Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

331 results found
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Mammography

Mammography is a dedicated radiographic technique for imaging the breast. Types of mammography In general terms, there are two types of mammography: screening and diagnostic. Mammography differs significantly in many respects from the rest of diagnostic imaging. Screening mammography  In ge...
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Fibroadenoma (breast)

Fibroadenoma is a common benign breast lesion and results from the excess proliferation of connective tissue. Fibroadenomas characteristically contain both stromal and epithelial cells.  Epidemiology They usually occur in women between the ages of 10 and 40 years. It is the most common breast ...
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Oil cyst (breast)

Oil cysts in breast imaging refer to benign breast lesions where an area of focal fat necrosis becomes walled off by fibrous tissue.  Epidemiology Occurs across all age and ethnic groups with a female predilection. Usually associated with blunt trauma, if present in males. Clinical presentati...
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Ultrasound guided breast biopsy

Ultrasound guided percutaneous breast biopsy is a widely used technique for an accurate histopathological assessment of suspected breast pathology. It is a fast, safe and economical procedure. Indications Ultrasound guidance is limited to lesions visible on ultrasound study. Biopsy is generall...
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Stereotactic breast biopsy

Stereotactic breast biopsy refers to percutaneous sampling of breast tissue using mammographic guidance for targeting. Indications It is the biopsy method of choice when the finding of interest is best seen on mammography, such as microcalcifications (most common), architectural distortion, or...
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Digital breast tomosynthesis

Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is an imaging technique that allows a volumetric reconstruction of the whole breast from a finite number of low-dose two-dimensional projections obtained by different X-ray tube angles, with a geometric principle very similar to that applied in stratigraphic te...
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Albert Salomon

Albert Salomon (1883-1976), a German surgeon, was the first physician to study x-rays of breast tissue. Early life To be completed. Development of mammography Salomon worked at the Royal Surgical University Clinic in Berlin and from about 1913 x-rayed 3000 breast specimens obtained from the...
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Ultrasound elastography

Ultrasound elastography, also called as sono-elastography, is a modern evolutionary method of sonographic imaging. Techniques include shear wave elastography (also known as transient elastography) and strain elastography (also known as static or compression elastography). These techniques assess...
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Breast hamartoma

Breast hamartomas, also known as fibroadenolipomas, are benign breast lesions. They are typified by a "breast within a breast" appearance on mammogram. Epidemiology They typically occur in women older than 35 years of age.  Clinical presentation Breast hamartomas most commonly are asymptomat...
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Lateral intercostal artery perforator (LICAP) reconstruction

Lateral intercostal artery perforator (LICAP) flap is a technique performed in breast reconstruction. It is considered suitable for some patients who have breast cancer in the outer part of the breast. It aims to replace lost breast tissue, fat and occasionally skin that is removed at the time o...
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Breast

The breast is an apocrine gland seen in both males and females. However, in females it has a specific function which is the production of milk. Gross anatomy Composition The breast has an inhomogeneous structure which is predominantly composed of adipose tissue and glandular tissue. In additi...
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Breast implants

Breast implants are increasingly common in general breast radiology practice. Classification Location Breast implants may be placed behind the glandular tissue but in front of the pectoral muscle: subglandular submammary retroglandular retromammary The second position of breast implants ...
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Craniocaudal view

The craniocaudal view (CC view), along with the MLO view, is one of the two standard projections in a screening mammography. It must show the medial part as well the external lateral portion of the breast as much as possible. A correctly performed CC projection may show the pectoral muscle on t...
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Axillary lymph nodes

The axillary lymph nodes, also known commonly as axillary nodes, are a group of lymph nodes in the axilla and receive lymph from vessels that drain the arm, the walls of the thorax, the breast and the upper walls of the abdomen. Gross anatomy There are five axillary lymph node groups, namely t...
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Breast imaging-reporting and data system (BI-RADS) assessment category 3

BI-RADS 3 is an intermediate category in the breast imaging reporting and data system. A finding placed in this category is considered probably benign, with a risk of malignancy between 0% and 2%. Terminology BI-RADS 3 should not be utilised in the screening setting. It should be reserved for ...
Article

Fistula

A fistula (plural: fistulae) is an abnormal connection between two epithelial surfaces such as between hollow organs, skin or vessels. Conventionally, the name of a specific fistula type is a combination of the two organs For discussions of specific fistulae please refer to individual articles....
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Invasive ductal carcinoma

Invasive ductal carcinoma not otherwise specified, also known as invasive carcinoma of no special type, is the most common type of breast cancer. It is an infiltrating, malignant and abnormal proliferation of neoplastic cells in the breast tissues. Terminology The latest (4th) edition of the W...
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Li-Fraumeni syndrome

Li-Fraumeni syndrome is a hereditary cancer syndrome due to mutations in the tumour suppressor gene TP53. Approximately half of affected individuals are thought to develop invasive cancer by 30 years of age 1. Associated malignancies sarcomas osteosarcoma rhabdomyosarcoma CNS tumours gliom...
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Metaplasia

Metaplasia is a general pathology term that refers to process when one cell type is replaced by another. It usually occurs in the context of a changed cellular environment to which the new cell type is better adapted 1. Examples include 2-5: Barrett oesophagus: normal squamous epithelium replac...
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Lymphoscintigraphy

Lymphoscintigraphy is a nuclear medicine technique to visualise regional lymphatic drainage, especially for mapping sentinel lymph nodes, from a site of radiopharmaceutical injection. Radiopharmaceutical Colloidal agents are used as these particles enter lymphatic channels and migrate to lymph...
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Sclerosing adenosis of the breast

Sclerosing adenosis (SA) is a benign proliferative condition of the terminal duct lobular units characterised by an increased number of acini and their glands. It manifests as multiple small, firm, tender nodules, fibrous tissue, and variable microcysts within the breast. It is sometimes placed ...
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Sentinel lymph node

The sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) are defined as those lymph nodes that directly drain a malignancy, or alternatively can be considered as the first node(s) that a tumour metastasises to. History and etymology "Sentinel node" as the initial draining node of a malignancy was first used in a paper...
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Adenosis of the breast

Adenosis of the breast is a benign lobulocentric proliferative process in which lobules are enlarged and increased in number in addition to an increased number of glands within each lobule. Pathologically subclassified into three main subtypes which include: sclerosing adenosis of the breast ...
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Breast architectural distortion

Breast architectural distortion is a descriptive term in breast imaging (mammography, ultrasound, and MRI) to indicate that the breast parenchyma is tethered or indented. The finding per se is not a mass. Pathology Architectural distortion is often due to a desmoplastic reaction in which there...
Article

Lactating adenoma

Lactating adenomas are benign breast tumours that typically occur in the peri-partum period, and are one of the most prevalent breast lesions during puerperium 4. Clinical presentation Lactating adenomas commonly present as painless breast masses late in pregnancy or in the postpartum period. ...
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Forbidden areas in mammography

In breast imaging, forbidden, check or review areas are zones that, according to Tabár, require special attention in mammographic interpretation. These are: on a mediolateral oblique (MLO) view the "milky way" (retromammary fat): a 3-4 cm wide band parallel to the edge of the pectoral muscle ...
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Grouped calcifications

The term grouped calcifications is used in mammography when relatively few breast microcalcifications reside within a small area. There must be at least five calcifications present within 1 cm of each other 3. At the most, it may refer to a larger number of calcifications present within 2 cm of ...
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Lymphatic drainage of the breast

Lymphatic drainage of breast originates from breast lobules and flows through intramammary nodes and channels into a subareolar plexus, called Sappey’s plexus. From this plexus, lymphatic drainage takes place through three main routes that parallel venous tributaries. Lymphatics from the left br...
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Unilateral axillary lymphadenopathy (differential)

Unilateral axillary lymphadenopathy while being more concerning than bilateral axillary lymphadenopathy can still arise from a variety of benign, as well as malignant, causes. Benign mastitis other regional infective causes tuberculosis ipsilateral arm infection, e.g. cellulitis silicone i...
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Metastatic intramammary lymph node

A metastatic intramammary lymph node refers to an intramammary lymph node involved with metastatic or malignant disease. Radiographic features Breast ultrasound Sonographic features that suggest metastatic involvement include 4: disappearance or loss of central echogenic hilar region marked...
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Supraclavicular lymph nodes

The supraclavicular lymph nodes (often shortened to the supraclavicular nodes) are a paired group of lymph nodes located on each side in the hollow superior to the clavicle, close to the sternoclavicular joint. It is the final common pathway of the lymphatic system as it joins the central venous...
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Intramammary lymph nodes

The intramammary lymph nodes (IMLN) (a.k.a. intramammary nodes) are lymph nodes within the breast tissue. In breast imaging, they generally fall into BIRADS II lesions 7. They can be solitary or multiple. This article discusses normal (physiological) intramammary lymph nodes. Epidemiology Intr...
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Rotter lymph nodes

Rotter lymph nodes (also known as interpectoral nodes) are lymph nodes located in the interpectoral fascia in Rotter space, between the pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles. Their number varies from one to four. They are usually considered to be a separate nodal group from the level I a...
Article

Free silicone breast injections

Free silicone breast injections (silicone mastopathy) are an alternative form of breast augmentation to breast implants, although they have serious adverse effects and are banned in many countries.  Radiographic features There are similar features to that of free silicone from breast implant r...
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Amorphous calcifications (breast)

Amorphous calcifications, previously known as indistinct calcifications, are a morphological descriptor for breast calcifications that are small and/or hazy such that no clearly defined shape/form can be ascribed.  Pathology Many benign and malignant conditions may be seen in association with ...
Article

Mammotome

MammotomeTM is the brand name for the first vacuum-assisted breast biopsy system. See the article on stereotactic breast biopsy for general discussion of the procedure.
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Breast imaging-reporting and data system (BI-RADS) assessment category 4

A BI-RADS 4 lesion under the breast imaging-reporting and data system refers to a suspicious abnormality. BI-RADS 4 lesions may not have the characteristic morphology of breast cancer but have a definite probability of being malignant. A biopsy is recommended for these lesions. If possible, the ...
Article

Global asymmetry in breast tissue

Global asymmetry in breast tissue is a form of breast asymmetry where at least one quadrant of a breast has a larger amount of fibroglandular density than the corresponding area in the contralateral breast. There is no mass, suspicious calcification, or architectural distortion. This can occur ...
Article

Asymmetry (mammography)

Asymmetries in mammography represents a spectrum of morphological descriptors for a unilateral fibroglandular-density finding seen on one or more mammographic projections that does not meet criteria for a mass. The term refers to a density finding and should not be confused with asymmetry in bre...
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Breast cancer metastases

Metastases from breast cancer can be a frequent finding in routine oncoradiological practice. Clinical presentation With the universal use and acceptance of screening mammography, the isolated clinical presentation from metastases from breast carcinoma has become rare in clinical practice. His...
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Breast cyst

Breast cysts are a common mammographic and sonographic finding, and can be of different types: simple breast cyst: typically is a well-defined, anechoic lesion with imperceptible wall and posterior acoustic enhancement 1 complicated breast cyst: contains intracystic echoes or debris with other...
Article

Brachytherapy

Brachytherapy, also known as sealed source radiotherapy or endocurietherapy, is a form of radiotherapy where a radioactive source is placed, under the guidance of imaging, within or next to the area requiring treatment. Brachytherapy has been used to treat: prostate cancer breast cancer (ofte...
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Borderline breast disease

Borderline breast disease (BBD) refers to a group of conditions while being not completely malignant are still concerning. Usually an excision biopsy is recommended if entities falling into borderline breast disease is detected on core biopsy. These entities include: atypical ductal hyperplasi...
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Abscess

Abscesses are focal confined collections of suppurative inflammatory material and can be thought of as having three components 1: a central core consisting of necrotic inflammatory cells and local tissue peripheral halo of viable neutrophils surrounded by a 'capsule' with dilated blood vessel...
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Plasma cell mastitis

Plasma cell mastitis is a benign breast condition which represents calcification of inspissated secretions in or immediately adjacent to ectatic benign ducts.  Epidemiology It is typically seen in older women (e.g. >60 years of age). Pathology It is thought to represent aseptic inflammation ...
Article

Contrast enhanced mammography

Contrast enhanced mammography (CEM) is a complementary breast imaging modality. A finite number of sequential images are obtained with X-ray beam produced at a high energy, above the K-edge of Iodine (33 KeV) 5, and with an intravenous non-ionic Iodine contrast agent injected between pre and pos...
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Background parenchymal enhancement (breast MRI)

Background parenchymal enhancement on breast MRI refers to the normal contrast enhancement of fibroglandular tissue. Epidemiology Background parenchymal enhancement is more common in younger patients with dense breasts 1,8. Reflecting hormonal influence, background enhancement is decreased aft...
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Nonmass enhancement (breast MRI)

Nonmass enhancement at breast MRI is defined in the BI-RADS lexicon as an area of enhancement that does not meet criteria for a mass, such as by having nonconvex borders or intervening fat or fibroglandular tissue between the enhancing components. Pathology Aetiology A wide variety of benign,...
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Breast lipoma

Breast lipomas are a benign breast lesion and is classified as a BIRADS II lesion. Clinical presentation Lipomas are mostly asymptomatic and coincidentally discovered on routine mammography. Patients may present with a painless palpable breast lump which is soft and mobile. In these cases the ...
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Prostate specific antigen

Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is currently used as a tumour marker for prostate adenocarcinoma. PSA is a 33 kilodalton glycoprotein produced in prostate epithelial cells. Its normal physiologic role is as a liquefying agent for seminal fluid; only a tiny amount leaks into the blood, therefore...
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RCR Breast Group breast imaging classification

The RCR Breast Group (RCRBG), a working group formed by the Royal College of Radiologists (RCR) in the United Kingdom,  published their standardised classification for breast imaging findings in 2009 1. The fourth edition was published in November 2019 2. This 5-point scale is used to classify t...
Article

Breast abscess

A breast abscess is a relatively rare but significant complication of mastitis that may occur during breastfeeding, particularly in primiparous women. The clinical context is a key to diagnosis as imaging appearances (particularly ultrasound) can mimic many other entities such as breast carcinom...
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Breast imaging-reporting and data system (BI-RADS) assessment category 2

BI-RADS 2 is a benign category in the breast imaging reporting and data system. A finding placed in this category should have a 100% chance of being benign.  Examples of such lesions or findings include: calcified fibroadenomas multiple secretory calcifications fat-containing lesions such as...
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Medical devices in the thorax

Medical devices in the thorax are regularly observed by radiologists when reviewing radiographs and CTs. Extrathoracic devices tubing, clamps, syringes lying on or under the patient rubber sheets, foam mattresses, clothing, hair braids, nipple piercings etc. may also be visible These devices...
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Simple breast cyst

Simple breast cysts are a common benign cause of a breast lump in women. Clinical presentation Patients may be asymptomatic or present with a breast lump. Some patients may have associated pain or tenderness. Pathology Breast cysts are caused by blockage of the terminal acini with resultant ...
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Mammary myofibroblastoma

Mammary myofibroblastoma is a rare, benign, circumscribed mesenchymal breast tumour.  Epidemiology It is the only breast tumour that occurs more commonly in males than females 2. It also has a tendency to occur more often in elderly males and postmenopausal women. Pathology It arises from th...
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Microinvasive carcinoma of the breast

Microinvasive carcinoma is a type of epithelial breast cancer in which microscopic foci of tumour cells infiltrate the breast stroma. Pathology Microinvasive carcinoma is defined histologically as one or more clearly separate foci of tumour cells ≤1 mm in size infiltrating the mammary stroma 1...
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Premature thelarche

Premature thelarche refers to onset of female breast development before age 7–8 years. As with age-appropriate thelarche, premature thelarche may be asymmetric or unilateral.  Premature thelarche may occur as an isolated event or as part of precocious puberty. Isolated premature thelarche gener...
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Breast density

Breast density refers to the amount of fibroglandular tissue in a breast relative to fat. It can significantly vary between individuals and within individuals over a lifetime. Classification There are four descriptors for breast density on mammography in the 5th edition of BI-RADS 1,2: a: the...
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Breast imaging-reporting and data system (BI-RADS)

BI-RADS (Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System) is a risk assessment and quality assurance tool developed by American College of Radiology that provides a widely accepted lexicon and reporting schema for imaging of the breast. It applies to mammography, ultrasound, and MRI. This article refle...
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Breast imaging-reporting and data system (BI-RADS) assessment category 5

BI-RADS 5 lesions under the BI-RADS (breast imaging reporting and data system) refer to breast lesions that are highly suspicious for malignancy, requiring appropriate action to be taken (i.e. biopsy and management as appropriate). BI-RADS 5 lesions have the characteristic morphology of breast c...
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Vascular calcification in breast

Vascular calcifications in the breast are calcifications associated with blood vessels.   Epidemiology They are most often seen in postmenopausal women with arteriosclerotic heart disease.  Pathology Results due to calcified atherosclerotic plaques in the arterial walls. Associations coron...
Article

Ductal carcinoma in situ

Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) refers to a breast carcinoma limited to the ducts with no extension beyond the basement membrane, as a result of which the disease has not infiltrated the parenchyma of the breast and the lymphatics and cannot therefore metastasise. Epidemiology The detection of...
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Benign and malignant characteristics of breast lesions at ultrasound

Benign and malignant characteristics of breast lesions at ultrasound allow the classification as either malignant, intermediate or benign based on work published by Stavros et al. in 1995. Radiographic features Ultrasound Malignant characteristics (with positive predictive values) sonographi...
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Snowstorm sign (extracapsular breast implant rupture)

Snowstorm sign on breast ultrasound imaging represents the presence of free silicone droplets mixed with breast tissue giving a characteristic heterogeneous echogenic appearance with dispersion of the ultrasound beam. It is considered the most reliable sign of extracapsular breast implant ruptur...
Article

Breast implant rupture

Breast implant ruptures are a recognised complication of a breast implant. It can be intracapsular, when confined by the surrounding fibrous capsule, or extracapsular, when silicone freely extravasates.  Pathology After implantation of a silicone or saline breast implant, a fibrous capsule (sc...
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WHO classification of tumours of the breast

The World Health Organisation classification of tumours of the breast is the most widely used pathologic classification system for such disorders. The current revision, part of the 4th edition of the WHO series, was published in 2012 and is reflected in the article below 1. Classification Epit...
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5-tier ACR system of radiologic breast findings

The 5-tier ACR system was a previously used system for classification of radiologic breast findings, proposed by the American College of Radiology (ACR). It is no longer in widespread use, having been gradually superseded by the 6-tier BI-RADS classification system first published in 1992. Inter...
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Breast imaging-reporting and data system (BI-RADS) assessment category 0

BI-RADS 0 is one of seven categories from the breast imaging-reporting and data system and is used when imaging is incomplete such as: when further imaging or information is required, e.g. compression, magnification, special mammographic views, ultrasound when requesting previous images not av...
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Breast imaging-reporting and data system (BI-RADS) assessment category 6

BI-RADS 6 is an assessment category of the ACR (American College of Radiology) BI-RADS system. Patients with biopsy-proven cancer prior to definitive therapy would be category 6.
Article

Gynaecomastia

Gynaecomastia refers to a benign excess of the male breast tissue, that is usually reversible. It is not a risk factor per se for developing male breast cancer. Epidemiology While it can occur at any age, it tends to have greater prevalence in two groups: adolescent boys and older men (some pu...
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Pseudogynaecomastia

Pseudogynaecomastia refers to breast enlargement in men primarily due to fatty tissue but with no associated glandular or stromal tissue. Differential diagnosis gynaecomastia
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Breast MRI

Breast MRI is the most sensitive method for detection of breast cancer. Depending on international health regulations, it is either applied for screening of women at high risk for developing breast cancer (e.g. BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers), as an additional diagnostic test in pretherapeutic breast ...
Article

Skin thickening on mammography (differential)

The presence of skin thickening on mammography is variably defined, usually being more than 2 mm in thickness. It can result from a number of both benign and malignant causes. They include: Malignant inflammatory breast cancer: one of the most concerning causes of skin thickening: this usually...
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Screening for breast cancer

Screening for breast cancer includes activities which test members of asymptomatic populations for breast cancer. Many advanced countries have breast screening programs. The most widely adopted method for breast cancer screening is mammography. There are few areas in imaging fraught with more c...
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Breast screening programmes

Breast screening programs are programs where mammography or other screening methods are carried out in populations of asymptomatic women for the improved detection of breast cancer. Such programs vary widely from country to country. The WHO recommends implementing different programs based on th...
Article

Granular cell tumour

Granular cell tumours (GrCTs) are uncommon soft tissue tumours with the vast majority being benign (approximately 0.5-2.0% have been reported as malignant).  Pathology They are often classified as benign or malignant using the Fanburg-Smith criteria (especially for soft tissue lesion) 3,4.  T...
Article

Breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma

Breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL) is a rare form of T-cell primary breast lymphoma that has primarily been associated with textured breast implants.  Epidemiology The entity is rare, with a reported prevalence of between 0.3 in 100,000 to 1 in 1,000 women with...
Article

Accessory breast tissue

Accessory breast tissue is a relatively common congenital condition in which abnormal accessory breast tissue is seen in addition to the presence of normal breast tissue. This normal variant can present as a mass anywhere along the course of the embryologic mammary streak (axilla to the inguinal...
Article

Nipple markers

Nipple markers can be a useful technique in the evaluation of small radiodensities overlying the expected position of the nipple on a chest radiograph. Not uncommonly a small round opacity projects over the lower thorax on a chest radiograph (see: solitary pulmonary nodule). Often, especially i...
Article

Giant fibroadenoma

Giant fibroadenomas are fibroadenomas weighing more than 500 grams or measuring >5 cm in size 2. Please refer to fibroadenoma article for further details. Epidemiology They are usually encountered in pregnant or lactating women. Clinical presentation The typical presentation is in a woman w...
Article

Breast ductography

Breast ductography (a.k.a. galactography) is an imaging technique which is used to evaluate lesions causing nipple discharge. It helps in precisely locating the mass within breast tissue and gives useful information for surgical approach and planning. Technique A blunt-tipped sialogram needle ...
Article

Well-defined breast cancers (differential)

Certain well-defined breast cancers tend to lack the characteristic spiculation and can give false reassurance of more benign entities on both ultrasound and mammography. These include: certain high grade invasive ductal carcinomas: not enough time for a desmoplastic reaction to form spiculatio...
Article

Breast within a breast sign

The breast within a breast sign refers to the common mammographic appearance of breast hamartomas (fibroadenolipomas). Since these benign lesions are well-circumscribed and contain a mixture of fibrous, glandular and fatty tissue (just like normal breast), it is not surprising that they appear v...
Article

Labelled imaging anatomy cases

This article lists a series of labelled imaging anatomy cases by system and modality. Brain CT head: non-contrast axial CT head: non-contrast coronal CT head: non-contrast sagittal CT head: angiogram axial CT head: angiogram coronal CT head: angiogram sagittal CT head: venogram axial CT...
Article

Poland syndrome

Poland syndrome refers to a congenital unilateral absence of the pectoralis major and minor muscles and is a recognised cause of unilateral hyperlucent hemithorax.  Epidemiology Poland syndrome is usually sporadic, although rare familial cases have been described 1. It is rare, with an estimat...
Article

Cowden syndrome

Cowden syndrome, also known as multiple hamartoma syndrome, is characterised by multiple hamartomas throughout the body and increased risk of several cancers. Terminology Type 2 segmental Cowden syndrome is the association of Cowden syndrome with a Cowden naevus when it is considered a type of...
Article

Pectoralis major muscle

The pectoralis major muscle is a muscle of the pectoral region, overlying the anterior chest wall but is considered an upper limb muscle due to its function.  Summary origin sternal part: sternum and superior six costal cartilages clavicular part: medial half of the clavicle insertion: late...
Article

Sternalis muscle

The sternalis muscle is an uncommon anatomic variant of the chest wall musculature and is of uncertain aetiology and function. Its importance lies in that it should not be mistaken for a pathological lesion.  Epidemiology Cadaveric studies have shown that the muscle is present in ~5% (range 1-...
Article

Latissmus dorsi myocutaneous flap

A latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap is a form of breast reconstruction that transplants the patient’s own muscle, fat, and skin from the middle back to the chest to form a breast mound. Advantages This flap is more easily created and contains a robust vascular supply compared to other flaps s...
Article

Automated full-field volumetric ultrasound

An automatic full-field volumetric breast ultrasound scanner (AFFBUS) is a developing technology which was initiated to overcome the drawback of dense breast and to get a three-dimensional view of the breast.  Components scan station view station Scan station Automatic ultrasound imaging ac...
Article

Breast cancer (staging)

Breast cancer staging refers to TNM classification of breast carcinomas. The system applies to epithelial malignancies and does not apply to breast sarcomas, phyllodes tumour, or breast lymphomas. The following article reflects the 8th edition manual published by the American Joint Committee on ...
Article

Breast cancer (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Breast cancer is the commonest malignancy in female patients. Reference article This is a summary article; read more in our article on breast cancer. Summary epidemiology 1 in 4 cancer deaths in women worldwide 1 In A...

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