Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

11,754 results found
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Anatomy article structure: muscle

As with all other articles, the introductory paragraph should introduce the anatomical term and aim to give an interesting summary. The first sentence should contain the title of the article in bold.  Summary origin: insertion: innervation: action: Gross anatomy Origin Insertion Relatio...
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Anatomy article structure (nerve)

As with all other articles, the introductory paragraph should introduce the anatomical term and aim to give an interesting summary. The first sentence should contain the title of the article in bold.  Summary location: origin and course: branches and supply: relations: Gross anatomy Locat...
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Anatomy article structure (organ)

As with all other articles, the introductory paragraph should introduce the anatomical term and aim to give an interesting summary. The first sentence should contain the title of the article in bold.  Summary location: function: blood supply and drainage: relations: Gross anatomy Location...
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Anatomy article structure (space/region)

As with all other articles, the introductory paragraph should introduce the anatomical term and aim to give an interesting summary. The first sentence should contain the title of the article in bold.  Summary location: boundaries: contents: Gross anatomy Location Boundaries Contents Rel...
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Anatomy article structure (vessel)

As with all other articles, the introductory paragraph should introduce the anatomical term and aim to give an interesting summary. The first sentence should contain the title of the article in bold.  Summary location: origin and termination: branches and supply: relations: Gross anatomy ...
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Anatomy curriculum

The anatomy curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core anatomy knowledge for radiologists and imaging specialists. General anatomy Neuroanatomy Head and neck anatomy Thoracic anatomy Abdominal and pelvic anatomy Spinal anat...
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Anatomy of an article

The anatomy of an article describes the component parts of any article at Radiopaedia.org. All articles include a title, the main content, references and other attributes. Title The title of the article may seem obvious, but some considerations as to consistency are required. We use sentence c...
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Ancient schwannoma

Ancient schwannomas are long-standing, benign (WHO grade I) slow growing schwannomas with advanced degeneration. These can have calcification, hyalinization, and cystic cavitation that can be identified on imaging. The term “ancient” has been traditionally used to describe schwannomas showing de...
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Anconeus

The anconeus is a small muscle in the posterior compartment of the arm at the lateral aspect of the elbow. It has little functional significance but should be differentiated from the variably present anconeus epitrochlearis at the medial aspect of the elbow. Summary origin: lateral epicondyle ...
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Anconeus epitrochlearis

Anconeus epitrochlearis is an accessory muscle at the medial aspect of the elbow. It is also known as the accessory anconeus muscle and should not be confused with the anconeus muscle which is present at the lateral aspect of the elbow.  Epidemiology The muscle may be unilateral but has been f...
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Anderson and D'Alonzo classification of odontoid process fracture

The Anderson and D'Alonzo classification is the most commonly used classification of fractures of the odontoid process of C2. Classification type I rare fracture of the upper part of the odontoid peg above the level of the transverse band of the cruciform ligament usually considered stable...
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Andersson lesion

Andersson lesions refer to an inflammatory involvement of the intervertebral discs by spondyloarthritis. Epidemiology Rheumatic spondylodiscitis is a non-infectious condition that has been shown to occur in about 8% of patients with ankylosing spondylitis, as detected at radiography. Patholog...
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Androgen insensitivity syndrome

Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), also known as the testicular feminisation syndrome, results from end-organ resistance to androgens, particularly testosterone. AIS may be complete or incomplete with variable imaging findings.  Epidemiology The incidence may vary depending on whether it i...
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Anembryonic pregnancy

Anembryonic pregnancy is a form of a failed early pregnancy, where a gestational sac develops, but the embryo does not form. The term blighted ovum is synonymous with this but is falling out of favour and is best avoided.  Clinical presentation The patient may be asymptomatic, presenting for a...
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Anembryonic pregnancy in the exam

Getting a film with anembryonic pregnancy in the radiology fellowship examination is one of the many exam set-pieces that the candidate must be prepared for.  Description Transabdominal and transvaginal pelvic ultrasound shows a uterus with an intrauterine gestational sac. MSD is at least 25 m...
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Anencephaly

Anencephaly is the most severe form of cranial neural tube defect (NTD) and is characterised by an absence of cortical tissue (although the brainstem and cerebellum may be variably present) as well as an absence of the cranial vault. The morphological spectrum within anencephaly ranges from holo...
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Aneuploidy

Aneuploidy refers to an abnormal number of chromosomes, and is a type of chromosomal abnormality.There are large number potential aneuploidic anomalies. The most common three in obstetric practice are: trisomy 21: commonest aneuploidic anomaly trisomy 18 trisomy 13
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Aneurysm

Aneurysms are focal abnormal dilatation of a blood vessel. They typically occur in arteries, venous aneurysms are rare. Aneurysms may also occur in the heart. Pathology Pathological types true aneurysm false aneurysm (or pseudoaneurysm) Causes congenital atherosclerosis hypertension v...
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Aneurysmal bone cyst

Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABC) are benign expansile tumour-like bone lesions of uncertain aetiology, composed of numerous blood-filled channels, and mostly diagnosed in children and adolescents. Epidemiology Aneurysmal bone cysts are primarily seen in children and adolescents, with 80% occurring ...
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Aneurysms of the portal venous system

Aneurysms of the portal vein are extremely rare and represent only 3% of all aneurysms of the venous system 1. Clinical presentation Most patients are asymptomatic but may present with nonspecific abdominal pain as a major symptom 2-4. Pathology Both congenital and acquired causes have been ...
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Angiocentric glioma

Angiocentric gliomas are rare superficial slow-growing brain tumours typically presenting in young patients with intractable partial epilepsy 1-6. They were first introduced in the 2007 (4th) edition of the WHO brain tumour classification, and are classified as WHO grade I tumours 1.  For a gen...
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Angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma

Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) is a rare, aggressive (fast-growing) form of peripheral T-cell lymphoma. It only accounts for around 1-2% of all non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It is one of the more common subtypes of mature T-cell lymphomas.  Epidemiology It can be more common in the elderly....
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Angioinvasive aspergillosis

Angioinvasive aspergillosis is the most severe and aggressive form of invasive aspergillosis. It is a life-threatening condition that requires prompt treatment. Fortunately, it is not seen in the general population and only occurs in profoundly immunocompromised patients.  Epidemiology Angioin...
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Angiolipoma

Angiolipomas (also sometimes known as haemangiolipomas, vascular lipomas, and fibromyolipomas) are rare soft tissue tumours composed of mature adipocytes and vessels. They can occur essentially anywhere and can be subclassified into infiltrating and non-infiltrating variants 1.  Please refer to...
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Angiomatous meningioma

Angiomatous meningiomas are a rare histological variant of WHO grade I meningiomas and account for only 2.1% of all meningiomas 1,3.  The epidemiology and clinical presentation of these tumours does not clearly deviate from that of more common histological variants of meningiomas and is thus no...
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Angiomyofibroblastoma-like tumour of scrotum

Angiomyofibroblastoma-like tumour of the scrotum is a rare, well-defined, slow growing mesenchymal extratesticular nonepididymal tumour rarely seen in the perineum or scrotum of older male patients. A similar tumour can occur in females in the vulval region. Epidemiology  In males, they are se...
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Angiosarcoma

 Angiosarcomas (like haemangiopericytomas and haemangioendotheliomas) are tumours that arise from vascular structures. They are typically difficult to distinguish from one another on imaging alone. Angiosarcomas, are the most aggressive of the three, frequently having metastases at the time of ...
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Angiosarcoma (bone)

Angiosarcoma of bone is a malignant vascular tumour of bone. These are rare and account for less than 1% of malignant bone tumours. The majority of these tumours arising in bone are primary; however, a tiny percentage is either radiation-induced or associated with bone infarction Epidemiology ...
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Angiosarcoma involving the lung

Angiosarcoma involving the lung includes: metastatic angiosarcoma to lung 1  commoner usual primary sites include the heart and breast 2 primary pulmonary angiosarcoma: very rare See also angiosarcoma
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Angiosarcoma of breast

Breast angiosarcomas are a rare vascular breast malignancy. Epidemiology As primary tumours of the breast, they account for ~0.04% 2 of all breast cancers and tend to occur in younger women, in their 3rd to 4th decades. Secondary angiosarcoma, related to prior therapy of breast cancer, has an...
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Angiosarcoma of the spleen

Angiosarcomas of the spleen are rare malignant splenic neoplasms. The term is usually given to describe a primary angiosarcoma of the spleen although angiosarcoma elsewhere can also rarely metastasise to the spleen. Despite its absolute rarity, a splenic angiosarcoma is considered the most commo...
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Angle of the longitudinal arch (foot)

The angle of the longitudinal arch is one of the angles drawn on the weightbearing lateral foot radiograph. The angle is formed between the calcaneal inclination axis and a line drawn along the inferior edge of the 5th metatarsal. The normal angle is 150-170°. In pes cavus, as the height of th...
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Angular gyrus

The angular gyrus is a portion of the parietal lobe of the brain. It is one of the two parts of the inferior parietal lobule, the other part being the supramarginal gyrus. It plays a part in language and number processing, memory and reasoning 1. Gross anatomy Relations It lies as a horseshoe...
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Angular interface sign

The angular interface sign is used to characterise an exophytic renal mass, in which the exophytic renal mass has an angular interface with the renal parenchyma. In other words, the exophytic lesion has a tapered pyramidal contour or definite apex within the renal parenchyma. Due to its high se...
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Angular pregnancy

Angular pregnancies are a type of pregnancy that is located within the endometrial cavity at the lateral upper angle. It is one of the eccentrically located pregnancies in the fundal region of the uterus. Epidemiology It is a rare type of pregnancy carrying high rates of spontaneous abortion, ...
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Angular vein

The angular vein drains the anterior region of the scalp 1. It is formed by the union of the supratrochlear and supraorbital veins and becomes the facial vein 1,2,3. Gross Anatomy The angular vein is formed at the medial canthus as the supratrochlear vein and supraorbital vein unite 1,2. The a...
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Anhydramnios

Anhydramnios is a term where there is a complete or near-complete lack of amniotic fluid (sometimes referred to as "liquor volume"). Pathology Anhydramnios can result in a number of situations: fetal renal tract anomalies Potter syndrome (bilateral renal agenesis): most common  large ureter...
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Animal and animal produce inspired signs

Animal and animal produce inspired signs may sound a little silly, but the radiology literature is replete with such signs, some more fanciful than others. Fish and seafood endosteal scalloping: medullary cavity masses, e.g. multiple myeloma fish vertebra (also known as codfish vertebra): bic...
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Anisotropy

Anisotropy is an artefact encountered in ultrasound, notably in muscles and tendons during a musculoskeletal ultrasound. In musculoskeletal applications, the artefact may prompt an incorrect diagnosis of tendinosis or tendon tear. When the ultrasound beam is incident on a fibrillar structure as...
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Ankle and foot radiography

Ankle and foot radiography is the plain radiographic investigation of the distal tibia and fibula, the tarsal bones and metatarsals. Radiographic examination of the foot and ankle are often requested together, however, there is a plethora of literature to aid in the correct request of x-ray exam...
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Ankle (AP view)

Ankle AP view is part of a three view series of the distal tibia, distal fibula, proximal talus and proximal metatarsals. Patient position the patient may be supine or sitting upright with their leg straighten on the table the foot is in dorsiflexion the toes will be pointing directly toward...
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Ankle brachial index

Ankle brachial index (ABI) is a means of detecting and quantifying peripheral arterial disease. It can be performed in conjuction with ultrasound for better results. Indications Many patients with peripheral arterial disease may be asymptomatic (~20-50%), but they may also present with limb p...
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Ankle fractures

Ankle fractures account for ~10% of fractures encountered in trauma, preceded only in incidence by proximal femoral fractures in the lower limb. They have a bimodal presentation, involving young males and older females. Ankle injuries play a major part in post multitrauma functional impairment t...
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Ankle (horizontal beam lateral view)

The ankle horizontal beam lateral view is a modified lateral view part of a three view ankle series; this projection is used to assess the distal tibia and fibula, talus, navicular, cuboid, the base of the 5th metatarsal and calcaneus. The horizontal beam lateral is a highly adaptable projectio...
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Ankle joint

The ankle joint (also known as the tibiotalar joint or talocrural joint) forms the articulation between the foot and the leg. It is a primary hinge synovial joint lined with hyaline cartilage. Gross anatomy The ankle joint is comprised of the tibia, fibula and talus as well as the supporting l...
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Ankle (lateral view)

Ankle lateral view is part of a three view ankle series; this projection is used to assess the distal tibia and fibula, talus, navicular, cuboid, the base of the 5th metatarsal and calcaneus. Patient position patient is in a lateral recumbent position on the table the lateral aspect of the kn...
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Ankle (mortise view)

Ankle AP mortise view is part of a three view series of the distal tibia, distal fibula, talus and proximal metatarsals. It is the most pertinent projection for assessing the articulation of the tibial plafond and two malleoli with the talar dome, otherwise known as the mortise joint of the ankl...
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Ankle radiograph (an approach)

Ankle radiographs are frequently performed in emergency departments, usually, after trauma, the radiographic series is comprised of three views: an anteroposterior, mortise, and a lateral. They may be performed to assess degenerative or inflammatory arthritis as well as to look for the sequela o...
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Ankle radiograph (checklist)

The ankle radiograph checklist is just one of the many pathology checklists that can be used when reporting to ensure that you always actively exclude pathology that is commonly missed; this is particularly helpful in the examination setting, e.g. the FRCR 2B rapid-reporting. Radiograph The ma...
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Ankle series

The ankle series is comprised of an anteroposterior (AP), mortise and lateral radiograph. The series is often used in emergency departments to evaluate the distal tibia, distal fibula, and the talus; forming the ankle joint. See approach to an ankle series. Indications Ankle radiographs are p...
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Ankle teardrop sign

Ankle teardrop sign is one of the radiological signs of an ankle joint effusion. It represents the presence of fluid in the inferior part of the anterior compartment of ankle. Pathology Aetiology trauma gout rheumatoid arthritis synovitis infectious arthritis Radiographic appearance Pla...
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Ankle x-ray (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists An ankle x-ray, also known as ankle series or ankle radiograph, is a set of two x-rays of the ankle joint. It is performed to look for evidence of injury (or pathology) affecting the ankle, often after trauma. Reference ar...
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Ankylosing spondylitis

Ankylosing spondylitis (less commonly known as Bechterew disease and Marie Strümpell disease) is a seronegative spondyloarthropathy, which, as the name suggests, results in fusion (ankylosis) of the spine and sacroiliac (SI) joints, although involvement is also seen in large and small joints. E...
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Ankylosing spondylitis: thoracic manifestations

Thoracic manifestations of ankylosing spondylitis can be varied. For a general discussion of the condition refer to the parent article on ankylosing spondylitis. It can affect the tracheobronchial tree and the lung parenchyma, and the disease spectrum includes: upper lobe fibrocystic changes -...
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Anlage

An anlage in biology refers to the primordial precursor of a tissue or organ, which is still recognisable as a collection of cells that will form that specific tissue. The term is commonly used in medicine to refer to organs, such as the pancreas, when one is describing anatomical variants and ...
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Annular fissure

Annular fissures are a degenerative deficiency of one or more layers that make up the annulus fibrosus of the intervertebral disc.  Terminology Many authors prefer the term annular fissure over annular tear, as the latter seems to imply acute injury 1,2. In the setting of severe trauma with di...
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Annular ligament (stapes)

The annular ligament (or ligamentum anulare stapedis) of the stapes attaches the rim of the footplate of the stapes to the rim of the oval window. This forms the stapediovestibular joint; a fully-functional articulation is vital for transmission of sound vibrations in the middle ear to the fluid...
Article

Annular pancreas

Annular pancreas is a morphological anomaly which can cause duodenal obstruction. This condition is important to recognise, as radiologists are frequently the first to make the diagnosis. Epidemiology The incidence is probably 1 in 250, however incidence is not accurately reported 1. It is as ...
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Annulo-aortic ectasia

Annulo-aortic ectasia refers to a proximal dilatation of the aortic root at the level of the aortic annulus, it is also the same level as the sinus of Valsalva. Pathology Annulo-aortic ectasia occurs with connective tissue diseases such as Marfan disease and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. It is a cys...
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Annulus fibrosus

The annulus fibrosus surrounds the nucleus polposus and together they form the intervertebral disc. Gross anatomy The annulus comprises 15 to 20 collagenous (type I) laminae which run obliquely from the edge of one vertebra down to the edge of the vertebra below. The direction of the fibres al...
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Anode

The anode is the component of the x-ray tube where x-rays are produced. It is a piece of metal, shaped in the form of a bevelled disk with the diameter between 55 and 100 mm, and thickness of 7 mm, connected to the positive side of the electrical circuit. The anode converts the energy of the ele...
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Anode angle

The anode angle refers to the angle the target surface of the anode sits at in relation to the vertical.  Most x-ray tubes have an anode angle of 12-15 degrees but greater or lesser angles can also be used depending on the application. The degree of angulation of the anode effects the effective...
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Anode heel effect

Anode heel effect refers to the lower field intensity towards the anode in comparison to the cathode due to lower x-ray emissions from the target material at angles perpendicular to the electron beam. Basic concept The conversion of the electron beam into x-rays doesn’t simply occur at the sur...
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Anomalous course of coronary arteries

Anomalous course of a coronary artery is a type of congenital coronary artery anomaly. It may represent a benign and incidental finding, but can also be a malignant course predisposing patients to life-threatening myocardial ischaemia or arrhythmias, depending on where the artery runs.  Clinica...
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Anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery

Anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA), also known as Bland-White-Garland syndrome (BWG), is a rare congenital coronary artery anomaly and is considered one of the most severe of such anomalies. There are two forms, based on onset of disease, each of which has differe...
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Anomalous pancreaticobiliary junction

An anomalous pancreaticobiliary junction describes the abnormal junction of the pancreatic duct and common bile duct that occurs outside the duodenal wall to form a long common channel (> 15 mm). The anomalous junction is often associated with a choledochal cyst or a biliary tract carcinoma and...
Article

Anophthalmia

Anophthalmia refers to a complete absence of ocular development. It is often considered to represent the most severe form of microphthalmia. Pathology It can occur in 3 different situations: primary anophthalmia: complete absence of eye tissue due to a failure of the part of the brain that fo...
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Anorectal disease (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Anorectal disease is a group of conditions that affect the anus and rectum. The most common conditions in this group include haemorrhoids, anal fissures, anorectal abscess and anal fistula. Reference article This is a sum...
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Anorexia nervosa

Anorexia nervosa is a psychiatric disorder characterised by distorted self-perception of body weight leading to starvation, obsession with remaining underweight, and an excessive fear of gaining weight. One in five patients with anorexia dies, due to complications of the disease. Epidemiology ...
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Anorexia nervosa (CNS manifestations)

CNS manifestations of anorexia nervosa are common but varied with most of the imaging features non-specific in their own right.  For a general discussion, and for links to other system specific manifestations, please refer to the article on anorexia nervosa. Epidemiology Studies have identifi...
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ANOVA

ANOVA (ANalysis Of VAriance) is a statistical technique commonly seen in radiology research. ANOVA analyses are conceptually similar to the student t-test, but involve comparison of multiple groups at once. The alternative to an ANOVA would be multiple head-to-head t-tests, but this would likel...
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Anoxic brain injury

Anoxic brain injury, also known as global hypoxic-ischaemic injury, is seen in all age groups (from antenatal to the elderly) as a result of numerous aetiologies. The pattern of injury depends on a number of factors including: age of the patient (brain maturity) neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic ence...
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Ansa cervicalis

The ansa cervicalis (or ansa hypoglossi, an archaic synonym) is a component of the cervical plexus which gives muscular branches to the geniohyoid muscle of the suprahyoid group and all four of the infrahyoid (strap) muscles.  Gross anatomy Roots superior root: derived from the anterior prima...
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Ansa pancreatica

The ansa pancreatica is a rare type of anatomical variation of the pancreatic duct. It is a communication between the main pancreatic duct (of Wirsung) and the accessory pancreatic duct (of Santorini). Recently, the ansa pancreatica has been considered as a predisposing factor in patients with i...
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Anteater nose sign (foot)

The anteater nose sign refers to an anterior tubular elongation of the superior calcaneus which approaches or overlaps the navicular on a lateral radiograph of the foot. This fancifully resembles the nose of an anteater and is indicative of calcaneonavicular coalition 1,2.  History and etymolog...
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Antegrade ureteric stent

Antegrade ureteric stents are performed under fluoroscopic guidance, typically by an interventional radiologist or urologist. It is performed via percutaneous access from the kidney. It is usually performed using the access from a prior percutaneous nephrostomy, a so-called two-step procedure, a...
Article

Antenatal features of Down syndrome

Antenatal screening of Down syndrome (and other less common aneuploidies) should be available as a routine component of antenatal care. It allows families to either adjust to the idea of having a child with the condition or to consider termination of pregnancy. For a general description of Down...
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Antenatal screening

Antenatal screening and diagnosis are currently available for a few selected genetic conditions, including trisomy 21 (Down syndrome), trisomy 18 (Edward syndrome), trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) and neural tube defects. For an overview of the conditions and their manifestations, please refer to t...
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Antenatal soft markers on ultrasound

Antenatal soft ultrasound markers are fetal sonographic findings that are generally not abnormalities as such but are indicative of an increased age adjusted risk of an underlying fetal aneuploidic or some non chromosomal abnormalities. Most of the described features do not constitute a structu...
Article

Antepartum haemorrhage

An antepartum haemorrhage (APH) usually refers to PV bleeding during the second half of pregnancy (after 20 weeks gestation).  Pathology Causes It can arise from many causes which include: placental abruption placenta previa vasa previa uterine rupture See also differential diagnosis fo...
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Anterior abdominal wall

The anterior abdominal wall forms the anterior limit of the abdominal viscera and is defined superiorly by the xiphoid process of the sternum and costal cartilages and inferiorly by the iliac crest and pubic bones of the pelvis. Gross anatomy The anterior abdominal wall has seven layers (from ...
Article

Anterior angulation of the coccyx

Anterior angulation of the coccyx may be a normal variant but poses a diagnostic challenge for those considering coccygeal trauma. Classification Four types of coccyx have been described: type I: the coccyx is curved slightly forward, with its apex pointing caudally (~70%) type II: the coccy...
Article

Anterior ankle impingement syndrome

Anterior ankle impingement (AAI) syndrome is the result of chronic repetitive trauma with impingement of the anterior tibia against the talus. Clinical presentation Clinical features of anterior ankle impingement syndrome include painful and limited dorsiflexion and anterior joint line swellin...
Article

Anterior ankle tendons (mnemonic)

A mnemonic that refers to the order of the ankle tendons that pass under the extensor retinaculum of the ankle running from medial to lateral is: Tom Hates Dick Mnemonic T: tibialis anterior H: extensor hallucis longus D: extensor digitorum longus History and etymology The phrase Tom, Di...
Article

Anterior atlanto-occipital membrane

The anterior atlanto-occipital membrane is a thin membrane that joins the upper border of the anterior arch of the atlas (C1) to the anterior inferior surface of the foramen magnum. It is a continuation of the anterior longitudinal ligament above the C1 level. It is immediately posterior to the ...
Article

Anterior bronchus sign

The anterior bronchus sign refers to the appearance of the anterior segmental bronchus of the upper lobes as seen on a frontal chest radiograph. Normal anatomy The anterior segment bronchus of the upper lobes courses anteriorly and laterally. When the orientation is predominantly anteriorly th...
Article

Anterior cardiac veins

The anterior cardiac veins are a group of parallel coronary veins that course over the anterior surface of the right ventricle, draining it and entering directly into the right atrium. They may occasionally drain into the small cardiac vein. 
Article

Anterior cardinal veins

The anterior cardinal veins are paired transient embryologic venous vessels which deliver venous return to the heart starting at about 4 weeks of gestation 1. Embryogenesis The anterior cardinal veins begin their embryological development as symmetric venous channels draining blood from the cr...
Article

Anterior cerebral artery

The anterior cerebral artery along with the middle cerebral artery forms at the termination of the internal carotid artery. It is the smaller of the two, and arches anteromedially to pass anterior to the genu of the corpus callosum, dividing as it does so into its two major branches; pericallosa...
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Anterior cerebral artery (ACA) infarct

Anterior cerebral artery (ACA) territory infarcts are much less common than either middle or posterior cerebral artery territory infarcts.  Epidemiology ACA territory infarcts are rare, comprising ~2% of ischaemic strokes 1,2.  Clinical presentation ACA stroke syndrome presents as 1,2,3: dy...
Article

Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF)

Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is a commonly performed spinal fusion procedure for the decompression of the cervical cord due to disc protrusions and posteriorly projecting osteophytes.  Technique The procedure is carried out via an anterolateral neck incision with surgical app...
Article

Anterior cervical space

The anterior cervical space is a small infrahyoid compartment of the head and neck. It is a fat containing space and is not enclosed by fascia 1. Gross anatomy Contents areolar fat Relations posterior: carotid space medial: visceral space superior: submandibular space Related pathology ...
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Anterior choroidal artery

The anterior choroidal artery (AChA) supplies several crucial anatomical structures of the brain important for vision and motor control. Identification of AChA is important because of its strategic and extensive area of supply as well as large variations in the territorial distribution. Gross a...

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