Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

12,145 results found
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Adenomyoma

An adenomyoma is a focal region of adenomyosis resulting in a mass, which is difficult to distinguish from a uterine fibroid, although in general the degree to which the contour of the uterus is distorted is less marked in adenomyosis 2. Additionally, the 'mass' is poorly defined and blends with...
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Adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder

Adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder is a hyperplastic cholecystosis of the gallbladder wall. It is a relatively common and benign cause of diffuse or focal gallbladder wall thickening. It is most easily seen on ultrasound and MRI.  Epidemiology Adenomyomatosis is relatively common, found in ~9%...
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Adenomyosis

Adenomyosis is a common, benign uterine pathology. It is thought by many to be on the spectrum of endometriosis, with ectopic endometrial tissue in the myometrium. Adenomyosis may present with menorrhagia and dysmenorrhoea. Ultrasound and MRI are imaging modalities that may show characteristic f...
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Adenomyotic cyst

An adenomyotic cyst is an extremely rare variation of cystic adenomyosis. The lesion consists of a large hemorrhagic cyst, which is partly or entirely surrounded by a solid wall. It can be entirely within the myometrium, submucosal, or subserosal and frequently is associated with symptoms of men...
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Adenosis of the breast

Adenosis of the breast is a benign lobulocentric proliferative process in which lobules are enlarged and increased in number in addition to an increased number of glands within each lobule. Pathologically subclassified into three main subtypes which include: sclerosing adenosis of the breast ...
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Adenosquamous carcinoma (cervix)

Adenosquamous cell carcinoma (ASC) of the cervix is a rare histological subtype of cervical carcinoma. Pathology It has components of both cervical adenocarcinoma and cervical squamous cell carcinoma. Prognosis An adenosquamous histology appears to be an independent predictor of poor outcome...
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Adenosquamous carcinoma of endometrium

Adenosquamous carcinoma of the endometrium is a rare histological sub type of endometrial cancer.  In general it occurs in a slightly younger group when compared with pure adenocarcinoma of the endometrium 4. It contains both malignant glandular and malignant squamous components. Adenosquamous...
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Adenosquamous carcinoma of lung

Adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC) of the lung is a rare type of non-small cell lung cancer. Epidemiology It is thought to constituting 0.4-4% of cases non-small cell lung cancer. Pathology The definition of adenosquamous carcinoma indicates a carcinoma showing components of adenocarcinoma and sq...
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Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder

Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder, also known as frozen shoulder, is a condition characterised by thickening and contraction of the shoulder joint capsule and surrounding synovium. Adhesive capsulitis can rarely affect other sites such as the ankle 8. Epidemiology The incidence in the genera...
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Adhesive otitis media

Adhesive otitis media is a form of chronic otitis media where there is a adhesion of medial ear structures as a result of chronic inflammation. There are often complete or partial adhesions between the thin retracted and atrophic pars tensa and the medial wall of the middle ear. See also otiti...
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Adie pupil

Adie pupil (also known as tonic pupil) is caused by idiopathic degeneration of the ciliary ganglion, which sometimes occurs following a viral or bacterial illness. It is usually unilateral and typically affects young females 1. Adie pupil represents a large dilated "tonic pupil", which does not...
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Adie syndrome

Adie syndrome consists of a classic triad of: diaphoresis absent deep tendon reflexes, e.g. ankle jerk an Adie pupil: tonically dilated and responds poorly or not at all to light It is thought to result from damage to the ciliary ganglion and the dorsal root ganglion by viral or bacterial in...
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ADIR position

The ADIR (ADduction and Internal Rotation) position relates to MR arthrography of the shoulder joint. When added to a neutral-position shoulder protocol, MR arthrography in the ADIR position facilitates the diagnosis of labroligamentous lesions in patients with recurrent shoulder dislocations, ...
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Adjacent level ossification

Adjacent level ossification is a complication of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) with anterior plate stabilisation. It represents pathological heterotopic ossification of the soft tissues above or below the ends of the plate, contiguous with the adjacent vertebral body. It occurs ...
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Adjacent segment degeneration

Adjacent segment degeneration is a common complication of spinal fusion occurring at the adjacent unfused level above or below the fused segment. It is usually encountered in the cervical spine or lumbar spine and occurs with an incidence of roughly between 2% and 4% per year 4.  The underlying...
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Adnexa (disambiguation)

Adnexa is a general term that refers to the accessory structures of an organ. Adnexa have been described with: cutaneous/skin adnexa hair follicles, sweat glands, nails adnexa mastoidea structures in the mastoid (posterior) wall of the middle ear, e.g. mastoid antrum, aditus ad antrum, mast...
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Adnexal torsion

The term adnexal torsion refers to torsion of the pelvic adnexal structures. This can encompass ovarian torsion + / - tubal torsion.
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Adrenal abscess

Adrenal abscesses are rare lesions affecting the adrenal glands and are usually encountered in the setting of disseminated infection. Epidemiology Although cases have been described in both neonates and adults, no systematic literature is available on the epidemiology of adrenal abscesses.  P...
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Adrenal adenoma

Adrenal adenomas are the most common adrenal lesion and are often found incidentally during abdominal imaging for other reasons. In all cases, but especially in the setting of known current or previous malignancy, adrenal adenomas need to be distinguished from adrenal metastases or other adrenal...
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Adrenal arteries

The adrenal glands are supplied by three adrenal (suprarenal) arteries:  superior adrenal artery: arises from ipsilateral inferior phrenic artery middle adrenal artery: arises from lateral side of abdominal aorta inferior adrenal artery: arises from the ipsilateral renal artery
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Adrenal calcification

Adrenal calcification is not a rare finding in healthy asymptomatic people and is usually the result of previous haemorrhage or tuberculosis. Addison disease patients only occasionally develop calcification.  Pathology Aetiology Haemorrhage sepsis: Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome blunt abd...
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Adrenal collision tumour

An adrenal collision tumour or collision tumour of the adrenal gland is an uncommon condition where two histologically distinct tumours abut each other or are in close proximity in the same adrenal gland. Pathology Collision tumours have been reported in nearly every organ, for example, collis...
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Adrenal cortical carcinoma

Primary adrenal cortical carcinoma is a highly malignant but rare neoplasm. It may present as a hormonally active or inactive tumour.  Epidemiology Although men and women are affected equally, functioning tumours are more common in females, who are also more likely to have an associated endocr...
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Adrenal cyst

Adrenal cysts are rare lesions and are commonly incidental findings.  Epidemiology Adrenal cysts are reported to be rare with an incidence of <1% 1.  Clinical presentation Patients can present with pain or swelling, although a significant portion (~40%) are incidental findings 1,3.  Patholo...
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Adrenal gland

The adrenal (suprarenal) glands are paired organs of the endocrine system, often asymmetric in shape.  Gross anatomy Each gland is enclosed in the perirenal fascia and each has a body and two limbs: a medial limb and a lateral limb. However, the right adrenal gland is usually more pyramidal in...
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Adrenal gland trauma

Adrenal gland trauma most commonly results from blunt force trauma. Epidemiology Adrenal gland trauma is present on 1-2% of CT imaging in blunt trauma although the occurrence is thought to be much higher as injury has been demonstrated at 28% in one autopsy series 1-4.  The right adrenal glan...
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Adrenal gland tumours

Despite its small size, the adrenal gland is affected by a relatively large number of neoplastic entities: adrenal adenoma adrenal myelolipoma adrenal cortical carcinoma adrenal pheochromocytoma adrenal neuroblastoma adrenal metastases See also adrenal lesions: for a more general list of...
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Adrenal haemangioma

Adrenal haemangiomas are rare benign tumours that are usually incidentally identified (one example of an adrenal incidentaloma). Its significance mainly relates to the difficulty in differentiation from other malignant lesions.  Epidemiology Although these can be found at any age, they are mos...
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Adrenal haemorrhage

Adrenal haemorrhage can result from a variety of traumatic and non-traumatic causes. When unilateral, it is often clinically silent. In contrast, bilateral adrenal haemorrhage can lead to catastrophic adrenal insufficiency. Clinical presentation The large majority of patients with unilateral a...
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Adrenal hyperplasia

Adrenal hyperplasia refers to nonmalignant growth (enlargement) of the adrenal glands and is a rare cause of ACTH-independent Cushing syndrome, with unilateral adrenal cortical adenomas being the commonest. Approximately 20% of Conn syndrome cases are secondary to adrenal hyperplasia. In diffuse...
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Adrenal insufficiency

Adrenal insufficiency refers to inadequate secretion of corticosteroids (glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids). Terminology It may occur from partial or complete destruction of the adrenal cortex, in which case it is termed primary adrenal insufficiency (also known as Addison disease). Secon...
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Adrenal lesions (differential)

Adrenal lesions cover a broad spectrum from benign to neoplastic entities. Due to increased use of cross-sectional imaging they are frequently detected as incidental lesions (incidentalomas). If found incidentally, please refer to the Management of Incidental Adrenal Masses: American College of ...
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Adrenal lymphangioma

Adrenal lymphangiomas, also known as cystic adrenal lymphangiomas, are rare, benign cystic adrenal lesions. Epidemiology Adrenal lymphangiomas are extremely rare; prevalence is estimated at 0.06% 8. They can occur at any age, with a peak incidence between the 3rd and 6th decades of life. Accor...
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Adrenal metastases

Adrenal metastases are the most common malignant lesions involving the adrenal gland. Metastases are usually bilateral but may also be unilateral. Unilateral involvement is more prevalent on the left side (ratio of 1.5:1). Epidemiology They are present at autopsy in up to 27% of patients with ...
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Adrenal myelolipoma

Adrenal myelolipomas are rare benign, and usually asymptomatic, tumours of the adrenal gland characterised by the predominance of mature adipocytes.  On imaging, they usually present as large masses with a variable amount of fat-containing components. Epidemiology Rare tumours with estimated ...
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Adrenal pseudocyst

Adrenal pseudocysts account for ~40% of adrenal cysts and are more likely than simple adrenal cysts to be symptomatic. Pathology Pseudocysts do not have an epithelial lining and typically arise after an episode of adrenal haemorrhage. There is an ~7% association with malignancy (e.g. from haem...
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Adrenal veins

The venous drainage of the adrenal (suprarenal) glands is typically comprised of a single vein draining each adrenal gland. Like the gonadal veins each side drains differently: left suprarenal vein drains into the left renal vein 1. right suprarenal vein drains directly into the inferior vena ...
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Adrenal vein sampling

Adrenal vein sampling (AVS) is a procedure where blood is collected from the adrenal veins via catheter to confirm autonomous hormone production, if it is unilateral or bilateral, and to guide further treatment. Indication AVS is commonly performed in primary aldosteronism, being indicated to ...
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Adrenal washout

Adrenal washout can be calculated using the density value of an adrenal mass on non-enhanced, portal venous phase and 15 minutes delayed CT scans (density measured in Hounsfield units (HU)). It is primarily used to diagnose adrenal adenoma. absolute washout [(HUportal venous phase) - (HUdelaye...
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Adrenocorticotropin independent macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia

Adrenocorticotropin independent macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia (AIMAH) is considered a rare form of macronodular adrenal hyperplasia. It is an uncommon cause of primary adrenal hypercortisolism. Clinical presentation Patients with AIMAH tend to present 10 years earlier on average than...
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Adrenoleukodystrophy

Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is an X-linked inherited metabolic peroxisomal disorder characterised by a lack of oxidation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) that results in severe inflammatory demyelination of the periventricular deep white matter with posterior-predominant pattern and early ...
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Adult cervical lymphadenopathy (differential)

Cervical lymphadenopathy in an adult can result from a vast number of conditions. They include: malignancy metastases  from head and neck tumours lymphoma other neoplastic lesions Castleman disease Kaposi sarcoma infection bacterial infection viral infection Epstein-Barr virus herpes...
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Adult chest radiograph common exam pathology

Adult chest radiograph common exam pathology is essential to consider in the build up to radiology exams. The list of potential diagnoses is apparently endless, but there are some favourites that seem to appear with more frequency. When dealing with the adult chest radiograph in the exam settin...
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Adult chest radiograph in the exam setting

A chest radiograph in the exam setting may contain a vast variety of pathology. However, consider the history and correlate the likely diagnoses that may be demonstrated on film. Furthermore, check your review areas to ensure that the abnormality isn't at the corner of the film. Locating pathol...
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Adult chest radiograph pathology checklist

The adult chest radiograph pathology checklist is just a pathology checklist of things not to miss when reviewing a chest radiograph, especially in the exam setting. standard review areas apices retrocardiac area hilar regions below the diaphragm right descending pulmonary artery (like a l...
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Adult chest radiograph set-pieces

There are a number of adult chest radiograph set-pieces. These are based on common patterns of disease that are seen on chest radiographs. Make sure that you have relevant differentials for these appearances and a quick aural set-piece for them when they come up. Pulmonary parenchyma lobar col...
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Adult cystic renal disease

Adult cystic renal disease comprises multiple distinct hereditary and non-hereditary disease processes.  Pathology Aetiology Hereditary adult polycystic kidney disease (APCKD), a.k.a. autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPCKD) medullary cystic kidney disease von Hippel-Lindau di...
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Adult elbow radiograph (an approach)

Systematic review Whenever you look at an adult elbow x-ray, review: alignment fat pads bone cortex Alignment Check the anterior humeral line: drawn down the anterior surface of the humerus should intersect the middle 1/3 of the capitellum if it doesn't, think distal humeral fracture C...
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Adult granulosa cell tumour of the ovary

Adult granulosa cell tumour of the ovary is a type of ovarian sex cord / stromal tumour. They are by far the most frequent subtype of granulosa cell tumours of the ovary (95%) and are commoner than the juvenile granulosa tumour of the ovary. Epidemiology Approximately two-thirds of this subtyp...
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Adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia

Adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia (ALSP), also known as hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids (HDLS) and pigmentary orthochromatic leukodystrophy (POLD), refers to a rare inherited autosomal dominant disease characterised by an adult-onset l...
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Adult-onset Still disease

Adult-onset Still disease is a rare multisystem inflammatory disorder. Epidemiology Still disease in adults is rare affecting around 1.5 per 100,000 people, it occurs in a bimodal distribution with one peak around the age of 15-25 years old and another around the age of 35-45 years old 1. It a...
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Adventitial bursae

Adventitial bursae are those bursae that develop later in life in response to pressures developed as a result of acquired bony prominences or deformities 1.  These bursa can become inflamed resulting in adventitious bursitis.
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Adventitious bursitis

Adventitious or adventitial bursitis refers to inflammation associated with adventitious bursae. Adventitious bursae are not permanent native bursae. They can develop in adulthood at sites where subcutaneous tissue becomes exposed to high pressure and friction. Clinical presentation When pres...
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Adynamic ileus

Adynamic ileus is the failure of passage of enteric contents through the small bowel and colon that are not mechanically obstructed. Essentially it represents the paralysis of intestinal motility. Clinical presentation Patients may be asymptomatic or present with symptoms similar to a mechanic...
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Afferent loop syndrome

Afferent loop syndrome is an intermittent partial or complete mechanical obstruction of the afferent limb of a gastrojejunostomy. The syndrome classically refers to obstruction of the upstream limb of a side-to-side gastrojejunostomy, but has also been used to refer to the biliopancreatic limb ...
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Aflatoxins

Aflatoxins are naturally-occurring mycotoxins that are produced by Aspergillus species, especially Aspergillus flavus. They are acutely toxic and carcinogenic. Acute exposure High-level aflatoxin exposure can result in acute aflatoxicosis with acute hepatic necrosis, leading to cirrhosis, and ...
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Agatston score

Agatston score is a semi-automated tool to calculate a score based on the extent of coronary artery calcification detected by an unenhanced low-dose CT scan, which is routinely performed in patients undergoing cardiac CT. Due to an extensive body of research, it allows for an early risk stratifi...
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Ageing blood on MRI

The imaging characteristics of blood on MRI can be variable and change with the age of the blood. In general, five stages of haematoma evolution are recognised: hyperacute intracellular oxyhaemoglobin isointense on T1 isointense to hyperintense on T2 acute (1 to 2 days) intracellular deo...
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Ageing blood on MRI (mnemonic)

Ageing blood on MRI is dependent on the varying MRI signal characteristics of haemorrhagic collections with time and can be very useful in correlating the imaging findings with the clinical picture. However, as it can be complicated to recall the MRI features of ageing blood through the five sta...
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Agenesis of the diaphragm

Agenesis of the diaphragm is a congenital diaphragmatic developmental anomaly where all or part of diaphragm fails to form. It can sometimes be thought of as an extreme form congenital diaphragmatic herniation 1. Pathology The agenesis can either be unilateral or bilateral. Herniation of abdom...
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Agenesis of the left hepatic lobe

Agenesis of the left hepatic lobe is a rare variation in liver anatomy. It is clinically asymptomatic and discovered during imaging or surgery. Radiographic features absence of the left hepatic lobe (left of the falciform ligament, Couinaud segments II and III) absence of left hepatic artery,...
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Agenesis of the right hepatic lobe

Agenesis of the right hepatic lobe is a rare variation in liver anatomy. Radiographic features absence of the right hepatic lobe absence of right hepatic artery, right portal vein, and right hepatic biliary system compensatory hypertrophy of the left hepatic lobe and caudate lobe possible r...
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Agger nasi cells

Agger nasi air cells are the most anterior ethmoidal air cells lying anterolateral and inferior to the frontal recess and anterior and above the attachment of the middle turbinate. They are located within the lacrimal bone and therefore have as lateral relations the orbit, the lacrimal sac and t...
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Aggressive angiomyxoma

Aggressive angiomyxomas are rare tumours that arise in the pelvis and typically cross the levator ani muscles. Despite its name, it is essentially a benign tumour and the term "aggressive" is given due to a predilection for local recurrence. Only rarely does it metastasise. Epidemiology It is ...
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Aggressive fibromatosis

Aggressive fibromatosis is a type of musculoskeletal fibromatosis. While it is a non-metastasising fibrous lesion, it is thought to be a true neoplasm that arises from the fascial and musculoaponeurotic coverings, sometimes at the site of a traumatic or post-surgical scar. Terminology The term...
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Aggressive granulomatosis post hip replacement

Aggressive granulomatosis post hip replacement is a potential complication of a hip joint replacement. Some authors use the same term for particle disease - if you are an expert on this we would love your help. Pathology Aggressive granulomas consist of well organised connective tissue contain...
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Agnosia

Agnosia is a neurological disorder characterised by an inability to identify an object despite both having knowledge of that object and functional sensory input. For example, a patient with posterior cortical atrophy who characteristically have visual agnosia, will be unable to identify a hammer...
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Ahlbäck classification of osteoarthritis of the knee joint

This classification was proposed by Ahlback et al. in 1968. According to Ahlbäck system, knee joint osteoarthritis is classified as: grade 1: joint space narrowing (less than 3 mm) grade 2: joint space obliteration grade 3: minor bone attrition (0-5 mm) grade 4: moderate bone attrition (5-1...
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AICA-PICA dominance

AICA-PICA dominance refers to the principle that the cerebellar vascular territory supplied by the anterior inferior cerebellar artery and posterior inferior cerebellar artery have a reciprocal arrangement. That is the size of the AICA and the subsequent territory it supplies is inversely propor...
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Aicardi syndrome

Aicardi syndrome is a rare severe developmental disorder. It results from an X-linked genetic defect that is fatal in males and therefore only manifests in females (except for rare 47-XXY cases). Clinical features The typical presentation in infancy is with a triad of: infantile spasms: salaa...
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AIDS cholangiopathy

AIDS cholangiopathy refers to an acalculous, secondary opportunistic cholangitis that occurs in AIDS patients as a result of immunosuppression.  Pathology Characterised by multiple irregular strictures essentially indistinguishable from primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). There are four path...
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AIDS-defining illness

AIDS-defining illnesses are conditions that in the setting of a HIV infection confirm the diagnosis of AIDS, and do not commonly occur in immunocompetent individuals 2. According to the CDC surveillance case definition 1, they are: Infectious bacterial infections: multiple or recurrent candid...
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AIDS embryopathy

Acquired immuno deficiency syndrome (AIDS) embryopathy is characterised by a group of dysmorphic features, which manifests either before or after birth in offsprings of women who are infected by HIV virus. The diagnosis however is in disfavour according to some authors 2. Pathology Transplacen...
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AIDS-related diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

AIDS-related diffuse large B-cell lymphomas are one of the immunodeficiency-associated CNS lymphomas, and in western countries represented a dramatic increase in primary CNS lymphoma during the HIV/AIDS epidemic of the 1980s, although the incidence is likely lower in patients treated with HAART ...
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AIDS-related pulmonary lymphoma

AIDS-related pulmonary lymphoma (ARPL) is classified as a distinct form of pulmonary lymphoma. Pulmonary involvement is a common extranodal site in AIDS-related NHL. Pathology ARPL is typically a high-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and the majority of patients have advanced HIV infection,...
Article

Ainhum

Ainhum, also known as dactylolysis spontanea, is a rare cutaneous condition in which a hyperkeratotic band partially or totally encircles a digit. The constriction thins the underlying bone, which is then prone to fracture. Some cases result in autoamputation. Epidemiology Some have suggested ...
Article

Air bronchogram

Air bronchogram refers to the phenomenon of air-filled bronchi (dark) being made visible by the opacification of surrounding alveoli (grey/white). It is almost always caused by a pathologic airspace/alveolar process, in which something other than air fills the alveoli. Air bronchograms will not ...
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Air-bronchogram (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Air-bronchograms are gas-filled bronchi surrounded by alveoli filled with fluid, pus or other material. It is a very useful sign because it is highly sensitive and specific for the presence of lung consolidation rather than...
Article

Air bubble sign (pulmonary hydatid)

The air bubble sign is seen in CT of complicated (ruptured or infected) pulmonary hydatid cyst and refers to small bubbles of gas within the periphery of pulmonary mass and is helpful, particularly in endemic areas, in suggesting the diagnosis over other masses (e.g. metastases or primary lung t...
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Air bubble sign (tension pneumocephalus)

The air bubble sign is seen on CT of the brain and represents multiple small foci of air within the subarachnoid space, especially the Sylvian fissure.1 Although described as a sign of tension pneumocephalus it is also seen in pneumocephalus without elevated pressures.2   It should not be con...
Article

Air crescent sign (lung)

An air crescent sign describes the crescent of air that can be seen in invasive aspergillosis, semi-invasive aspergillosis or other processes that cause pulmonary necrosis. It usually heralds recovery and is the result of increased granulocyte activity. In angioinvasive fungal infection, the no...
Article

Air gap technique (mammography)

The air gap technique is utilised for the magnification mammography view. Magnification mammography is a high dose imaging technique which is generally utilised as a follow-up to a standard mammogram image series when a focal area needs to be more clearly examined 1. The air gap technique is ut...
Article

Air gap technique (plain radiography)

The utilisation of the air gap technique in general radiography is limited due to the need for equipment facilitation to create the air gap when it is not inherent in the standard technique. Horizontal-beam lateral hip There are many different methods of performing the horizontal beam lateral ...
Article

Air space disease

Air space disease, or alveolar lung disease, is a process in which there is a filling of the lung's alveoli / acini. Radiographic features lobar or segmental distribution poorly marginated airspace nodules tendency to coalesce air bronchograms bat's wing (butterfly) distribution...
Article

Air space nodule

An air space nodule is a small (few millimeters to 1 cm), ill-defined, nodular opacity that is often centrilobular in location and is non-specific, seen in many conditions. Commonly it represents a focal area of consolidation or peribronchiolar inflammation, and can indicate endobronchial spread...
Article

Airspace nodules

Airspace nodules are irregularly marginated nodular opacities with air bronchograms that tend to measure 8 mm in diameter. They are quite separate from pulmonary nodules that range in size, are homogeneous and well-defined (being surrounded by normal lung).
Article

Air space opacification

Air space opacification is a descriptive term that refers to filling of the pulmonary tree with material that attenuates x-rays more than the surrounding lung parenchyma. It is one of the many patterns of lung opacification and is equivalent to the pathological diagnosis of pulmonary consolidati...
Article

Air-space opacification (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Air-space opacification is a descriptive term that refers to filling of the lung parenchyma with material that attenuates x-rays more than the unaffected surrounding lung tissue. It is the radiological correlate of the path...
Article

Air space opacities

The differential for air space opacities is extensive, and needs to be interpreted in context of chronicity (previous imaging) and clinical context. It is therefore useful to divide airspace opacities as follows: acute airspace opacities with lymph node enlargement acute airspace opacities: un...
Article

Air trapping

Air trapping in chest imaging refers to retention of excess gas (“air”) in all or part of the lung, especially during expiration, either as a result of complete or partial airway obstruction or as a result of local abnormalities in pulmonary compliance. It may also sometimes be observed in norma...
Article

Airway foreign bodies in children

Airway foreign bodies in children are potentially fatal, which is why immediate recognition is important. Unfortunately, delayed diagnosis is common. Epidemiology Children under the age of four years are at increased risk of foreign body (FB) aspiration, with a slight male predominance 1.  Cl...
Article

Airway invasive aspergillosis

Airway invasive aspergillosis refers to a form of invasive aspergillosis that affects the airways as the major or only feature. Epidemiology It usually occurs in immunocompromised neutropenic patients, particularly AIDS patients. Aspergillosis affecting the airways as the major or only feature...
Article

Airway pressure release ventilation

Airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) is an alternative mode for mechanical ventilation. It can be adopted as a method of alternative method for difficult-to-oxygenate patients with acute lung injury / acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS). Its is usually not recommended in patien...

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