Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

11,926 results found
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Toxic megacolon

Toxic megacolon is a complication that can be seen in both types of inflammatory bowel disease, and less commonly in infectious colitis, as well as in some other types of colitis. Terminology Toxic colitis is preferred by many now as the colon is not always dilated.  Pathology The mechanisms...
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Toxoplasmosis

Toxoplasmosis is a common worldwide parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. It is usually an asymptomatic infection, but it is related with several sequelae when acquired in-utero or related with cerebral abscesses due to its reactivation in immunocompromised patients (e.g. ...
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Toxoplasmosis vs lymphoma

It is common for radiologists to be asked to distinguish between cerebral toxoplasmosis and primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) in patients with HIV/AIDS. Treatment is clearly different and thus accurate interpretation of CT and MRI is essential. In many instances, the imaging appearance is classic an...
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TP53

The TP53 gene, located on chromosome 17, is a tumour suppressor gene, responsible for the production of the p53 protein, a transcription regulatory protein which works in concert with a number of other proteins, together forming the p53 pathway 1,2. Inherited mutations in this gene result in th...
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Trabecular pattern of proximal femur

Trabecular pattern of proximal femur refers to the five groups of trabeculae that are demonstrable within the femoral head and neck. Basic concept Trabecula is a supportive and connective tissue element which form in cancellous bone. Trabeculae develop in a normal bone and also in a healing bo...
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Trachea

The trachea, known colloquially as the windpipe, connects the upper respiratory tract to the lungs via the tracheobronchial tree, enabling gas exchange. Gross anatomy The trachea is a tube-shaped structure consisting of 15-to-20 D-shaped cartilage rings anterolaterally bridged by annular ligam...
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Tracheal and endobronchial lesions

Primary tracheal and endobronchial lesions are generally rare and can be either malignant or benign. The majority of these lesions are malignant. Pathology Malignant primary malignant endobronchial lesions bronchogenic adenocarcinoma squamous cell carcinoma: commonest malignant lesion in tr...
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Tracheal atresia

Tracheal atresia (TA) is an extremely rare anomaly and refers to a congenital absence of the trachea. Epidemiology There may be a greater male predilection 5. Pathology Tracheal atresia falls under the spectrum of laryngeal-tracheo-bronchial atresia which in turn results either from an obstr...
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Tracheal bronchus

A tracheal bronchus (with some variations also known as a pig bronchus) is an anatomical variant where an accessory bronchus originates directly from the supracarinal trachea. The latter term (pig bronchus or bronchus suis) is often given when the entire upper lobe (usually right side) is suppli...
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Tracheal buckling

Tracheal buckling is a normal finding in young infants when it is more flexible. There is typically deviation of the trachea anteriorly and to the right (up to 90°) and any other configuration (i.e. to the left or posteriorly) should raise the possibility of underlying pathology.  Practical poi...
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Tracheal calcification

Tracheal calcification, or tracheobronchial calcification, is a benign radiological finding of the middle aged and elderly and is usually of no clinical significance. Clinical presentation Patients are generally asymptomatic. Pathology Long-term warfarin therapy may be associated with trache...
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Tracheal diverticulum

A tracheal diverticulum is usually an incidental finding. Occasionally it may mimic pneumomediastinum, so called pseudopneumomediastinum. Pathology It may be congenital or acquired. The acquired form is thought to be due to prolonged increased intraluminal pressure, e.g. due to a chronic cough...
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Tracheal masses

The differential for tracheal masses can be rather wide. For a single mass consider: metastasis  direct invasion from adjacent organ (lung, thryoid,esophagus) distant metastsis ( such as melanoma)  primary neoplasms: squamous cell carcinoma: commonest primary tracheal malignancy 2 ~50 % a...
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Tracheal stenosis

Tracheal stenosis is usually acquired following intubation or tracheostomy. Inflammation and pressure necrosis of the tracheal mucosa most commonly occur at either the tracheostomy stoma or at the level of the tube balloon. Acute post-intubation stenosis results from mucosal oedema or granulatio...
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Tracheal wall thickening

Tracheal wall thickening may have several causes. For diagnostic purposes, tracheal thickening may be categorized by length of airway involvement in order to narrow the differential diagnoses. Note that some etiologies may be associated with either focal or diffuse pattern of involvement. Focal...
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Tracheal web

Tracheal webs occur as a thin layer of tissue that narrows the tracheal lumen. They do not completely obstruct the trachea. Epidemiology The incidence of congenital tracheal is 1:10,000 births. Clinical presentation Some patients will be asymptomatic. Symptomatic patients can present with a ...
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Trachelectomy

Trachelectomy (sometimes known as a cervicectomy) refers to removal of uterine cervix.  It is sometimes performed as a uterine sparing surgery for certain cases with cervical malignancy 2-3. When it is performed with curative intent it is often termed a radical trachelectomy and is often accomp...
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Tracheobronchial amyloidosis

Tracheobronchial amyloidosis refers to tracheal and/or bronchial involvement in amyloidosis. It is sometimes classified as a subtype of pulmonary amyloidosis. Epidemiology It is a rare manifestation with some reports suggesting less than 100 published cases around the time of writing 5. Clini...
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Tracheobronchial branching anomalies

Tracheobronchial branching anomalies can be seen as an isolated finding or accompanying heterotaxy syndromes, pulmonary sling, and conditions associated with pulmonary underdevelopment (agenesis and aplasia), including the scimitar syndrome. Abnormal branching patterns include: right sided iso...
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Tracheobronchial injury

Tracheobronchial injury is a serious but uncommon manifestation of chest trauma. It is usually a fatal injury with only a small percentage of patients making it to hospital. Given the magnitude of force required to injure the major airways, there are often multiple chest injuries and other body ...
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Tracheobronchial papillomatosis

Tracheobronchial papillomatosis refers to the occurrence of multiple squamous cell papillomas involving trachea and bronchi. It is an unusual manifestation of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP), itself a rare condition where HPV-associated papilloma form along the aerodigestive tract 8. ...
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Tracheobronchial stent

A tracheo-bronchial stent is a device used in the treatment of symptomatic airway compression. This device is inserted under bronchoscopic guidance in patients with external compression from mediastinal based malignancy, for example lung or oesophageal cancers.  It may also be used in the treat...
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Tracheobronchial tree

The tracheobronchial tree is the branching tree of airways beginning at the larynx and extending inferiorly and peripherally into the lungs as bronchioles. The luminal diameter decreases as the branching increases more peripherally into the lungs. The walls of the airway down to the level of the...
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Tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica

Tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica (TO) is a very rare idiopathic non-neoplastic tracheobronchial abnormality. Epidemiology The estimated prevalence on routine bronchoscopy can be up to 0.7%. It typically affects those in the 5th to 6th decades and there may be a male predilection 4.  ...
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Tracheomalacia

Tracheomalacia, or sometimes described as tracheobronchomalacia, is a common incidental finding on imaging of the chest of older patients and manifests as an increase in tracheal diameter as well as a tendency to collapse on expiration. Generally, more than 70% collapse of the trachea during exp...
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Tracheomalacia (differential)

A dilated trachea has numerous causes, and in almost all cases represents tracheomalacia (increased size and increased compliance). As is almost always the case, various diameters have been used. Typical figures include >26 mm in men, >23 mm in women or >3 cm for both genders. Although many of...
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Tracheo-oesophageal fistulation

Tracheo-oesophageal fistula is a pathological communication between the trachea and oesophagus. It can be broadly classified into two types: congenital tracheo-oesophageal fistula acquired tracheo-oesophageal fistula: from malignancy/tuberculosis
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Traction bronchiectasis

Traction bronchiectasis refers to an aetiological sub type of bronchiectasis where there is irreversible dilatation of bronchi and bronchioles within areas of pulmonary fibrosis or distorted lung parenchymal architecture. Pathology It can arise from a number of underlying causes which result i...
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Trade offs

Trade-offs exist when changing imaging parameters to obtain the best images possible. The SNR, resolution, and acquisition time, are all interrelated. Changing one effects the others. An important job of the radiologist and MR radiographer is to decide what factors are more important for an exam...
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Trampoline fracture

Trampoline fractures are transverse fractures of the proximal tibial metaphysis that occur in children while jumping on a trampoline (or inflatable castle). The fracture is thought to occur when a second, usually heavier individual causes the jumping surface to recoil upwards as the unsuspectin...
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Tramp-stamp oedema

Tramp-stamp oedema is a colloquial term used by some radiologists to denote posterior lumbar subcutaneous oedema. The term is used to describe oedema in the distribution seen with lower back tattoos, usually in young women, which are known pejoratively as tramp-stamps.  This oedema is thought t...
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Tram-track sign (brain)

Tram-track sign in the brain refers to the parallel calcification of the cortex in patients with Sturge-Weber syndrome 1.  It should not be confused with other tram-track signs elsewhere in the body. 
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Tram-track sign (chest)

Tram-track sign may be used in chest radiography or CT to denote the thickened non-tapering (parallel) walls of cylindrical bronchiectasis. It should not be confused with other tram-track signs elsewhere in the body. 
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Tram-track sign (disambiguation)

Tram-track sign may refer to a variety of appearances characterised by near-parallel lines in a number of contexts and regions including: tram-track sign (brain): cortical calcification in Sturge-Weber syndrome tram-track sign (orbit): e.g. optic nerve meningioma tram-track sign (chest): thic...
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Tram-track sign (orbit)

Tram-track sign refers to the parallel thickening and enhancement around the optic nerve, and is most frequently seen in the setting of optic nerve meningioma. It may however also be seen in 1: orbital pseudotumour perioptic neuritis orbital sarcoidosis oribtal leukemia orbital lymphoma or...
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Transalar herniation

Transalar (transsphenoidal) herniation describes herniation of brain matter in and around the middle cranial fossa across the greater sphenoid wing and can be ascending or descending. Compression of structures against the sphenoid bone results in symptoms. Pathology Transalar herniation is not...
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Transcallosal approach

Interhemispheric transcallosal approach is a common access route for surgery on the bodies of the lateral ventricles, and third ventricle, which does not lead to serious neurological deficits. It is therefore used for resection of intraventricular tumours such as: central neurocytomas choroid ...
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Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI)

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation or replacement (TAVI/TAVR) is a technique to replace the aortic valve through a transvascular or transapical approach. Compared to traditional open aortic valve replacement with sternotomy and a heart-lung bypass machine, the TAVI technique is less invasiv...
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Transcatheter arterial chemoembolisation

Transarterial chemoembolisation therapy (TACE) is a localised method of administrating chemotherapy directly to a liver tumour via a catheter study. Transarterial embolisation (TAE) (i.e. without a chemotherapy agent added) is also used, and there is evidence that this may be just as effective ...
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Transcoelomic spread

Transcoelomic spread describes the spread of a malignancy into body cavities that occurs via penetrating the surface of the peritoneal, pleural, pericardial, or subarachnoid spaces. For example, ovarian tumours can spread transperitoneally to the surface of the liver.
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Transcriptome

The transcriptome represents the portion of the genetic code of a cell which is transcribed into RNA (mRNA, tRNA, rRNA and non-coding RNA). It can be used to understand gene expression and signaling pathways. 
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Transependymal oedema

Transependymal oedema, also known as interstitial cerebral oedema, is a type of cerebral oedema that occurs with increased pressure within the cerebral ventricles. FLAIR MRI sequence is the most sensitive MRI sequence to detect this type of oedema. Pathology The ventricular ependymal lining is...
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Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF)

Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) is a spinal fusion procedure performed as an alternative to posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) when posterior decompression of the spinal canal is not required 1.  A facetectomy is usually performed followed by a discectomy and insertion of in...
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Transforaminal nerve root injection

Transforaminal nerve root injfection is performed for radicular pain treatment and diagnosis. See spinal interventional procedures for complications and equipment. cervical spine thoracic spine lumbar spine The desired needle tip position is just lateral to the pedicle immediately below the...
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Transfusion related acute lung injury

Transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI) is defined as non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema temporally related to transfusion therapy.  It tends to occur within 6 hours after a blood transfusion and requires exclusion of other alternative diagnoses such as sepsis, volume overload.  Radiograph...
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Transhiatal oesophagectomy

Transhiatal oesophagectomy is a type of oesophagectomy, a surgery that removes the distal oesophagus, usually for oesophageal carcinoma. Removal of the oesophagus can be performed through the chest wall (a transthoracic oesophagectomy), but the thoracotomy is a major component of patient pain a...
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Transient abnormal myelopoiesis

Transient abnormal myelopoiesis (TAM) is a phenomenon that can happen in the fetuses or neonates with trisomy 21. The condition can mimic leukaemia. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~10% of newborns with trisomy 21 3. Radiographic features Antenatal ultrasound In the context of kn...
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Transient elastography

Transient elastography most often refers to a type of elastography which relies on a mechanical pulse generated by an external probe. The principle is similar to shear wave elastography, in that the elastic modulus is generated from shear wave velocity, but the application of the pulse from an ...
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Transient global amnesia

Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a clinical syndrome with no clear aetiology identified. Most symptoms are transient and resolve within a few hours.  Epidemiology Most common in patients of older age (50-70 years old). Clinical presentation Anterograde and partial retrograde amnesia lasting...
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Transient hepatic attenuation differences

Transient hepatic attenuation differences (THAD) lesions refer to areas of parenchymal enhancement visible during the hepatic artery phase on helical CT. They are thought to be a physiological phenomenon caused by the dual hepatic blood supply. Occasionally they may be associated with hepatic tu...
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Transient hepatic intensity difference

Transient hepatic intensity differences (THIDs) are a phenomenon observed on MRI imaging of the liver. They are considered a direct equivalent to transient hepatic attenuation differences (THADs) noted on CT. They may be focal or nonfocal. Pathology Focal lesions A focal THID lesion can arise...
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Transient intussusception

Transient (non-obstructing) intussusception without a lead point is known to occur in both adults and children and occurs more frequently than was previously reported. Transient intussusception of the small bowel has been reported in adults with coeliac disease and Crohn disease but is most fre...
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Transient ischaemic attack

Transient ischaemic attack (TIA), in the most recent definition, corresponds to a transient episode of neurological dysfunction caused by focal brain, spinal cord, or retinal ischaemia, without acute infarction. Terminology  In the past, TIA was arbitrarily distinguished from stroke by the dur...
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Transient ischaemic dilatation

Transient ischaemic dilatation (TID) is a paradoxical phenomenon seen in myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging.   With severe balanced coronary artery disease, myocardial ischaemia may result in apparent enlargement of the left ventricular cavity during stress. The cause of this is not entirely cl...
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Transient physiological myometrial contraction

Transient myometrial contraction is a physiological phenomenon which may mimic focal adenomyosis Radiographic features It appears as focal low signal intensity bulge/region of the myometrium which may disappear on subsequent images or at cine MR imaging.   Differential diagnosis focal adenom...
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Transient synovitis of the hip

Transient synovitis of the hip refers to a self-limiting acute inflammatory condition affecting the synovial lining of the hip. It is considered one of the most common causes of hip pain and limping in young children. Over 90% of hip joint effusions in children tend to be due to transient synovi...
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Transient tachypnoea of the newborn

Transient tachypnoea of the newborn, also known as retained fetal fluid or wet lung disease, presents in the neonate as tachypnoea for the first few hours of life, lasting up to one day. The tachypnoea usually resolves by within 48 hours.  Epidemiology Transient tachypnoea is one of the common...
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Transitional cell carcinoma (bladder)

Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most common primary neoplasm of the urinary bladder, and bladder TCC is the most common tumour of the entire urinary system. This article concerns itself with transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder specifically. Related articles include: general di...
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Transitional cell carcinoma grading

Transitional cell carcinomas of the urothelium are graded histologically as follows: transitional cell papilloma benign tumour, not a carcinoma but sometimes included in classification systems carcinoma in situ do not penetrate the basement membrane cells resemble those of grade II or III ...
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Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder (staging)

Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder staging uses the TNM system which has replaced the previously widely used Jewett-Scott-Marshall tumour staging system. It is very similar to the staging of TCC of the renal pelvis and staging of TCC of the ureter. TNM staging T Ta: non-invasive papil...
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Transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis (staging)

Transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis staging uses the TNM system and is very similar to staging of TCC of the bladder and to staging of TCC of the ureter. TNM staging T Ta: noninvasive papillary tumour Tis: in situ (noninvasive flat) T1: through lamina propria into sub-epithelial...
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Transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter (staging)

Transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter staging uses the TNM system and is very similar to staging of TCC of the bladder and to staging of TCC of the renal pelvis.  TNM staging T Ta: noninvasive papillary tumour Tis: in situ (noninvasive flat) T1: through lamina propria into sub-epithelia...
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Transitional cell carcinoma (renal pelvis)

Transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis is uncommon compared to renal cell carcinoma and can be challenging to identify on routine imaging when small.  This article concerns itself with TCCs of the renal pelvis specifically. For a general discussion of this tumour please see transitiona...
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Transitional cell carcinoma (staging)

Staging of transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary tract vary according to the location of the tumour, and are staged using the TNM staging system.  transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder  
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Transitional cell carcinoma (ureter)

Transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter are uncommon compared to similar tumours elsewhere along the urinary tract but are nonetheless the most common primary tumour of the ureter. This article concerns itself with transitional cell carcinomas of the ureter specifically. For a general discuss...
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Transitional cell carcinoma (urethra)

Transitional cell carcinoma of the urethra is rare and is limited to the proximal urethra in men (membranous and prostatic). The vast majority of urethral tumours are squamous cell carcinomas. See also squamous cell carcinoma of the urethra transitional cell carcinoma
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Transitional cell carcinoma (urinary tract)

Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), also called urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC), is the most common primary malignancy of the urinary tract and may be found along its entire length, from the renal pelvis to the bladder.  As imaging findings and treatment vary according to where along the urinary...
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Transitional vertebra

Transitional vertebra is one that has indeterminate characteristic and features of vertebrae from adjacent vertebral segments. They occur at the junction between spinal morphological segments: atlanto-occipital junction atlanto-occipital assimilation: complete or partial fusion of C1 and the o...
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Transition zone

The transition zone of a nerve describes a roughly 2 mm length region where the myelin sheath changes from central to peripheral type. This zone is susceptible to mechanical irritation and is implicated in neurovascular compression syndromes such as trigeminal neuralgia (CN V), hemifacial spasm ...
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Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt

Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is a treatment for portal hypertension in which direct communication is formed between a hepatic vein and a branch of the portal vein, thus allowing some proportion of portal flow to bypass the liver. The target portosystemic gradient after TI...
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Transjugular renal biopsy

Transjugular renal biopsy can be performed to obtain an adequate tissue sample for histopathologic diagnosis on renal dysfunctions. It is usually performed in high-risk patients in whom percutaneous renal biopsy is not feasible or is contraindicated. This is also useful in morbidly obese patient...
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Transmantle sign (brain)

The transmantle sign is an MRI feature of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD), almost exclusively seen in type II focal cortical dysplasia (Taylor dysplasia - also known as transmantle cortical dysplasia for this reason). However, it is not always present, seen in ~45% (range 21-72%) of patients with...
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Transplant renal arterial pseudostenosis

Transplant renal arterial pseudostenosis is uncommon. It is a lesion in the iliac artery proximal to the implantation of the transplant renal artery. Epidemiology Uncommon, although as the population of renal transplant recipients has become older and more diabetic, the incidence of this disea...
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Transposition of inferior vena cava

Transposition of inferior vena-cava (also known as left sided IVC) refers to a variant course of the inferior vena cava. It is the most common anomaly of IVC and occurs due to persistence of left supracardinal vein. Diagnosis of left sided IVC is important for planning of vascular procedures l...
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Transposition of the great arteries

Transposition of the great arteries (TGA) is the most common cyanotic congenital cardiac anomaly presenting during the newborn period, with cyanosis in the first 24 hours of life. It accounts for up to 7% of all congenital cardiac anomalies 1  and can be assessed with echocardiography, gated car...
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Transpyloric plane

The transpyloric plane, also known as Addison's plane, is an imaginary axial plane located midway between the jugular notch and superior border of pubic symphysis, at approximately the level of L1 vertebral body. It an important landmark as many key structures are visualised at this level, altho...
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Transrectal ultrasound

Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) is a technique that is used most commonly to evaluate the prostate gland, including ultrasound-guided prostate biopsies depth of invasion of colon/rectal cancer (for staging purposes) It can also be used for guidance in placing a transrectal drain, or in rare pro...
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Transsphenoidal hypophysectomy

Transsphenoidal hypophysectomy is a commonly used surgical approach for pituitary region masses, with many significant advantages over open craniotomy.  History The transsphenoidal approach was first described in 1907 by Schloffer, modified by Halstead and subsequently popularised by Harvey Cu...
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Trans-sphenoidal basilar skull fracture

Trans-sphenoidal basilar skull fractures are a particularly serious type of basilar skull fracture usually occurring in the setting of severe traumatic brain injury and with potential for serious complications including damaging the internal carotid arteries and optic nerves as well as high inci...
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Transtentorial herniation

Transtentorial herniation is a type of cerebral herniation. There are two types: descending transtentorial herniation, more frequently known as uncal herniation ascending transtentorial herniation, which is less common than uncal herniation
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Transudate

A transudate is a collection of fluid that has a relatively low specific gravity and protein concentration. They occur secondary to increased hydrostatic pressure or reduced colloid oncotic pressure: left ventricular failure (increased hydrostatic pressure) hypoalbuminaemia (decreased colloid ...
Article

Transureteroureterostomy

Transureteroureterostomy (TUU) is a procedure in which one ureter is divided and then connected (re-routed) into the other. It is performed when a distal ureter needs to be bypassed and can be performed instead of a psoas hitch or Boari flap. It may be preferable if the patient has had prior rad...
Article

Transurethral resection of the prostate

Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is a traditional therapy for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and prostatism from benign prostatic hyperplasia. TURP results in characteristic imaging features. Indications acute urinary retention recurrent infection recurrent haematuria azo...
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Transversalis fascia

Transversalis fascia is the lining fascia of the anterolateral abdominal wall which lies between the transversus abdominis muscle and peritoneum. Gross anatomy The transversalis fascia, inferior diaphragmatic fascia, pelvic fascia and iliacus fascia  form a continuous lining of the abdominal a...
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Transverse acetabular ligament

The transverse acetabular ligament is part of the labrum but has no cartilage cells. Its strong, flat fibres cross the acetabular notch forming a foramen through which vessels and nerves enter the joint.
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Transverse arch

The transverse arch of the foot is an arch in the coronal plane formed by the three cuneiforms, the cuboid, and the bases of the five metatarsals. They are held together by the deep transverse metatarsal ligaments. The peroneus longus and tibialis posterior tendons assist in maintaining the curv...
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Transverse cerebellar diameter

In obstetric imaging, the fetal transverse cerebellar diameter (TCD) is often measured as an additional fetal biometric parameter. It is measured as the maximal diameter between the cerebellar hemispheres on an axial scan. The value of the transverse cerebellar diameter in mm's is considered rou...
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Transverse cervical artery

The transverse cervical artery, also known as the cervicodorsal trunk, is 1 of the 4 branches of the thyrocervical trunk (off the first part of the subclavian artery). It is a short artery that bifurcates into the superficial and deep branches, both which course superficially and laterally acro...
Article

Transverse cervical nerve

The transverse cervical nerve, also known as the superficial cervical nerve, cutaneous cervical nerve or anterior cutaneous cervical nerve of the neck, is a cutaneous branch of the cervical plexus that innervates the skin covering the anterior cervical region. Gross anatomy Origin The transve...
Article

Transverse colon

The transverse colon is the longest and most mobile part of the large intestine. It measures up to 45 cm in length.  Gross anatomy The transverse colon is the continuation of the ascending colon from the right colic flexure. It passes from the right to left hypochondrium in a downward convex p...
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Transverse fracture

Transverse fractures are complete fractures that traverse the bone perpendicular to the axis of the bone. The fracture involves the cortex circumferentially and there may be displacement. The term is predominantly used in the context of fractures of long bones although other types of bones may ...
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Transverse ligament of the hip

The transverse ligament of the hip bridges the acetabular notch (located anteroinferiorly along the margin of the acetabulum) and joins the two ends of the acetabular labrum, thus forming a complete ring. Beneath it (through the acetabular foramen) pass nutrient vessels which enter the ligamentu...
Article

Transverse ligament of the knee

The transverse ligament of the knee is a ligament within the anterior aspect of the knee joint. Gross anatomy The transverse ligament is a variable band-like intracapsular knee ligament. It attaches transversely across the anterior aspects of the convex margins of the medial and lateral menisci.

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