Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

10,991 results found
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Appendiceal intussusception

Appendiceal intussusception happens when appendix segment is pulled into itself or into the cecum. This condition can mimic various chronic and acute abdominal conditions. It is an important entity to recognise since it could be mistaken for a caecal mass. Epidemiology Appendiceal intussuscept...
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Appendiceal mucocele

Appendiceal mucoceles occur when there is an abnormal accumulation of mucin causing abnormal distention of the appendix. They are due to either nonneoplastic process, such as luminal obstruction, or mucin-secreting epithelial tumours. Epidemiology The reported prevalence at appendectomy is 0.2...
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Appendicitis

Appendicitis is inflammation of the vermiform appendix. It is a very common condition in general radiology practice and is one of the main reasons for abdominal surgery in young patients. CT is the most sensitive modality to detect appendicitis. Epidemiology Acute appendicitis is typically a d...
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Appendicitis (summary)

Appendicitis occurs when there is inflammation of the vermiform appendix. It is a very common condition and is a major cause of abdominal surgery in young patients. CT is the most sensitive modality to detect appendicitis although its use should be limited because of the radiation dose required ...
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Appendicolith

An appendicolith is a calcified deposit within the appendix. They are present in a large number of children with acute appendicitis and may be an incidental finding on an abdominal radiograph or CT. Incidence may be increased among patients with a retrocaecal appendix. Overall they are seen in 1...
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Appendicular abscess

Appendicular abscess is considered the most common complication of acute appendicitis. Radiographic features Ultrasound Ultrasound is the first investigation advised to evaluate a suspected appendicular pathology. Findings of an appendicular abscess include: fluid collection (hypoechoic) in ...
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Appendicular artery

The appendicular artery is a branch of the ileal or posterior caecal branch of the ileocolic artery, which is from the superior mesenteric artery. It courses posteriorly to the terminal ileum in the free wall of the mesoappendix to supply the appendix.
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Appendicular films (early clinical)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Appendicular films are x-rays taken of the bones and joints of the arms and legs. I've used this term to separate the x-rays taken as part of an assessment of non-acute disease from trauma films which represent x-rays taken...
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Appendicular skeleton

The appendicular skeleton is the portion of the bony skeleton that includes and supports the limbs (the appendages). It includes the pectoral girdle and the bony pelvis, connected to the axial skeleton centrally and is composed of 126 bones in total.  Appendicular bones form from cartilage, by ...
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Appendix

The appendix or vermiform appendix is a blind muscular tube that arises from the caecum, which is the first part of the large bowel. Gross anatomy The appendix arises from the posteromedial surface of the caecum, approximately 2-3 cm inferiorly to the ileocaecal valve, where the taena coli con...
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Apple core sign (colon)

The apple core sign, also known as a napkin ring sign (bowel), is most frequently associated with constriction of the lumen of the colon by a stenosing annular colorectal carcinoma. Differential diagnosis The appearance of the apple-core lesion of the colon also can be caused by other diseases...
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Apple core sign (femur)

The apple core sign has been used to describe the circumferential erosion of the femoral neck seen in synovial chondromatosis. Although this is the most common process that may lead to an apple core erosion of the femoral neck, this has also been observed with: pigmented villonodular synovitis ...
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Apple-peel intestinal atresia

Apple-peel intestinal atresia, also known as type IIIb or Christmas tree intestinal atresia, is a rare form of small bowel atresia in which the duodenum or proximal jejunum ends in a blind pouch and the distal small bowel wraps around its vascular supply in a spiral resembling an apple peel. Oft...
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Appleby procedure

The Appleby procedure is a type of pancreatic cancer resection.  For some patients with pancreatic cancer involving the body and tail of the pancreas, involvement of the coeliac axis is a classic contraindication to pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple procedure).  With the Appleby procedure, ther...
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Applying to radiology training (UK)

Application to radiology training in the UK is through a national process. There is one application track for posts in England, Wales and Scotland and another for training in Northern Ireland.  In 2015, there were 211 posts in England, Scotland and Wales. Applications are open to those who are ...
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Apraxia

Apraxia is the inability to perform tasks which the patient has perviously learned and has no physical impairment which would preclude them from performing them 1.  Typically apraxia stems from damage to the parietal lobes. 
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April Fools'

The Radiopaedia editors have a recurring commitment to prank the collective radiology community each year on April 1, an informal holiday known as April Fools' day. Sometimes months in the planning and creation, the pseudo-pathologies depicted on imaging are an exciting annual project the editor...
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Aprosencephaly

Aprosencephaly is an extremely rare anomaly fetal cerebral development the derivatives of the telencephalon as well as the diancephalon are absent or dysplastic, while more caudal structures are normal or mildly deformed. It falls under the aprosencephaly / atelencephaly spectrum (AAS)  See als...
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Aquaporin

Aquaporin is a family of transmembrane water channels found throughout the body of both humans and many other species, facilitating the passage of water, cations and gasses 1.  At least 13 types of aquaporin have been described, and these are variably expressed.  Aquaporin 4 Aquaporin 4 (AQP4...
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Aqueduct stenosis

Aqueductal stenosis (AS) is a the most common cause of congenital obstructive hydrocephalus, but can also be seen in adults as an acquired abnormality.  Epidemiology Congenital aqueductal stenosis has an estimated incidence is at ~1:5000 births although the reported range varies greatly (3.7:1...
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Arachnoid cyst

Arachnoid cysts are relatively common benign and asymptomatic lesions occurring in association with the central nervous system, both within the intracranial compartment (most common) as well as within the spinal canal. They are usually located within the subarachnoid space and contain CSF.  On ...
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Arachnoid cyst (fetal presentation)

A fetal arachnoid cyst is term given when an arachnoid cyst is diagnosed in utero. For a general discussion of arachnoid cysts refer to the parent article. Pathology They can be classified as being primary or secondary 2. primary (congenital) arachnoid cysts: result from a benign accumulation...
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Arachnoid granulation

Arachnoid granulations, also known as a Pacchionian granulation, are projections of the arachnoid membrane (villi) into the dural sinuses that allow CSF entrance from the subarachnoid space into the venous system. They most frequently occur in a parasagittal location with the transverse and sup...
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Arachnoid mater

The arachnoid mater forms the middle layer of the meninges and together with the pia mater is sometimes referred to as the leptomeninges.  Gross anatomy The arachnoid mater is a membrane that comes into direct contact with the dura mater and is separated from the pia mater by a CSF filled spac...
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Arachnoiditis

Arachnoiditis is a broad term encompassing inflammation of the meninges and subarachnoid space. Terminology Arachnoiditis affecting the cauda equina may be referred to as spinal/lumbar adhesive arachnoiditis.  Clinical presentation Lumbar spine arachnoiditis can result in leg pain, sensory c...
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Arachnoiditis ossificans

Arachnoiditis ossificans is considered a sequela of chronic arachnoiditis where there is a development of calcification-ossification of the arachnoid membrane usually of the thoracic and lumbar spines. It is an extremely rare cause of spinal canal stenosis and consequent neurological compromise....
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Arc of Barkow

The arc of Barkow is formed by the anastomosis of the right gastroepiploic (a branch of the gastroduodenal artery) and left gastroepiploic (a branch of the splenic artery) arteries. The arc of Barkow supplies the transverse colon via multiple ascending branches. 
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Arc of Buhler

The arc of Buhler (AOB) is a persistent embryonic anastomotic branch between the 10th and 13th ventral segmental arteries, resulting in a connection between the coeliac artery and superior mesenteric artery (SMA). This arch is independent of both the gastroduodenal and dorsal pancreatic artery. ...
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Arc of Buhler aneurysm

An Arc of Buhler aneurysm is a rare pathology that can occur in an arc of Buhler. It can occur in association with stenoses of celiac axis. This is considered a true aneurysm. Transcatheter embolization has been successfully tried as the management technique. Differential diagnosis On imaging ...
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Arc of Riolan

The arc of Riolan (AOR), also known as the mesenteric meandering artery (of Moskowitz) or central anastomotic mesenteric artery, is an arterio-arterial anastomosis between the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries. Gross anatomy It is an inconstant artery that connects the proximal superio...
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Arcade of Frohse

The arcade of Frohse (pronounced "\ Frəʊs \" to rhyme with "crows") is also known as the supinator arch. The arcade is formed by a fibrous band between the two heads of the supinator muscle. The deep branch of the radial nerve passes beneath the arcade accompanied by vessels known as the leash ...
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Architectural distortion in mammography

Architectural distortion is a mammographic descriptive term in breast imaging. It may be visualised as tethering or indentation of breast tissue.  Pathology Architectural distortion per se is not a mass. It is often due to a desmoplastic reaction in which there is focal disruption of the norma...
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Arcuate foramen

The arcuate foramen (foramen arcuale atlantis, ponticulus posticus or posterior ponticle, or Kimerle anomaly) is a frequently encountered normal variant of the atlas and is easily appreciated on a lateral plain film of the cranio-cervical junction. It develops by calcification of the posterior ...
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Arcuate ligament

The arcuate ligament is part of the posterolateral ligamentous complex of the knee that is variably present, being found in ~65% (range 47.9-71%) of knees. It is a Y-shaped thickening of the posterolateral capsule, which arises from the fibular styloid and divides into two limbs: medial limb: c...
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Arcuate line

The arcuate line is situated at roughly one-third of the distance from the pubic crest to the umbilicus. It is the demarcation where the internal oblique and transversus abdominis aponeuroses of the rectus sheath start to pass anteriorly to the rectus abdominis muscle, leaving only the transvers...
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Arcuate sign (knee)

The arcuate sign is often a subtle but important finding on knee x-rays and represents an avulsion fracture of the proximal fibula at the site of insertion of the arcuate ligament complex, and is usually associated with cruciate ligament injury (~90% of cases) 2. The fracture fragment is attache...
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Arcuate uterus

An arcuate uterus is a mildly variant shape of the uterus. It is technically one of the Müllerian duct anomalies, but is often classified as a normal variant. It is the uterine anomaly that is least commonly associated with reproductive failure. Arcuate uterus can be characterised with ultrasoun...
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Area postrema

The area postrema is one of the so-called circumventricular organs located on the dorsal inferior surface of the medulla oblongata at the caudal end of the fourth ventricle. The specialised ependymal cells in the area postrema detect toxins in the blood and act as a vomit-inducing centre, along...
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Areae gastricae

Areae gastricae are a normal finding on double contrast images of the stomach. Radiographic features fine reticular network of barium-coated grooves between 1-5 mm islands/areas of gastric mucosa may be seen in ~70-80% of patients if there is adequate high-density barium coating of the stomac...
Article

Argyll Robertson pupil

Argyll Robertson pupil is usually bilateral and presents as bilaterally miotic and irregular pupils, which constrict briskly with accommodation but do not react to bright light therefore displaying light-near dissociation 1.  It is a highly specific sign of late neurosyphilis, however can also ...
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Arm

The arm is part of the upper limb below the pectoral girdle and above the forearm, comprising the humerus.  The elbow joint is inferior and the glenohumeral joint is superior. Arm flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, internal rotation and external rotation occur at the shoulder. See humer...
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Arnold-Hilgartner classification of haemophilic arthropathy

Arnold-Hilgartner classification is a plain radiograph grading system for haemophilic arthropathy of the knee 1,2: stage 0: normal joint stage I: no skeletal abnormalities, soft-tissue swelling is present stage II: osteoporosis and overgrowth of the epiphysis, no cysts, no narrowing of the ca...
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Arnold's nerve

Arnold's nerve is the auricular branch, also known as the mastoid branch, of the vagus nerve (CN X). Origin and course Arnold's nerve originates from the superior ganglion of the vagus nerve and also has a small contribution from the inferior ganglion of the glossopharyngeal nerve. It ascends ...
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Arrested pneumatisation of the skull base

Arrested pneumatisation of the skull base is an anatomical variant that most commonly occurs in association with the sphenoid sinus. It is known that the sphenoid bones undergo early fatty marrow conversion antecedent to normal pneumatisation. However, for unclear reasons, some individuals exper...
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Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), also referred to as arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia or simply arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy, is classified as a type of cardiomyopathy. It is seen particularly in young males and is one of the more common causes of sudden death i...
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Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy diagnostic criteria

For the diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy to be made patients must have either two major criteria, one major and two minor criteria, or four minor criteria. Major criteria global or regional dysfunction and structural alterations: severe dilatation of the right vent...
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Arrowhead sign (caecum)

The arrowhead sign refers to the focal caecal thickening centred on the appendiceal orifice, seen as a secondary sign in acute appendicitis. The contrast material in the caecal lumen assumes an arrowhead configuration, pointing at the appendix.   The arrowhead sign is applicable only when enter...
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Arterial anastomosis of the elbow

The peri-articular arterial anastomosis of the elbow consists of several arteries that supply the elbow joint and its supporting structures. It functions to allow blood to flow around the elbow joint no mater which position the joint is in. The arteries that contribute include:  from the brachi...
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Arterial dissection

Arterial dissection occurs when blood enters the media through a tear or ulcer in the intima and tracks along the media, forming a second blood-filled channel within the wall. The normal lumen lined by intima is called the true lumen and the blood-filled channel in the media is called the false ...
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Arterial Doppler assessment in LVAD patients

In patients with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD), spectral Doppler waveforms are altered due to continuous flow provided by the pump in the device: waveforms are monophasic with a constant antegrade flow and no flow below the baseline. the waveform is typically parvus-tardus with a slo...
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Arterial spin labelling (ASL) MR perfusion

Arterial spin labelling (ASL) MR perfusion is an MR perfusion technique which does not require intravenous administration of contrast (unlike DSC perfusion and DCE perfusion). Instead it exploits the ability of MRI to magnetically label arterial blood below the imaging slab. The parameter most c...
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Arterial supply of the head and neck

The arteries of the head and neck are branches of the common carotid and subclavian arteries. common carotid artery carotid body carotid bifurcation internal carotid artery (segments) caroticotympanic artery persistent stapedial artery ophthalmic artery supraorbital artery lacrimal arte...
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Arterial supply of the lower limb

The arterial supply of the lower limbs is via vessels arising from the external iliac artery.  The common femoral artery (CFA) is the direct continuation of the external iliac artery. It begins at the level of the inguinal ligament. It terminates as it gives off the profunda femoris and continu...
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Arterial supply of the upper limb

The arterial supply of the upper limb is derived from the subclavian artery. The right subclavian artery originates from the brachiocephalic artery, which is the first branch of the aortic arch. The left subclavian artery originates directly from the aortic arch, being the third branch. The sub...
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Arterial supply to the foot

Arterial supply to the foot can be divided into plantar and dorsal components. Plantar arterial supply Medial plantar artery branch off the posterior tibial artery smaller calibre vessel supplies the medial side of the foot, abductor hallucis and flexor digitorum brevis. provides the arter...
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Arterial supply to the hand

The arterial supply to the hand is comprised of a complex vascular network formed from the branches and distal continuations of the radial and ulnar arteries. This rich vascular network can be divided into palmar and dorsal components. Palmar arterial supply The palmar arterial supply can be d...
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Arterial switch procedure

The arterial switch procedure (or Jatene switch) is an intervention designed to correct D-transposition of the great arteries at the level of the aorta and main pulmonary artery. First, the left and right coronary arteries are transferred to the posterior artery (the main pulmonary artery, now ...
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Arteriosclerosis

Arteriosclerosis is defined by thickening and loss of elasticity of the arterial walls. There are three patterns (arteriosclerosis is used as a generic term for all patterns above): atherosclerosis: large and medium-sized arteries Monckeberg medial calcific sclerosis: muscular arteries arter...
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Arteriovenous access

Arteriovenous access is required for haemodialysis in renal failure patients. The upper limb is generally preferred as a site, however, lower limb access can also be obtained. Ultrasound is the preferred modality for evaluation of the vessels prior to creating an access. Types arteriovenous fi...
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Arteriovenous fistula

An arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is an abnormal connection between an adjacent artery and vein. Unlike an arteriovenous malformation (AVM), these are frequently acquired lesions, rather than developmental abnormalities. Pathology AVFs have a number of etiologies. They can be iatrogenic in origin...
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Arteriovenous malformations

Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are characterised by an abnormal leash of vessels allowing for arteriovenous shunting. They can occur anywhere in the body but have a predilection towards the head and neck.  There is a direct arteriovenous communication with no intervening capillary bed. They ...
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Artery of Adamkiewicz

The artery of Adamkiewicz, also known as the great anterior radiculomedullary artery or arteria radicularis anterior magna, is the name given to the dominant thoracolumbar segmental artery that supplies the spinal cord. Gross anatomy Origin The artery of Adamkiewicz has a variable origin but ...
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Artery of Percheron

The artery of Percheron is a rare variant of the posterior cerebral circulation characterised by a solitary arterial trunk that supplies blood to the paramedian thalami and the rostral midbrain bilaterally. Gross anatomy The term is used to refer to a solitary arterial trunk that branches from...
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Artery of Percheron territory infarct

Artery of Percheron territory infarct is rare, on account of the relative rarity of the artery of Percheron, and presents with a variety of signs and symptoms collectively termed the paramedian thalamic syndrome. It is a type of posterior circulation infarction. On imaging, it is classically ch...
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Artery to the ductus deferens

The artery to the ductus deferens (deferential or vesiculodeferential artery) is a branch of the superior vesicle artery, which in turns arises from the internal iliac artery via the umbilical artery. Gross anatomy origin: superior vesical artery main branch: no named branches course: accomp...
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Arthrogryposis

Arthrogryposis (multiplex congenita) is a clinical or imaging descriptor that denotes congenital non-progressive joint contractures involving two or more body regions.  Epidemiology It is thought to occur in approximately 1:3000-10,000 live births 6,8. Pathology It can result from a number o...
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Article title

Article titles should be concise and accurate allowing readers to search and link to the vast volume of information on Radiopaedia.org.  The following points should be kept in mind when deciding on an article title: UK English spelling is preferred avoid the use of acronyms only the first wo...
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Articles

Articles form the encyclopaedic component of Radiopaedia.org and are collaborative efforts to create atomic reference articles for anything related to the practice of radiology. Unlike a textbook, journal publication or a written encyclopaedia, Radiopaedia.org articles allow you and other users ...
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Articles on conditions that affect multiple systems

Articles pertaining conditions that affect multiple systems can often be a challenge to write, and need to be split into a number of parts: a general overview of the condition with links to individual system articles Syntax and structure The standard title syntax for system specific articles...
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Articular cartilage calcification (mnemonic)

An easy to remember mnemonic for the causes of articular cartilage calcification is: HOGWASH Mnemonic H: hyperparathyroidism O: ochronosis G: gout W: Wilson disease A: arthritis S: pseudogout H: haemochromatosis
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Articularis cubiti

The articularis cubiti is a muscle in the posterior compartment of the arm: origin: posterior surface of the distal humerus insertion: posterior surface of the elbow joint capsule innervation: radial nerve action: tenses the posterior elbow joint capsule during elbow extension
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Articularis genu muscle

The articularis genu is a small flat muscle of the anterior knee. During knee extension it acts to tighten the synovial membrane superiorly thereby preventing impingement of the synovial folds between the femur and the patella. Summary origin: anterior distal femoral shaft insertion: knee joi...
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Artifacts that mimic breast calcification

Artifacts that mimic breast calcification can arise from a number of sources. These include: deodorants on skin: most practices recommend that clients for mammography do not use deodorant or perfume on the day of the study for this reason. The residue from deodorant is a very fine, dense, misty...
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Artificial rupture of membranes

An artificial rupture of membranes (AROM) is a procedure that can be used for the induction of labour. Procedure  A sterile, plastic, thin hook is brushed against the membranes just inside the cervix (termed a membrane sweep) This causes the fetal head to move down against the cervix, usually ...
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Artificial urethral sphincters

Artificial urethral sphincters, also known as inflatable artificial sphincters and urinary control systems, are devices used for the treatment of urinary stress incontinence (e.g. due to pelvic floor dysfunction in female or prostate surgery in male) and are sometimes used in combination with a ...
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Aryepiglottic folds

The aryepiglottic folds are two ligamentomuscular structures within the supraglottic larynx that function to protect the airway when swallowing. Gross Anatomy Each aryepiglottic fold is comprised of the superior ligamentous edge of the quadrangular membrane and covering mucous membrane1, the e...
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Arytenoid cartilage

The arytenoid cartilages are paired hyaline cartilages that articulate with the sloping upper border of the lamina of the cricoid cartilage by the cricoarytenoid joint. This joint allows movement of the arytenoid cartilages, which is vital in approximating, tensing and relaxing the vocal folds. ...
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As low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)

As low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) is a principle of radioprotection stating that whenever ionizing radiation has to be applied to humans, animals or materials exposure should be as low as reasonably achievable. It is fundamental to the principles of radiation protection.
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Asbestos

Asbestos is a set of six naturally occurring silicate minerals from mixture of calcium magnesium, iron, and sodium exploited commercially for their desirable physical properties, particularly their resistance to heat and burning. They all form thin elongated fibrous crystals, and can be manufact...
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Asbestos body

An asbestos body is a histological finding in interstitial lung disease that is suggestive of significant occupational asbestos exposure. They are usually identified following a parenchymal lung biopsy 3. Macrophage ingestion of the asbestos fibres triggers a fibrogenic response via the release...
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Asbestos related benign pleural disease

Asbestos related benign pleural disease forms a large part of asbestos related lung changes. The spectrum comprises of: pleural effusions: benign-asbestos induced pleural effusions can be associated with functional impairment usually occur within 10 years of exposure but can also develop muc...
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Asbestos related diseases

Asbestos related disease, in particular affecting the lung, comprise of a broad spectrum of entities related to the inhalational exposure to asbestos fibres. They can be divided into benign and malignant changes 1-3. Benign pleural and parenchymal lung disease asbestos related benign pleural d...
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Asbestosis

Asbestosis refers to later development of diffuse interstitial fibrosis secondary to asbestos fibre inhalation and should not be confused with other asbestos related diseases. Epidemiology Asbestosis typically occurs 10-15 years following the commencement of exposure to asbestos and is dose re...
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Ascariasis

Ascariasis is due to infection with the Ascaris lumbricoides adult worm, and typically presents with gastrointestinal or pulmonary symptoms, depending on the stage of development.   Epidemiology Ascaris lumbricoides is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions and in other humid a...
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Ascending aorta

The ascending aorta is the first part of the aorta, and begins at the aortic valve, located obliquely just to the left of the midline at the level of the the third intercostal space. It terminates as it exits the fibrous pericardium where it becomes the aortic arch, in the plane of Ludwig, a hor...
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Ascending aorta dilatation

Dilatation of the ascending aorta is a common finding in the elderly but unusual in younger patients. Pathology In adults, an ascending aortic diameter greater than 4 cm is considered to indicate dilatation 4. Aneurysmal dilatation is considered when the ascending aortic diameter reaches or ex...
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Ascending aortic aneurysm

Ascending aortic aneurysms are the most common subtype of thoracic aortic aneurysms, and may be true or false injuries.  Epidemiology Ascending aortic aneurysms represent 60% of thoracic aortic aneurysms.  Clinical presentation Typically ascending aortic aneurysms are an incidental finding a...
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Ascending cervical artery

The ascending cervical artery is 1 of the 4 branches of the thyrocervical trunk (off the first part of the subclavian artery). It is a small artery that ascends medial to the phrenic nerve on the prevertebral fascia. It contributes many small spinal branches into the intervertebral foramina of ...
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Ascending colon

The ascending colon is the second part of the large bowel. Gross anatomy The ascending colon is the continuation of the caecum superior to the ileocaecal valve. It is secondarily retroperitoneal, although it has its own mesentery in approximately 25% of patients and is 15 cm in length 1,2. Th...
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Ascending lumbar communicant vein

The ascending lumbar communicant vein is a communication between the left ascending lumbar vein and the left renal vein. Because of its retroperitoneal location, when dilated, it may be mistaken for a lymph node on non-contrast studies with thick collimation. The image shows the left renal vein...
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Ascending lumbar vein

The ascending lumbar vein is a paired structure which forms a part of the venous drainage of the lumbar vertebral column. Summary location: near midline on the side of the vertebral column in the lumbar region origin and termination: continuation of the lateral sacral veins; joins the subcost...
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Ascending pharyngeal artery

The ascending pharyngeal artery, the smallest branch of the external carotid artery, is a long, slender vessel, deeply seated in the neck, beneath the other branches of the external carotid and under the stylopharyngeus. Summary origin: a branch of the external carotid artery course: vertical...
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Ascending ramus of the lateral sulcus

Ascending ramus of the lateral sulcus, is located at the anterior end of the lateral sulcus (sylvian fissure), just posterior to the anterior ramus, and passes superiorly into the inferior frontal gyrus separating the pars triangularis from the pars opercularis of the frontal operculum.  Termin...

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