Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

10,986 results found
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Amastia

Amastia is a rare congenital condition characterised by the absence of breast tissue, nipple and areola. This may occur unilaterally or bilaterally. Pathology During embryological development, breasts first appear as ectoderm ridges during the 6th week of gestation. This ridge grows thicker an...
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Amaurosis fugax

Amaurosis fugax is the transient mono-ocular loss of vision, normally lasting a few seconds to a few minutes, and is secondary to vascular ischaemia/insufficiency. Usually the cause is ascribed to occlusion of the central retinal artery there are a wide number of local and central causes. 
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Amazia

Amazia is a rare congenital condition defined by the absence of glandular parenchyma in either one or both of the breasts and a normal nipple and areola complex.  Epidemiology This is a very rare entity and the true prevalence is not known. Although there are strict definition criteria, the di...
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Ambient cistern

The ambient cistern is part of the subarachnoid cisterns. Gross anatomy The ambient cistern is a thin, sheet-like extension of the quadrigeminal cistern that extends laterally surrounding around the midbrain and posterior to the thalami. It acts as the connection between the quadrigeminal cist...
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Amelia

Amelia refers to a skeletal dysplasia characterised by the complete absence of upper or lower extremity or all four limbs. It may be associated with other congenital anomalies, i.e. omphalocoele and diaphragmatic hernias 3. Epidemiology Amelia is a very rare congenital anomalies with incidence...
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Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma

Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma (AFO) is a rare benign mixed odontogenic tumour that usually arises in the maxilla and mandible. According to the 2005 WHO classification of odontogenic tumours, it is defined as a benign tumour that resembles ameloblastic fibroma but contains enamel and dentin. Epid...
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Ameloblastic fibroma

Ameloblastic fibromas appear as unilocular lucent mandibular lesions, most frequently in the posterior mandible, and are usually associated with impacted teeth, centred on the unerupted crown. They, therefore, appear very similar to unilocular ameloblastomas. They are composed of enamel and embr...
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Ameloblastoma

Ameloblastomas are locally aggressive benign tumours that arise from the mandible, or, less commonly, from the maxilla. Usually present as a slowly but continuously growing hard painless lesion near the angle of the mandible in the 3rd to 5th decades of life, which can be severely disfiguring if...
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American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons classification of periprosthetic hip fractures

The American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons classification of periprosthetic hip fractures divides the femur into three separate regions: level I: proximal femur distally to the lower extent of the lesser trochanter  level II: 10 cm of femur distal to level I  level III: femur distal to level...
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American Board of Radiology

The American Board of Radiology (ABR) is a national certifying board for radiologists in the United States of America. It is a member of the American Board of Specialities. The ABR currently requires three sets of examination for certification: core exam certifying exam maintenance of certif...
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American College of Radiology published guidelines

The American College of Radiology (ACR) publishes and updates imaging guidelines, sometimes in collaboration with other bodies, on a range of imaging pathologies and reporting issues: breast lesions: BI-RADS liver lesions: LI-RADS prostate lesions: PI-RADS thyroid nodules: TI-RADS adrenal i...
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Amiodarone hepatotoxicity

Amiodarone hepatotoxicity is one of the complications that can occur with amiodarone therapy.  Clinical presentation In the majority of patients, it is discovered incidentally during routine testing of liver biochemistry and rarely do the hepatic effects develop into symptomatic liver injury o...
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Amiodarone lung

Amiodarone lung is an interstitial lung disease seen in patients being administered amiodarone and can manifest in a number of histopathologic patterns. Epidemiology The reported prevalence of pulmonary toxicity in the patients receiving amiodarone is ~10% (range 2-18%) 8. Patients are usuall...
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Amniocentesis

Amniocentesis, also known as amniotic fluid testing or AFT, is a diagnostic or therapeutic medical procedure primarily used in prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities and fetal infections. A small amount of amniotic fluid (15-20 ml), which contains fetal tissue, is extracted from the am...
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Amnion

Amnion refers to a membranous structure which covers and protects the embryo. It forms inside the chorion. The amnion usually fuses with the outer chorion by around 14 weeks of gestation. Radiographic features Ultrasound The amnion can be visualised in most pregnancies before the 12th week of...
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Amnioreduction

An amnioreduction is a procedure where an amniocentesis is performed for intentional reduction of amniotic fluid volume. This is sometimes performed in the context of extreme polyhydramnios (particularly in the recipient twin in twin to twin transfusion syndrome).
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Amniotic band syndrome

Amniotic band syndrome (ABS) comprises of a wide spectrum of abnormalities, all of which result from entrapment of various fetal body parts in a disrupted amnion. Due to the randomness of entrapment, each affected individual has the potential to form a unique deficit. Epidemiology The phenomen...
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Amniotic bands

Amniotic bands refer to free floating blind ending amnion with an intact chorionic membrane. In certain situations, they lead to the amniotic band syndrome. They should not be confused with amniotic shelves which refer to the presence of amnion folding around pre-existing uterine adhesions. Some...
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Amniotic fluid discordance

An amniotic fluid discordance is usually defined as a difference in amniotic fluid volumes in a twin pregnancy. It is a predictor of poor fetal outcome in twin pregnancy related complications. Pathology Causes of amniotic fluid discordance include : twin-twin transfusion syndrome placental i...
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Amniotic fluid embolism to lung

Amniotic fluid embolism is a special type of pulmonary embolism where the embolus is comprised of amniotic fluid. It can be a highly fatal complication of pregnancy, with an 80% maternal mortality rate.  Epidemiology It is thought to complicate 1/8000-80,000 pregnancies. Clinical presentation...
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Amniotic fluid in the first trimester

Amniotic fluid in the first trimester has been estimated from weeks 7-12. Although the amniotic fluid index (AFI) is calculated in the second trimester, one can get an idea of whether the amount of amniotic fluid is too much or too little at an earlier time point. The amniotic fluid volume is r...
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Amniotic fluid index

The amniotic fluid index (AFI) is an estimate of the amniotic fluid volume in a fetus. It is part of the fetal biophysical profile.  Technique uterus is divided into four imaginary quadrants with linea nigra and umbilicus acting as the vertical and the horizontal axis respectively the deepest...
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Amniotic fluid volume

Amniotic fluid volume (AFV) is a function both of the amount of water transferred to the gestation across the placental membrane, and the flux of water across the amnion. Physiology Change in volume through gestation The AFV undergoes characteristic changes with gestation. It progressively ri...
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Amniotic shelf

Amniotic shelf (also known as an amniotic sheet 4) refers to a sheet like projection that can result from uterine synechiae that has been encompassed by the expanding chorion and amnion. In contrast to amniotic bands, they are not thought to be associated with any fetal deformity.  Epidemiology...
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Amoebic colitis

Amoebic colitis is a type of infectious colitis, more common in tropical and subtropical areas. The causative agent is the trophozoite form of the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica. In most cases of transmission, the cyst form lives in the colon as commensal and remains asymptomatic. Clinical pre...
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Amoebic hepatic abscess

Amoebic hepatic abscesses are a form of hepatic abscess resulting from Entamoeba histolytica infection. Clinical presentation Patients may experience general malaise or present with frank sepsis and right upper quadrant pain. Although the causative pathogen is found worldwide, it is endemic to...
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Amorphous calcification within breast

Amorphous or indistinct calcifications are a morphological descriptive term for breast calcification and are defined as having small, hazy, faint calcifications with no clearly defined shape or form.  Radiographic features 80-200 micrometer in diameter small, hazy calcification often magnifi...
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Amphiarthroses

Amphiarthroses are a functional class of joint that permit a small amount of movement under normal conditions. Examples symphyses (secondary cartilaginous joints) symphysis pubis intervertebral discs sternomanubrial joint  See also  synarthroses diarthroses
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Ampulla of Vater

The ampulla of Vater is a conical structure at the confluence of the common bile duct (CBD) and the main pancreatic duct that protrudes at the major duodenal papilla into the medial aspect of the descending duodenum. The entire structure is encased by smooth muscle fibers that compose the sphinc...
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Ampullary ectopic pregnancy

Ampullary ectopic pregnancy is the commonest type of tubal ectopic pregnancy and accounts for ~70% of such cases.  According to one study the disruption of the tubal wall was less than as in isthmic ectopic pregnancy 2.
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Ampullary tumour

The term ampullary tumour generally refers to either benign or malignant neoplasms that arise from the glandular epithelium of the ampulla of Vater, including 1: ampullary adenoma (adenoma of ampulla of Vater) ampullary carcinoma (carcinoma of ampulla of Vater) According to some authors, ampu...
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Amputation

The term amputation refers to the disconnection of all or part of a limb from the body. Specifically amputation is defined as removal of the structure through a bone. This is in contrast to disarticulation, which is removal of the structure through a joint. Terminology When due to trauma, trau...
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Amsterdam criteria for HNPCC

The Amsterdam criteria are used in the diagnosis hereditary non polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). Amsterdam Criteria I Initial description in 1991: > or equal to 3 relatives with colorectal cancer (CRC) > or equal to 1 case in a first degree relative > or equal to 2 successive generation...
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Amsterdam wrist rules

The Amsterdam wrist rules are validated clinical decision rules for determining which patients require radiographic imaging (wrist radiography) for acute wrist pain following trauma. The initial study evaluated 882 patients and were published in 2015 1. The decision rules assessed different clin...
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Amyand hernia

Amyand hernia is a rare form of inguinal hernia in which the vermiform appendix is located within the hernial sac. It is seen in less than 1% of inguinal hernia. It should not be confused with an appendix-containing femoral hernia, known as De Garengeot hernia. Clinical presentation Clinicall...
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Amygdala

The amygdala is a very well studied part of the limbic system and forms part of the mesial temporal lobe.  Gross anatomy The amygdala is a complex structure, located dorsomedially in the temporal lobe, forming the ventral superior, and medial walls of the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle...
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Amyloid arthropathy

Amyloid arthropathy is the extracellular deposition of the fibrous protein amyloid within the skeletal system. It is a skeletal manifestation of amyloidosis and may involve either the axial skeleton (especially the cervical spine) or the appendicular skeleton. Clinical presentation Shoulder pa...
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Amyloidosis

Amyloidosis is a heterogeneous disease or even considered a constellation of diseases resulting in a deposition relatively similar proteins. It has many causes and can affect essentially any organ system. Epidemiology  There may be male predilection. Typically affects middle-aged individuals a...
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Amyoplasia congenita

Amyoplasia congenita is a syndrome characterized by multiple specific congenital joint contractures, associated with substitution of muscular tissue by fibrosis and adipose tissue. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at  1: 10000 live births. There may be a higher prevalence with twin preg...
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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig disease or Charcot disease, is the most common form of motor neurone disease 1,4 resulting in progressive weakness and eventual death due to respiratory insufficiency. Epidemiology ALS typically is diagnosed in middle age. There is ...
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Anal atresia

Anal atresia, or imperforate anus, refers to a spectrum of anorectal abnormalities ranging from a membranous separation to complete absence of the anus. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is 1 in 5000 live births. Pathology Clinically there is no anal opening. Subtypes can be classified in...
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Anal canal

The anal canal is the terminal part of the gastrointestinal tract. Anatomically, the anal canal is referred to as the terminal alimentary tract between the dentate line and anal verge. However, histologically it extends more proximally and includes the columns of Morgagni and anal sinuses. Surgi...
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Anal canal cancer protocol (MRI)

Anal canal cancer is relativity rare, however, there are several protocols that exist for assessment of various pelvic pathology. One method adopted for optimum assessment for anal cancer is (Auckland-New Zealand) Overview: whole pelvis T1 +/- T2FS Fine 3 mm slices through region of concern (...
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Anal canal fistula assessment (MRI)

MR of the pelvis can demonstrate hidden areas of pelvic infection and secondary extensions which are important to detect prior to the sugary to minimize high rate of recurrence post intervention. Also pelvic MRI assists to delineate the anatomic relationships of the fistula to sphincters which c...
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Anal cancer

Anal cancer is a relatively uncommon malignancy. It accounts for less than 2% of large bowel malignancies and 1-6% of anorectal tumours (~1.5% of all gastrointestinal tract malignancies in the United States 14).  Epidemiology There may be a slight male predilection where its incidence has been...
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Anal cancer (staging)

The accepted TNM staging of anal cancer is as follows 1: Primary tumour (T) TX: primary tumour cannot be assessed T0: no evidence of primary tumour Tis: carcinoma in situ T1: tumour 2 cm or less in greatest dimension T2: tumour >2 cm but <5 cm in greatest dimension T3: tumour >5 cm in gre...
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Anal margin

Anal margin or perianal skin is arbitrarily defined as a skin tissue with a radius of 5 cm from the anal verge, consisting of keratinizing squamous epithelial tissue containing hair follicles. See also anal margin neoplasms
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Anal sphincter

The anal sphincter is divided into an internal and external anal sphincter. It surrounds the anal canal.  Gross anatomy Internal anal sphincter continuation of inner rectal muscle thickened, circular muscle fibres, up to 5 mm thick composed of visceral muscle External anal sphincter Compo...
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Anal verge

Anal verge is part of anal region and consists of a band of squamous epithelial tissue lacks hair follicles and extends from inter-sphincteric groove to perianal skin. 
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Anaplastic astrocytoma

Anaplastic astrocytomas are WHO grade III lesions, with imaging appearances and prognosis between those of diffuse low-grade astrocytomas (WHO grade II) and glioblastomas (WHO IV), and similarly, they are classified on the basis of IDH mutation as IDH-mutant, IDH-wild-type and NOS (when IDH stat...
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Anaplastic ependymoma

Anaplastic ependymomas (WHO grade III ependymomas), in comparison to lower grade ependymomas, are characterised by a higher proliferative rate and a greater tendency to infiltrate surrounding brain or disseminate into cerebrospinal fluid causing drop metastases 1. The relevance of grading ependy...
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Anaplastic ganglioglioma

Anaplastic gangliogliomas are uncommon aggressive variants of the far more common low-grade ganglioglioma (WHO grade I). The aggressive component is the glial (usually astrocytic) component, which demonstrates nuclear pleomorphism, increased mitotic rate and increased cellularity, as well as mic...
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Anaplastic meningioma

Anaplastic meningiomas (also known as malignant meningiomas) are uncommon, accounting for only ~1% of all meningiomas 1. Along with rhabdoid meningioma and papillary meningioma are considered WHO grade III tumours and demonstrate aggressive local growth and high recurrence rate.  It should be n...
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Anaplastic oligodendroglioma

Anaplastic oligodendroglioma is a WHO grade III diffuse infiltrating glioma that has histological features of anaplasia, and molecular markers consistent with an oligodendroglioma (1p19q co-deletion and IDH mutation) as per the current (2016) WHO classification of CNS tumours 1. They make up 20-...
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Anaplastic oligodendroglioma NOS

Anaplastic oligodendroglioma NOS (not-otherwise-specified) is a diagnosis in the current (2016) WHO classification of CNS tumours denoting a diffuse infiltrating glioma that has histological features of anaplastic oligodendroglioma, but without 1p19q co-deletion status or IDH mutation status bei...
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Anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma

Anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas are a more aggressive and less common version pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA).  In the current (2016) WHO classification of CNS tumours, they are considered WHO grade III lesions (whereas pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas are WHO grade II tumours) 1.  ...
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Anaplastic rhabdomyosarcoma

An anaplastic rhabdomyosarcoma is a subtype of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, characterised by extensive anaplastic cells seen throughout the tumour 1.
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Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma

Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is a highly aggressive form of thyroid cancer and accounts for ~1-2% of primary thyroid malignancies. Of all the subtypes, this carries the worst prognosis. Epidemiology Typically occurs in the elderly (peak incidence in 6th to 7th decades). A significant pro...
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Anatomic position

The anatomic position, also referred to as the standard anatomic position, is the consistent position of the human body in which positional reference is made for anatomical nomenclature. It is not reliant on whether the patient is standing, supine, prone, sitting, etc. The position is defined a...
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Anatomical snuff box

The anatomical snuff box is a surface anatomy feature. It appears as a triangular depression on the lateral surface of the wrist on full extension of the thumb. Gross anatomy Boundaries medial: tendons of the extensor pollicis longus lateral: tendons of the extensor pollicis brevis and mor...
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Anatomy article structure

Articles pertaining to normal anatomy require a different structure, and the following subheadings are recommended: ========================================================================== As with all other articles, the introductory paragraph should introduce the anatomical term and aim to ...
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Anatomy article structure (bone)

As with all other articles, the introductory paragraph should introduce the anatomical term and aim to give an interesting summary. The first sentence should contain the title of the article in bold.  Summary location: articulations: blood supply and innervation: relations: Gross anatomy ...
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Anatomy article structure (joint)

As with all other articles, the introductory paragraph should introduce the anatomical term and aim to give an interesting summary. The first sentence should contain the title of the article in bold.  Summary location: movement: ligaments and tendons: relations: Gross anatomy Location Mo...
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Anatomy article structure (nerve)

As with all other articles, the introductory paragraph should introduce the anatomical term and aim to give an interesting summary. The first sentence should contain the title of the article in bold.  Summary location: origin and course: branches and supply: relations: Gross anatomy Locat...
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Anatomy article structure (organ)

As with all other articles, the introductory paragraph should introduce the anatomical term and aim to give an interesting summary. The first sentence should contain the title of the article in bold.  Summary location: function: blood supply and drainage: relations: Gross anatomy Location...
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Anatomy article structure (space/region)

As with all other articles, the introductory paragraph should introduce the anatomical term and aim to give an interesting summary. The first sentence should contain the title of the article in bold.  Summary location: boundaries: contents: Gross anatomy Location Boundaries Contents Rel...
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Anatomy article structure (vessel)

As with all other articles, the introductory paragraph should introduce the anatomical term and aim to give an interesting summary. The first sentence should contain the title of the article in bold.  Summary location: origin and termination: branches and supply: relations: Gross anatomy ...
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Anatomy article structure: muscle

As with all other articles, the introductory paragraph should introduce the anatomical term and aim to give an interesting summary. The first sentence should contain the title of the article in bold.  Summary origin: insertion: innervation: action: Gross anatomy Origin Insertion Relatio...
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Anatomy curriculum

The anatomy curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core anatomy knowledge for radiologists and imaging specialists. General anatomy Neuroanatomy Head and neck anatomy Thoracic anatomy Abdominal and pelvic anatomy Spinal anat...
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Anatomy of an article

The anatomy of an article describes the component parts of any article at Radiopaedia.org. All articles include a title, the main content, references and other attributes. Title The title of the article may seem obvious, but some considerations as to consistency are required. We use sentence c...
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Ancient schwannoma

Ancient schwannomas are long-standing, benign (WHO grade I) slow growing schwannomas with advanced degeneration. These can have calcification, hyalinization, and cystic cavitation that can be identified on imaging. The term “ancient” has been traditionally used to describe schwannomas showing de...
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Anconeus

The anconeus is a small muscle in the posterior compartment of the arm at the lateral aspect of the elbow. It has little functional significance but should be differentiated from the variably present anconeus epitrochlearis at the medial aspect of the elbow. Summary origin: lateral epicondyle ...
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Anconeus epitrochlearis

Anconeus epitrochlearis is an accessory muscle at the medial aspect of the elbow. It is also known as the accessory anconeus muscle and should not be confused with the anconeus muscle which is present at the lateral aspect of the elbow.  Epidemiology The muscle may be unilateral but has been f...
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Anderson and D'Alonzo classification of odontoid process fracture

The Anderson and D'Alonzo classification is the most commonly used classification of fractures of the odontoid process of C2. Classification type I rare fracture of the upper part of the odontoid peg above the level of the transverse band of the cruciform ligament usually considered stable...
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Andersson lesion

Andersson lesions refer to an inflammatory involvement of the intervertebral discs by spondyloarthritis. Epidemiology Rheumatic spondylodiscitis is a non-infectious condition that has been shown to occur in about 8% of patients with ankylosing spondylitis, as detected at radiography. Patholog...
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Androgen insensitivity syndrome

Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), also known as the testicular feminisation syndrome, results from end-organ resistance to androgens, particularly testosterone. AIS may be complete or incomplete with variable imaging findings.  Epidemiology The incidence may vary depending on whether it i...
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Anembryonic pregnancy

Anembryonic pregnancy is a form of a failed early pregnancy, where a gestational sac develops, but the embryo does not form. The term blighted ovum is synonymous with this but is falling out of favour and is best avoided.  Clinical presentation The patient may be asymptomatic, presenting for a...
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Anembryonic pregnancy in the exam

Getting a film with anembryonic pregnancy in the radiology fellowship examination is one of the many exam set-pieces that the candidate must be prepared for.  Description Transabdominal and transvaginal pelvic ultrasound shows a uterus with an intrauterine gestational sac. MSD is at least 25 m...
Article

Anencephaly

Anencephaly is the most severe form of cranial neural tube defect (NTD) and is characterised by an absence of cortical tissue (although the brainstem and cerebellum may be variably present) as well as an absence of the cranial vault. The morphological spectrum within anencephaly ranges from holo...
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Aneuploidy

Aneuploidy refers to an abnormal number of chromosomes, and is a type of chromosomal abnormality.There are large number potential aneuploidic anomalies. The most common three in obstetric practice are: trisomy 21: commonest aneuploidic anomaly trisomy 18 trisomy 13
Article

Aneurysm

Aneurysms are focal abnormal dilatation of a blood vessel. They typically occur in arteries, venous aneurysms are rare. Aneurysms may also occur in the heart. Pathology Pathological types true aneurysm false aneurysm (or pseudoaneurysm) Causes congenital atherosclerosis hypertension v...
Article

Aneurysmal bone cyst

Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABC) are benign expansile tumour-like bone lesions of uncertain aetiology, composed of numerous blood filled channels, and mostly diagnosed in children and adolescents. Epidemiology Aneurysmal bone cysts are primarily seen in children and adolescents, with 80% occurring ...
Article

Aneurysms of the portal venous system

Aneurysms of the portal vein are extremely rare and represent only 3% of all aneurysms of the venous system 1. Clinical presentation Most patients are asymptomatic but may present with nonspecific abdominal pain as a major symptom 2-4. Pathology Both congenital and acquired causes have been ...
Article

Angiocentric glioma

Angiocentric gliomas are rare superficial slow-growing brain tumours typically presenting in young patients with intractable partial epilepsy 1-6. They were first introduced in the 2007 (4th) edition of the WHO brain tumour classification, and are classified as WHO grade I tumours 1.  For a gen...
Article

Angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma

Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) is a rare, aggressive (fast-growing) form of peripheral T-cell lymphoma. It only accounts for around 1-2% of all non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It is one of the more common subtypes of mature T-cell lymphomas.  Epidemiology It can be more common in the elderly....
Article

Angioinvasive aspergillosis

Angioinvasive aspergillosis is the most severe and aggressive form of invasive aspergillosis. It is a life-threatening condition that requires prompt treatment. Fortunately, it is not seen in the general population and only occurs in profoundly immunocompromised patients.  Epidemiology Angioin...
Article

Angiolipoma

Angiolipomas (also sometimes known as haemangiolipomas, vascular lipomas, and fibromyolipomas) are rare soft tissue tumours composed of mature adipocytes and vessels. They can occur essentially anywhere and can be subclassified into infiltrating and non-infiltrating variants 1.  Please refer to...
Article

Angiomatous meningioma

Angiomatous meningiomas are a rare histological variant of WHO grade I meningiomas and account for only 2.1% of all meningiomas 1,3.  The epidemiology and clinical presentation of these tumours does not clearly deviate from that of more common histological variants of meningiomas and is thus no...
Article

Angiomyofibroblastoma-like tumour of scrotum

Angiomyofibroblastoma-like tumour of the scrotum is a rare, well-defined, slow growing mesenchymal extratesticular nonepididymal tumour rarely seen in the perineum or scrotum of older male patients. A similar tumour can occur in females in the vulval region. Epidemiology  In males, they are se...
Article

Angiosarcoma

 Angiosarcomas (like haemangiopericytomas and haemangioendotheliomas) are tumours that arise from vascular structures. They are typically difficult to distinguish from one another on imaging alone. Angiosarcomas, are the most aggressive of the three, frequently having metastases at the time of ...
Article

Angiosarcoma (bone)

Angiosarcoma of bone is a malignant vascular tumour of bone. These are rare and account for less than 1% of malignant bone tumours. The majority of these tumours arising in bone are primary; however, a tiny percentage is either radiation-induced or associated with bone infarction Epidemiology ...
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Angiosarcoma involving the lung

Angiosarcoma involving the lung includes: metastatic angiosarcoma to lung 1  commoner usual primary sites include the heart and breast 2 primary pulmonary angiosarcoma: very rare See also angiosarcoma
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Angiosarcoma of breast

Breast angiosarcomas are a rare vascular breast malignancy. Epidemiology As primary tumours of the breast, they account for ~0.04% 2 of all breast cancers and tend to occur in younger women, in their 3rd to 4th decades. Secondary angiosarcoma has an estimated incidence of ~0.09-0.16% and occur...

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