumina of the ureter(s) and the vagina.  Clinical presentation Patients usually present with urinary incontinence through the vagina which may be accompanied by fever and chills 1. Symptoms usually begin within 2-4 weeks foll...
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Urethra

The urethra is the terminal segment of the genitourinary system. Because of vastly different anatomy between the sexes, male and female urethras are discussed separately: female urethra male urethra
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Urethral agenesis

Urethral agenesis (or urethral atresia) refers to a situation where there is a congenital absence of the urethra.  It can be a cause of fetal obstructive uropathy. Pathology Associations prune belly syndrome 5 bladder agenesis 2 Radiographic features Antenatal ultrasound May show a dilate...
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Urethral calculus

Urethral calculi are an uncommon type of urolithiasis, accounting for ~1% of all urinary tract stones. Epidemiology They almost all occur in males 2 with two peak incidences - one in childhood and the other at 40 years 3. Clinical presentation Most commonly acute lower urinary tract symptoms...
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Urethral clamps

Various radiological and surgical instruments, including urethral clamps, have been developed to try to improve retrograde/ascending urethrogram (RUG/ASU) and voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) technique in males. These are very rarely (if ever) used anymore. Brodny clamp This device has a metall...
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Urethral diverticulum

Urethral diverticulum, or urethrocoele, is a focal outpouching of the urethra. It should not be confused with a ureterocoele of the distal ureter. Epidemiology Urethral diverticula occur far more frequently in women than in men and are estimated to occur in 1-6% of women, especially those with...
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Urethral diverticulum adenocarcinoma

Urethral diverticulum adenocarcinoma is a rare occurrence in a urethral diverticulum. Epidemiology Urethral diverticulum seen in ~0.6-6% of women. In small series, only 3-6% of resected urethral diverticula show adenocarcinoma 3-4. Clinical features Urinary frequency, urgency, burning mictur...
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Urethral duplication

Urethral duplication is a rare condition in which either a part or the entire urethra is duplicated. It usually occurs in the sagittal plane and the more dorsal copy is usually the duplication. Pathology A urethral duplication may occur due to a variety of developmental miscues. In a woman, it...
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Urethral injury

Urethral injuries can result in long-term morbidity and most commonly result from trauma. The male urethra is much more commonly injured than the female urethra and is the focus of this article. Clinical presentation In the setting of trauma, the classic triad of blood of the external urethral...
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Urethral stricture

Urethral strictures are relatively common and typically occur either in the setting of trauma or infection. Epidemiology The demographics of the affected population is dictated by the aetiology, but in general, it is safe to say that adult males make up the vast majority of cases. Clinical pr...
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Urethrography

Urethrography refers to the radiographic study of the urethra using iodinated contrast media and is generally carried out in males.  Terminology When the urethra is studied with instillation of contrast into the distal/anterior urethra it has been referred to as retrograde urethrography (RUG)...
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Urinary bladder

The urinary bladder (more commonly just called the bladder) is a distal part of the urinary tract and is an extra-peritoneal structure located in the true pelvis. Gross anatomy The bladder has a triangular shape with a posterior base, an anterior apex and an inferior neck with two inferolatera...
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Urinary bladder diverticula (causes)

There are numerous causes of urinary bladder diverticula:  Primary (congenital or idiopathic) Hutch diverticulum (in paraureteral region) Secondary Bladder outlet obstruction bladder neck stenosis neurogenic bladder posterior urethral valve prostatic enlargement (hypertrophy; carcinoma) ...
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Urinary bladder diverticulum

Bladder diverticulum are outpouchings from the bladder wall, whereby mucosa herniates through the bladder wall. They may be solitary or multiple in nature and can vary considerably in size. Epidemiology There are two peaks - one at 10 years and the other at 60-70 years 2. Pathology Diverticu...
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Urinary bladder hernia

Herniation of the urinary bladder is a relatively uncommon but not a rare condition. It occurs when the urinary bladder or ureter herniates into the inguinal canal, scrotal sac or femoral canal. Herniations through ischiorectal, obturator or abdominal wall openings have also been described. Blad...
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Urinary bladder rupture

Urinary bladder rupture is usually seen in the context of significant trauma. Pathology Aetiology Bladder rupture can be categorised into five types depending on the location and extent of the rupture.  Bladder contusion This is commonly seen but sometimes not classed as true rupture, since...
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Urinary bladder wall or lumen calcification (differential)

Causes of urinary bladder wall or lumen calcification include: Common bladder calculus schistosomiasis of the urinary tract tuberculosis Uncommon neuroblastoma; pheochromocytoma radiation reaction alkaptonuria (ochronosis) amyloidosis calculus in a urachal cyst or in a bladder divertic...
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Urinary diversion

Urinary diversion is created after the removal of the urinary bladder (radical cystectomy or cystoprostatectomy, usually done to treat invasive bladder cancer). There are three main varieties: neobladder formed from a segment of ileum (i.e. ileal conduit, also known as a "Bricker conduit") th...
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Urinary system

The urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureter, bladder and urethra. With the exception of the urethra, this is equitable in both males and females.  It spans the abdomen and pelvis, from the upper abdomen to the extreme pelvis, being inextricably linked with the genital system. The urinary...
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Urinary tract infection

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common clinical condition involving the bladder (cystitis) and kidneys (pyelonephritis). It is commonly divided into 'uncomplicated' and 'complicated' infections.  Pathology UTIs occur when there is bacterial colonisation of the uroepithelium and a subsequent...
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Urinoma

Urinomas, or uriniferous fluid collections, are urine collections usually found in the retroperitoneum, most commonly in the perirenal space, as a consequence of renal track leakage caused by urinary obstruction, trauma, or post-instrumentation.  Terminology Although there is no definitive dis...
Article

Urinothorax

Urinothorax is a rare cause of pleural effusion due to the accumulation of urine within the pleural space. Clinical presentation Patients present with varying degrees of respiratory distress depending on the amount of fluid that has accumulated 1,3. Pathology The aetiology of urinothorax can...
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Urogenital curriculum

The urogenital curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core genitourinary knowledge. Definition  Topics pertaining to the urinary tract (kidneys, ureter, bladder, urethra), adrenal glands, prostate penis, scrotal content (testes, ...
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Urolithiasis

Urolithiasis refers to the presence of calculi anywhere along the course of the urinary tracts. For the purpose of the article, the terms urolithiasis, nephrolithiasis and renal or kidney stones are used interchangeably, although some authors have slightly varying definitions of each.  See main...
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US abdomen (summary)

Ultrasound abdomen is one of the tests that is commonly used in the assessment of patients with abdominal pain. It is particularly useful for the assessment of solid organs and fluid-filled structures. Reference article This is a summary article; we do not have a more in-depth reference articl...
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USB flash drive

The ubiquitous USB flash drive (or USB stick) may be an odd article on a radiology website, but those who report a lot of chest radiographs will be aware that it can be often be confused for an implantable loop recorder device.  Radiographic features Whilst USB drives come in a variety of shap...
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US carotids (summary)

US carotids is a standard test performed in the assessment of cranial arterial blood supply. Reference article This is a summary article; we do not have a more in-depth reference article. Summary indications (acute) assessment of carotid stenosis TIA/stroke important pathology carotid st...
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Use of racial terminology on Radiopaedia.org

This style guide article outlines the use of racial terminology on Radiopaedia.org. Background Race and ethnicity is a complex topic with a history of, and potential use for, discrimination. There are many issues in the use of race in medicine, mainly centred on definition, identification and ...
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U sign (central sulcus)

The U sign denotes the characteristic "U" shaped appearance of the subcentral gyrus which surrounds the inferolateral end of the central sulcus and abuts the lateral (Sylvian) fissure. It has been found, at least in one study, to be the most reliable anatomical feature to identify the central su...
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Using e.g.

Using e.g. in Radiopaedia.org articles is common and good practice. However, it is important to use e.g. consistently across the site. Standard use It should be remembered that when using e.g., the user is trying to give an example, not an exhaustive list.  Example There are many causes of m...
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Usual interstitial pneumonia

Usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is one of the morphological and pathological patterns of interstitial lung disease. On imaging, it usually presents with a patchy craniocaudal gradient of peripheral septal thickening, bronchiectasis, and honeycombing.  Terminology In the past, the term UIP ...
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Usual interstitial pneumonia (American thoracic society criteria for histopathological diagnosis)

American Thoracic Society (ATS) criteria for the histopathological diagnosis of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) are as follows:  advanced subpleural or paraseptal fibrosis +/- honeycombing  patchy temporally heterogeneous fibrosis fibroblastic foci the absence of features against UIP inf...
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Uterine agenesis

Uterine agenesis is the extreme of Mullerian duct anomalies (Class I) where there is a complete absence of uterine tissue above the vagina.  Epidemiology The uterine agenesis-hypoplasia spectrum accounts for ~10-15% of all Müllerian duct anomalies. Clinical presentation Clinical presentation...
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Uterine arteriovenous malformation

Uterine arteriovenous malformations (UAVM) result from formation of multiple arteriovenous fistulous communications within the uterus without an intervening capillary network. Clinical presentation Presentation can vary. UAVMs can cause life-threatening massive bleeding in young women. Bleedin...
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Uterine artery

The uterine artery is seen bilaterally and is a branch of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery. Gross anatomy Course It runs medially in the pelvis, within the base of the broad ligament, to the outer surface of the uterus. From lateral to medial it has a descending, transverse ...
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Uterine artery embolisation

Uterine artery embolisation (UAE) is an interventional radiological technique to occlude the arterial supply to the uterus and is performed for various reasons. History Uterine artery embolisation has been practised for more than 20 years for controlling haemorrhage following delivery / aborti...
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Uterine artery embolisation: MRI assessment

Uterine artery embolisation (UAE) is used as an alternative to hysterectomy in selected patients and MRI assessment is key in allowing not only pre-procedure assessment but also assessing post-procedural outcome.   For a general discussion of the underlying condition refer to the article on ute...
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Uterine artery flow notching

Uterine artery flow notching refers to phenomenon observed in uterine arterial Doppler ultrasound assessment. Pathology Associations The presence of notching after 22 weeks is associated with several other conditions including adverse pregnancy outcomes. These include pregnancy induced hyper...
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Uterine artery pseudoaneurysm

Uterine artery pseudoaneurysm (UAP) is a rare cause of secondary postpartum haemorrhage.  Clinical presentation UAP usually presents as delayed (secondary) postpartum haemorrhage, that is per vaginal bleeding which occurs more than 24 hours and up to 6 weeks postpartum. However, some reported ...
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Uterine biophysical profile

Uterine biophysical profile refers to assessment of uterus to produce a successful conception and implantation environment.  Uterine scoring system for reproduction (USS) The uterine scoring system for reproduction comprises the following parameters, taken in mid-cycle: 1. endometrial thickne...
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Uterine choriocarcinoma

Uterine choriocarcinomas are one of the commonest choriocarcinomas and are often associated with gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD).  Epidemiology These tumours typically occur in women of childbearing age as a gestational choriocarcinoma. Most such cases present within one year of an ant...
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Uterine dehiscence

Uterine dehiscence is, usually, used to refer to the process of gradual myometrial rupture without a rupture of membranes. However, the term is used synonymously with uterine rupture by some authors. It is often described in the context of C-section scar where it is also termed an incisional deh...
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Uterine duplication anomalies

Uterine duplication anomalies are a group of Müllerian duct anomalies where fusion of the Müllerian duct associated structures fail to some degree: uterus didelphys: class III bicornuate uterus: class IV (second commonest duplication anomaly) septate uterus: class V (commonest duplication ano...
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Uterine enlargement (differential)

Uterine enlargement can occur in a number of situations from both diffuse and focal processes. These include:  gestation related events normal intrauterine pregnancy molar pregnancy - gestational trophoblastic disease  postpartum uterus - still larger than usual hormonal causes exogenous h...
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Uterine leiomyoma

Uterine leiomyomas, also referred as uterine fibroids, are benign tumours of myometrial origin and are the most common solid benign uterine neoplasms. Commonly an incidental finding on imaging, they rarely cause a diagnostic dilemma. There are various medical, surgical and interventional treatme...
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Uterine leiomyosarcoma

Uterine leiomyosarcomas are malignant uterine tumours that arises from the myometrium. The uterus is the commonest location for a leiomyosarcoma. Epidemiology Typically present in women in the 6th decade. They account for up to one-third of uterine sarcomas but only ~8% of all uterine cancers ...
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Uterine lipoleiomyoma

Uterine lipoleiomyomas result from degeneration of smooth muscle cells in an ordinary leiomyoma and represent a rare benign tumour of the uterus 1. Epidemiology Lipoleiomyomas have a reported incidence of 0.03-0.20% and are typically found in postmenopausal patients with typical uterine leiomy...
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Uterine lymphoma

Uterine lymphoma refers to involvement of the uterus with lymphoma. Some authors also place lymphoma of the uterine cervix under this group. Epidemiology It is rare condition with initial uterine involvement occurring in only 1% of patients with lymphoma 3. However, uterine involvement is more...
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Uterine perforation

Uterine perforation represents a serious complication that can occur as a result of any type of intrauterine procedure or implantation. Some authors use the term uterine rupture synonymously with the term uterine perforation. Pathology Causes IUCD insertion: IUCD related uterine perforation ...
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Uterine rupture

Uterine rupture is a rare but nevertheless potentially catastrophic complication that can occur in pregnancy.  Epidemiology The incidence rate in pregnancy is at 0.05% 6.   Clinical presentation Uterine rupture is usually an acute presentation with haemodynamic instability and abdominal disc...
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Uterine sarcoma

Uterine sarcoma is a malignant uterine tumour thats is composed of part or all sarcomatous (mesodermal) elements. They however account for a minority of all uterine malignancies (1-6% 3-4).  Pathology Classification They can be broadly classified as pure or mixed 4: mixed malignant mixed Mu...
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Uterine smooth muscle tumours of uncertain malignant potential

Uterine smooth muscle tumours of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP) is a recently defined entity by the World Health Organisation for a heterogeneous group of uterine smooth muscle tumours that cannot be histologically diagnosed as unequivocally benign or malignant 1. See also malignant neo...
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Uterine tube

The uterine tube, also known as the fallopian tube, is a paired structure that bridges between each ovary and the uterus and functions to convey the mature ovum from the former to the latter. If conception occurs, it normally does so within the tube. It can be affected by a wide range of patholo...
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Uteroplacental blood flow assessment

Uteroplacental blood flow assessment is an important part of fetal well-being assessment and evaluates Doppler flow in the uterine arteries and rarely the ovarian arteries. Pathology In a non-gravid state and at the very start of pregnancy the flow in the uterine artery is of high pulsatility ...
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Uterus

The uterus is a hollow, thick-walled, muscular organ of the female reproductive tract that lies in the lesser pelvis.   Gross anatomy The uterus has an inverted pear shape. In the adult, it measures about 7.5 cm in length, 5 cm wide at its upper part, and nearly 2.5 cm in thickness. It weighs ...
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Uterus didelphys

Uterus didelphys is a type of Müllerian duct anomaly (class III) where there is a complete duplication of uterine horns as well as duplication of the cervix, with no communication between them.   Epidemiology Didelphic uteri account for approximately ~8% (range 5-11%) of Müllerian duct anomali...
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Uvea

The uvea (also called the uveal layer or vascular tunic) is the middle three layers that make up the eye. It is the pigmented layer and its main function is of nutrition and gas exchange. It sits between the retina (innermost layer) and sclera.  It is traditionally split up into three anatomica...
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Vaccum assisted therapy

Vacuum-assisted therapy, also known vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) or negative pressure wound therapy, refers to a device used in the treatment of acute or chronic wounds.  Components foam dressing applied on the wound suction drains covering transparent adhesive membrane vacuum source: VAC ...
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VACTERL association

VACTERL is an acronym that describes a non-random constellation of congenital anomalies. It is not a true syndrome as such and is equivalent to the VATER anomaly. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is 1 in 10,000-40,000 births 3. Pathology The acronym VACTERL derives from: V: vertebral an...
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VACTERL-H association

The VACTERL-H association is a rare non-random association which bears the features of the standard VACTERL association with added fetal hydrocephalus. Unlike the standard VACTERL association which is sporadic, the VACTERL-H is hereditary with both X-linked 3 and autosomal recessive 2 inheritan...
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Vacuum phenomenon in shoulder

Vacuum phenomenon in the shoulder refers to the presence of intra-articular gas in the shoulder joint. It is a very common occurrence, particularly in external rotation. This can cause circular or linear areas of low signal intensity on GRE MR images of the shoulder obtained with external rotati...
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Vagal nerve stimulator

A vagal nerve stimulator (VNS) is an implantable device used in patients with intractable epilepsy. It is considered to be an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of refractory seizure disorders. The device is somewhat similar in appearance to a pacemaker with the 'box' typically inserted into t...
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Vagina

The vagina is a midline fibromuscular tubular structure positioned in the female perineum extending superiorly to the cervix and uterus in the pelvis.  Gross anatomy The vagina is 8-10 cm in length, extending posterosuperior from the vestibule through the urogenital diaphragm to the uterus. Th...
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Vaginal artery

The vaginal artery is a branch of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery, and should not to be mistaken with the vaginal branch of the uterine artery. It is often considered to be a homolog of the inferior vesical artery, which is present only in males. Summary origin: anterior div...
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Vaginal atresia

Vaginal atresia refers to a spectrum of anomalies comprising of failure to form a part or all of the vagina.   Epidemiology It is considered the second most common cause of primary amenorrhea. The estimated  Incidence is at ~ 2 in 10000 women. Clinical presentation The most common symptom...
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Vaginal cancer (staging)

The staging of primary vaginal cancer covers for all histological sub types and is as follows FIGO staging system stage 0: carcinoma in situ stage I: tumour confined to vagina stage II: invasion of paravaginal tissues but no extension beyond pelvic side walls stage III: extension to pelvic ...
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Vaginal leiomyoma

A vaginal leiomyoma is an extremely rare entity and falls under extra uterine pelvic leiomyomas.  Epidemiology They are extremely rare with only ~ 300 cases reported in literature 3. Pathology It may occur anywhere along the vaginal canal and is usually localized, mobile, non-tender, and cir...
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Vaginal lymphoma

Vaginal lymphoma can refer to: secondary involvement of the vagina (secondary vaginal lymphoma) from widespread generalised lymphoma relatively commoner usually comprises of diffuse large cell B non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (DLBCL) 2 primary vaginal lymphoma much rarer
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Vaginal pessary

A vaginal pessary is a device inserted into the vagina which can either be mechanical or pharmaceutical. A mechanical pessary is most commonly used to treat uterine prolapse. It is also used to treat stress urinary incontinence, a retroverted uterus, cystocoele and rectocoele. A bewildering arr...
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Vaginal stenosis

Vaginal stenosis refers to a narrowing of the vagina, it can be congenital or acquired. Pathology Causes Acquired causes include scarring from prior pelvic irradiation - brachytherapy Radiographic features General Depending on the site of stenosis and state of menstruation there can be a...
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Vagoglossopharyngeal neuralgia

Vagoglossopharyngeal neuralgia is an uncommon presentation of glossopharyngeal neuralgia where the typical symptoms of pain are associated with cardiac symptoms including arrhythmias, asystole, and syncope. It is believed to be due to complex interconnections between the nervus intermedius, the...
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Vagus nerve

The vagus nerve is the tenth cranial nerve and provides the bulk of the parasympathetic input to the gastrointestinal system and to the heart. It is a complex mixed sensory, motor and parasympathetic nerve.  Gross anatomy Central connections The vagus nerve arises as multiple rootlets at the ...
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Valence shell

The valence shell of an atom is the outermost shell of the electron cloud. It plays a large part in determining the chemical, thermal, optical and electrical properties of the element. This occurs because it often not full and movement of electrons may occur between it and a) electrons from o...
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Valentino syndrome

Valentino syndrome, or Valentino appendix, refers to a clinical syndrome of right lower quadrant or right iliac fossa pain secondary to a perforated peptic ulcer. It is an important differential diagnosis for acute appendicitis. Epidemiology Although thought to be a very rare manifestation of ...
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Valgus vs varus

The terms valgus and varus refer to angulation (or bowing) within the shaft of a bone or at a joint. It is determined by the distal part being more medial or lateral than it should be. Whenever the distal part is more lateral, it is called valgus. Whenever the distal part is more medial, it is ...
Article

Valsalva manoeuvre

The Valsalva manoeuvre is the forced expiration of air against a closed airway, resulting in increased intra-abdominal, intrathoracic and pharyngeal pressure. It can be performed against a closed glottis or by one closing the mouth and pinching the nose while forcibly exhaling. It is commonly u...
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Valvulae conniventes

The valvulae conniventes, also known as Kerckring folds, plicae circulares or just small bowel folds, are the mucosal folds of the small intestine, starting from the second part of the duodenum, they are large and thick at the jejunum and considerably decrease in size distally in the ileum to di...
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Valvular heart disease

Valvular heart diseases, or cardiac valvulopathies, describe any acquired or congenital disease affecting one or more of the four cardiac valves. This is a general index article that classifies cardiac valvulopathies depending on which valve(s) is affected 1. See individual articles for in-dept...
Article

Van Buchem disease

Van Buchem disease (VBD) is an extremely rare hereditary sclerosing bone dysplasia, also known as hyperostosis corticalis generalisata. This disease is characterised most notably by mandibular enlargement and thickening of the skull. Epidemiology Less than 30 cases have been reported in the li...
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Vancouver classification

The Vancouver classification of periprosthetic hip fractures proposed by Duncan and Masri is the most widely used classification system. It takes into account the fracture site, the status of the femoral implant, and the quality of surrounding femoral bone stock. type A: fractures involve the t...
Article

Van der Woude syndrome

van der Woude syndrome (VWS) is characterized by the association of congenital lower lip fistulae / pits with cleft lip and / or palate. It is one of the most common clefting syndromes in humans 1.  VWS individuals have a high prevalence of hypodontia. Pathology Genetics It carries anautoso...
Article

Vanishing vertebrae

Vanishing vertebrae is a rare ischaemic manifestation of sickle cell disease, in which a completely infarcted vertebral body literally disappears or vanishes, as a result of infarction. In the few reported cases, the posterior elements remain intact. See also codfish or h-shaped vertebrae ant...
Article

Vanishing white matter disease

Vanishing white matter disease (VWM), also known as childhood ataxia with central hypomyelination (CACH), is an exceedingly rare entity only fully described in 1997, but due to its name sometimes over-represented in differentials for white matter disease. Epidemiology Most cases are encountere...
Article

Variably protease sensitive prionopathy

Variably protease sensitive prionopathy (VPSPr) is a very rare type of sporadic human prion disease that was first described in 2008. Clinical presentation Clinical presentation is varied, but most patients demonstrate a combination of: progressive neuropsychiatric features: dementia and psyc...
Article

Variant anatomy of the aortic arch

Variant anatomy of the aortic arch occurs when there is failure of normal aortic development. It results in a number of heterogenous anomalies of the aorta and its branch vessels. Gross anatomy Normally, the aorta ascends in the superior mediastinum to the level of the sternal notch before arc...
Article

Variant hepatic arterial anatomy

Variation in hepatic arterial anatomy is seen in 40-45% of people. Classic branching of the common hepatic artery from the coeliac artery, and the proper hepatic artery into right and left hepatic arteries to supply the entire liver, is seen in 55-60% of the population.  In general, the common ...
Article

Variation in cord insertion

There can be several variations with cord insertion into the placenta: central insertion (~90%): normal situation eccentric cord insertion: lateral insertion of the umbilical cord >2 cm from the placental margin term sometimes used synonymously with marginal cord insertion marginal cord inse...
Article

Variation in fetal presentation

There can be many  variations in fetal presentation which is determined by which part of the fetus is projecting towards the internal cervical os. This includes: cephalic presentation: fetal head presenting towards the internal cervical os, considered normal and occurs in the vast majority of b...
Article

Variation in placental morphology

There can be several variations in placental morphology. These include: single lobed discoid placenta (single disc): most common scenario bilobed placenta: two near equal size lobes succenturiate lobe(s): one of more smaller accessory lobes circumvallate placenta: rolled placental edges with...
Article

Varicella pneumonia

Varicella pneumonia is a type of viral pneumonia. It is a common cause of multiple small round calcific lung lesions. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) most commonly causes self-limited benign disease (chickenpox) in children. However, in adults it tends to cause significant complications such as VZV...
Article

Varicella zoster virus encephalitis

Varicella zoster virus (VZV) encephalitis can be due to either an immune reaction to primary infection or reactivation of latent infection in cranial nerve or dorsal root ganglia following childhood chickenpox.  Manifestations following primary infection include:  cerebellar ataxia meningoenc...
Article

Varicocele (grading on colour Doppler)

Varicocele grading can be done variably. The most elaborate and accepted grading was given by Sarteschi, which is briefed below.  For a general discussion of this condition refer to the article: varicocele. Evaluation first do a baseline grey scale study in supine position and measure the dia...
Article

Varicocoele

Varicocoele is the dilatation of the pampiniform plexus of veins, a network of many small veins found in the male spermatic cord. It is the most frequently encountered mass of the spermatic cord. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~15% of general male population and ~40% of subfertile ...

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