Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

330 results found
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Coarse macrocalcifications within the breast

Coarse macrocalcifications within the breast are a morphological descriptive term for a type of breast calcification.  Associations   involuting fibroadenomas ( classical popcorn calcification ) chronic renal disease with hypercalcaemia 1  rarely seen in malignancy  2 invasive breast carci...
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Columnar alteration with prominent apical snouts and secretions

Columnar alteration with prominent apical snouts and secretions (CAPSS) is a pathological entity encountered when breast biopsies are done for investigation of punctate or amorphous calcifications. CAPSS involves the terminal ductal and lobular units (TDLU's). It is sometimes classified under t...
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Columnar cell lesions (breast)

Columnar cell lesions of the breast comprise a wide range of breast lesions which are commonly characterised by columnar cells lining the terminal ductal and lobular unit. These range from lesions that show little or no cytologic or architectural atypia to those that show sufficient cytologic an...
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Comedo type ductal carcinoma in situ

A comedo-type ductal carcinoma in situ, also known as comedocarcinoma in situ is the high grade subtype of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).  It completely fills and dilates the ducts and lobules in TDLU with plugs of high grade tumour cells with central necrosis "comedonecrosis".  It is the mos...
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Common calcifying metastases (mnemonic)

A simple mnemonic to recall a list of commonly calcifying metastases is: BOTOM Mnemonic B: breast cancer O: osteosarcoma T: papillary thyroid cancer O: ovarian cancer (especially mucinous) M: mucinous adenocarcinoma (especially colorectal carcinoma)
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Complex breast cyst

A complex breast cyst is a morphological type of breast cyst along with simple breast cysts and complicated breast cysts. The current preferred term for complex breast cysts is solid and cystic mass to avoid confusion with a complicated cyst. Radiographic features Breast ultrasound The presen...
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Complex fibroadenoma

Complex fibroadenoma is a sub type of fibroadenoma harbouring one or more of the following features: epithelial calcifications papillary apocrine metaplasia sclerosing adenosis and  cysts larger than 3 mm Epidemiology Complex fibroadenomas tend to occur in older patients (median age, 47 ye...
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Complicated breast cyst

Complicated breast cysts are one of the cystic breast lesions that show intracystic debris which may imitate a solid mass appearance. They should be carefully differentiated from a complex cyst and may require alternative management 3. Radiographic features Ultrasound thin wall with or withou...
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Conditions involving the nipple-areolar complex

The nipple areolar complex is a major anatomic landmark of the breast. It may be affected by variation in its embryological development, breast maturation and also by other benign and malignant conditions. Variant anatomy amazia polythelia nipple retraction or inversion enlarged nipple Ben...
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Contrast enhanced mammography

Contrast enhanced mammography (CEM) is a complementary breast imaging modality. A finite number of sequential images are obtained with X-ray beam produced at a high energy, above the K-edge of Iodine (33 KeV) 5, and with an intravenous non-ionic Iodine contrast agent injected between pre and pos...
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Cooper ligament

Cooper ligaments are the fibrous connections between the inner side of the breast skin and the pectoral muscles. Working in conjunction with the fatty tissues and the more fibrous lobular tissues, they are largely responsible for maintaining the shape and configuration of the breast. They play a...
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Cowden syndrome

Cowden syndrome, also known as multiple hamartoma syndrome, is characterised by multiple hamartomas throughout the body and increased risk of several cancers. Terminology Type 2 segmental Cowden syndrome is the association of Cowden syndrome with a Cowden naevus when it is considered a type of...
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Craniocaudal view

The craniocaudal view (CC view), along with the MLO view, is one of the two standard projections in a screening mammography. It must show the medial part as well the external lateral portion of the breast as much as possible. A correctly performed CC projection may show the pectoral muscle on t...
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Crests of Duret

The crests of Duret attach the most numerous superficial breast lobes by their summit to the superficial layer of fascia. The deepest crests connect the anterior lobes to the deep layer through the Cooper's ligament. Breast lobe groups about one hundred lobules separated by interlobular connect...
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Cutaneous calcifications in breast imaging

Cutaneous calcifications in breast imaging can form in dermal sweat glands after low grade folliculitis and inspissation of sebaceous material. Calcifications may also form in moles and other skin lesions. The vast majority of calcifications are coincidental findings on mammography. Radiographi...
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Cystic breast mass

A cystic breast mass is a mass that contains both solid and fluid components. This can occur from both benign and malignant causes. Benign complex breast haematoma complex breast abscess breast cyst with associated inflammation and haemorrhage galactocoele fibrocystic changes and oil cysts...
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Cystic hyperplasia of the breast

Cystic hyperplasia of the breast is a benign breast condition which is considered part of fibrocystic changes.  Pathology There is usually greater unfolding and enlargement of ductules with formation of microcysts.  Radiographic features Mammography If associated with secretion of calcium s...
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Deep inferior epigastric perforator flap reconstruction

Deep inferior epigastric perforator flap (DIEP) reconstruction is a type of breast reconstruction surgery. It essentially involves the transfer of the patient's own skin and subcutaneous tissues from the lower abdominal wall to the chest to form the breast mound. Advantages The operation spare...
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Diabetic mastopathy

Diabetic mastopathy is a condition characterised by the presence of a benign tumour like breast masses in women with long-standing type 1 or type 2 insulin-dependant diabetes mellitus. The condition has also been reported in men. A similar condition is lymphocytic mastitis but this occurs in non...
Article

Digital breast tomosynthesis

Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is an imaging technique that allows a volumetric reconstruction of the whole breast from a finite number of low-dose two-dimensional projections obtained by different X-ray tube angles, with a geometric principle very similar to that applied in stratigraphic te...
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Dilated ducts on breast imaging (differential)

Dilated ducts on breast imaging may be seen on many breast imaging modalities and can arise from a number of causes which can be both benign or malignant. physiological lactational changes mammary duct ectasia breast neoplasm 2-3
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Dilated mammary veins (differential)

Dilated mammary veins can result from many pathologies. These include: as a secondary but non specific sign of breast malignancy 1 ipsilateral subclavian venous obstruction SVC obstruction Mondor disease: can be dilated as well as being thrombosed
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Double spot compression view

A double spot compression view is obtained by focal compression of both sides of the breast to produce higher spatial and contrast resolution. This is made possible due to the increased amount of breast thinning and a significant decreased incidence of blurring because of decreased exposure time...
Article

Dual-energy mammography

Dual-energy digital mammography is a complementary breast imaging modality. The technique consists of high-energy and low-energy digital mammograms after administration of iodinated contrast agent. Breast is exposed to low- and high-energy x-ray beams during a single breast compression in MLO ...
Article

Ductal adenoma of the breast

A ductal adenoma of the breast is a benign glandular tumour of the breast that usually fills and distends the ductal lumen. Epidemiology They may occur in women of all ages, although the majority of patients are 60 years of age or greater 3. Clinical presentation Ductal adenomas usually pres...
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Ductal carcinoma in situ

Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) refers to a breast carcinoma limited to the ducts with no extension beyond the basement membrane, as a result of which the disease has not infiltrated the parenchyma of the breast and the lymphatics and cannot therefore metastasise. Epidemiology The detection of...
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Dystrophic calcification within the breast

Dystrophic calcifications within the breast are usually seen as small macrocalcifications with relatively smooth margins. Pathology They are generally considered benign and can occur in a number of situations which include: evolving mammary fat necrosis post reduction mammoplasty 2 post tra...
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Eggshell calcification (breast)

Eggshell calcifications in the breast are benign peripheral rim like calcifications Pathology They are typically secondary to fat necrosis or calcification of oil cysts. Radiographic features thin rim-like calcification (<1 mm in thickness) lucent centres small to several centimetres in di...
Article

Eklund technique

Eklund modified compression technique is a technique which can be used for patients with augmented or reconstructed breasts post mastectomy.  Technique It consists of posterosuperior displacement of the implants simultaneously to an anterior traction of the breast, pushing the implants towards...
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Elevated craniocaudal projection

Elevated craniocaudal projection is an additional trouble shooting view. Technique direct beam superiorly to inferiroly face patient towards unit, feet forward lean patient inward, relaxing the shoulders bring inferior aspect of breast onto the image receptor pull breast outward and forwar...
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Extensive intraductal component (invasive ductal carcinoma)

Extensive intraductal component (EIC) in breast imaging evaluation is the pathological description where an invasive ductal carcinoma has a prominent intraductal component within it or if there is intraductal carcinoma, DCIS is present within sections of normal adjacent tissue. It is sometimes c...
Article

Fat containing breast lesions

Fat containing breast lesions generally have some radiolucent component on mammography. Pathology They are generally classified at BIRADS II lesions. Common breast lipoma breast hamartoma fat necrosis within the breast/oil cyst intramammary lymph node: classically has a central fatty hilu...
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Fat necrosis (breast)

Fat necrosis within the breast is a pathological process that occurs when there is saponification of local fat. It is a benign inflammatory process and is becoming increasingly common with the greater use of breast conserving surgery and mammoplasty procedures. Epidemiology Most at risk are mi...
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Fibroadenoma (breast)

Fibroadenoma is a common benign breast lesion and results from the excess proliferation of connective tissue. Fibroadenomas characteristically contain both stromal and epithelial cells.  Epidemiology They usually occur in women between the ages of 10 and 40 years. It is the most common breast ...
Article

Fibrocystic change (breast)

Fibrocystic change of the breast (also known as diffuse cystic mastopathy) is a benign alteration in the terminal ductal lobular unit of the breast with or without associated fibrosis. It is seen as a wide spectrum of altered morphology in the female breast from innocuous to those associated wit...
Article

Fibromatosis of the breast

Fibromatosis of the breast (also known as an extra-abdominal desmoid tumour of the breast or mammary fibromatosis 4) is considered as a type of rare breast tumour. It is a non-metastasising benign but locally invasive stromal tumour 4. However, it can mimic more sinister types of breast cancer o...
Article

Fibrosarcoma of the breast

Fibrosarcoma of the breast is a type of malignant stromal sarcoma that rarely occurs as a primary tumour within the breast.  Pathology A fibrosarcoma is composed of immature mesenchymal elements surrounded by a collagenous substance. It is a type of breast sarcoma with a predominant “herringbo...
Article

Filariasis

Filariasis refers to infection with nematodes (roundworms) of the family Filarioidea. There are three species of these thread-like filarial worms: Wuchereria bancrofti: responsible for 90% of cases Brugia malayi: causes most of the remainder of cases Brugia timori: an uncommon cause It can a...
Article

Fistula

A fistula (plural: fistulae) is an abnormal connection between two epithelial surfaces such as between hollow organs, skin or vessels. Conventionally, the name of a specific fistula type is a combination of the two organs For discussions of specific fistulae please refer to individual articles....
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Flying focus tomosynthesis

Flying focus is a technology of image acquisition in digital breast tomosynthesis characterised by a continuous sweep during shooting. Sharpness in digital systems is determined by the modulation transfer function (MTF), which determine contrast transfer as a function of spatial frequency. Sin...
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Focal fibrosis of the breast

Focal fibrosis of the breast (FFB) is a benign entity characterised by abundant connective tissue separating intervening ducts and lobules, which are often atrophic. There is obliteration of the mammary acini and ducts by hypocellular fibrous tissue which results in a localised area of fibrous t...
Article

Focus (breast MRI)

A focus in the context of breast MRI using the BI-RADS lexicon refers to a unique enhancing dot that is too small to characterise further morphologically as a mass or nonmass enhancement. Usually, a focus is smaller than 5 mm. Radiographic appearance MRI T1 C-: no corresponding finding; possi...
Article

Foramen of Langer

The foramen of Langer is a defect in the deep pectoralis fascia. It is a defect at the level of the third intercostal space, through which the upper lateral portion of the breast extends into the axilla forming the axillary tail of Spence.
Article

Forbidden areas in mammography

In breast imaging, forbidden, check or review areas are zones that, according to Tabár, require special attention in mammographic interpretation. These are: on a mediolateral oblique (MLO) view the "milky way" (retromammary fat): a 3-4 cm wide band parallel to the edge of the pectoral muscle ...
Article

Free silicone breast injections

Free silicone breast injections (silicone mastopathy) are an alternative form of breast augmentation to breast implants, although they have serious adverse effects and are banned in many countries.  Radiographic features There are similar features to that of free silicone from breast implant r...
Article

Frontal oblique approach mammography

Background Mammographic technique is very important to obtain diagnostic mammograms, to reduce the number of false negatives and to increase the sensitivity of the procedure. As widely noted in literature, most breast pathology occurs in the upper outer quadrant and is very important that this ...
Article

Galactocele

Galactoceles, also referred as lactoceles, are the most common benign breast lesion typically occurring in young lactating women; however, they mostly happen on cessation of lactation 1.  Clinical presentation Patients usually present with a painless breast lump occurring over weeks to months....
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Gel bleed in breast implants

Gel bleed is a phenomenon associated with silicone breast implants. Pathology Gel bleed refers to microscopic diffusion of silicone gel through the breast implant elastomer shell. The implant shell, made of silicone, is a semipermeable membrane that allows for the egress or bleed of silicone n...
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Gestational and secretory hyperplasia

Gestational and secretory hyperplasia are pregnancy and lactation related physiological changes occurring in breast tissues. Pathology The normal physiology of pregnancy causes a lobular enlargement of terminal duct lobular units along with formation of new ones during the second month of gest...
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Giant breast masses

Many patients, particularly in developing countries, can present late with giant breast masses. They may be single or multiple and either benign or malignant. Many of these conditions are indistinguishable on physical examination alone. Some of these lesions require mastectomy while others can b...
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Giant fibroadenoma

Giant fibroadenomas are fibroadenomas weighing more than 500 grams or measuring >5 cm in size 2. Please refer to fibroadenoma article for further details. Epidemiology They are usually encountered in pregnant or lactating women. Clinical presentation The typical presentation is in a woman w...
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Gigantomastia

Gigantomastia (also known as macromastia or mammomegaly) is the term employed when there is massive breast enlargement. It is often associated with pregnancy. It may be rarely unilateral. Gigantomastia is a very common condition characterised by proliferation of either breast fatty tissue or gl...
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Global asymmetry in breast tissue

Global asymmetry in breast tissue is a form of breast asymmetry where at least one quadrant of a breast has a larger amount of fibroglandular density than the corresponding area in the contralateral breast. There is no mass, suspicious calcification, or architectural distortion. This can occur ...
Article

Granular cell tumour

Granular cell tumours (GrCTs) are uncommon soft tissue tumours with the vast majority being benign (approximately 0.5-2.0% have been reported as malignant).  Pathology They are often classified as benign or malignant using the Fanburg-Smith criteria (especially for soft tissue lesion) 3,4.  T...
Article

Granular cell tumour of the breast

A granular cell tumour (GrCT) of the breast is an uncommon, usually benign tumour which is possibly of neural origin. Epidemiology They tend to occur at a younger age than other types of breast cancer 4. The age range of presentation, however, can be very variable although they occur more comm...
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Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (breast manifestations)

Breast involvement in granulomatosis with polyangiitis is seen in patients with avid systemic manifestations.  Clinical presentation Clinically they can mimic carcinoma as a palpable, tender mass. Pathology Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (or formerly known as Wegeners granulomatosis) is a ...
Article

Granulomatous mastitis

Granulomatous mastitis is a very rare breast inflammatory disease of unknown origin that can clinically mimic carcinoma of the breast. Clinical presentation The condition generally manifests as a distinct, firm to hard mass that may involve any part of the breast. The subareolar regions may be...
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Grouped calcifications

The term grouped calcifications is used in mammography when relatively few breast microcalcifications reside within a small area. There must be at least five calcifications present within 1 cm of each other 3. At the most, it may refer to a larger number of calcifications present within 2 cm of ...
Article

Gynaecomastia

Gynaecomastia refers to a benign excess of the male breast tissue, that is usually reversible. It is not a risk factor per se for developing male breast cancer. Epidemiology While it can occur at any age, it tends to have greater prevalence in two groups: adolescent boys and older men (some pu...
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Gynaecomastia causes (mnemonic)

Mnemonic for the causes of gynaecomastia: CODES Mnemonic C: cirrhosis O: obesity D: digoxin E: oestrogen S: spironolactone
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Halo sign (breast)

Halo sign in mammography refers to a radiolucent rim (halo) around a lesion and is generally but not always indicative of a benign breast lesion. Exceptions include intracystic carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, and carcinoma arising within a fibroadenoma. See also halo sign (chest) halo sign (u...
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Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome

Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) syndrome is caused by a mutation to either BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. These patients have an increased risk of breast cancer, ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer and prostate cancer. However, these gene mutations are not the only cause of hereditary breast ca...
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High risk breast lesion

The term high-risk breast lesion is given to a breast lesion that carries an increased risk for the future development of breast cancer or carries suspicion of a more sinister pathology around or in association with the lesion. The term has some overlap with borderline breast disease. Many radio...
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History of breast augmentation

Breast augmentation (also known as augmentation mammaplasty) for cosmetic enlargement has been performed for well over a century. Below is a brief summary of its history.  Breast augmentation was first attempted in the 19th century, when in 1895, Czerny transplanted a patient’s lipoma to her br...
Article

Hyperechoic breast lesions

There are a number of lesions that appear hyperechoic on ultrasound. Such lesions can be either completely or partly hyperechoic and include both benign and malignant entities. Benign fat containing breast lesions lipoma of the breast fibroadenolipoma (hamartoma) of the breast focal regions...
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Inferomedial superolateral oblique projection

Inferomedial superolateral oblique projection is useful for stereotactic biopsy positioning. This projection allows access to the inferior aspect of the breast to achieve shortest skin to abnormality distance. It is also useful in the nonconforming patient. Technique Rotate C arm to about 125°...
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Infiltrating syringomatous adenoma of the nipple

Infiltrating syringomatous adenoma of the nipple is a relatively rare, benign dermal neoplasm of the areola and nipple. Clinical presentation Syringomatous adenomas of the nipple usually present as unilateral 1 to 3 cm firm lesion in the subareolar or nipple region of the breast. Tenderness, i...
Article

Inflammatory carcinoma of the breast

Inflammatory carcinomas of the breast, also referred to as inflammatory breast cancers, are a relatively uncommon but aggressive form of invasive breast carcinoma with a characteristic clinical presentation and unique radiographic appearances.  Epidemiology   Inflammatory carcinomas account fo...
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Inframammary fold

The inframammary fold is the anatomical boundary formed at the inferior border of the breast, where it joins with the chest. In mammography, it is an important landmark to identify on the mediolateral oblique view to assess image quality.
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Interval breast cancer

Interval breast cancer is a term given to cancers detected/presenting within 12 months after a mammographic screening in which findings are considered normal 2. The term is a statistical benchmark used in conjunction with other parameters to assess the efficacy of breast imaging programmes and t...
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Intracystic carcinoma (breast)

Intracystic carcinoma of the breast refers to a breast cancer located within a cyst.  Epidemiology They represent ~0.2-1.3% of all breast cancers. Pathology Often they tend to represent papillary breast cancer 2: intracystic papillary breast carcinoma (ICPC) cystic degeneration of ductal c...
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Intracystic papillary carcinoma (breast)

An intracystic papillary carcinoma of the breast is a type of papillary carcinoma of the breast. It accounts for a significant proportion of intracystic breast cancers. Epidemiology As with papillary carcinomas in general, it tends to occur in postmenopausal women. Pathology Pathologically, ...
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Intraductal papilloma of breast

Intraductal papillomas are the most common masses within the milk ducts of the breast. They are benign tumours, but may contain areas of atypical or carcinoma. The most common symptom is nipple discharge. Epidemiology sex almost exclusively in women extremely rare in males 9 age classicall...
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Intramammary lymph nodes

The intramammary lymph nodes (IMLN) (a.k.a. intramammary nodes) are lymph nodes within the breast tissue. In breast imaging, they generally fall into BIRADS II lesions 7. They can be solitary or multiple. This article discusses normal (physiological) intramammary lymph nodes. Epidemiology Intr...
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Invasive ductal carcinoma

Invasive ductal carcinoma not otherwise specified, also known as invasive carcinoma of no special type, is the most common type of breast cancer. It is an infiltrating, malignant and abnormal proliferation of neoplastic cells in the breast tissues. Terminology The latest (4th) edition of the W...
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Invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast

Invasive lobular carcinoma is the most common special type of invasive breast cancer after invasive breast carcinoma of no special type (invasive ductal carcinoma not otherwise specified). Epidemiology They represent 5-10% of all breast cancer. Associations There is a greater rate of contral...
Article

Juvenile fibroadenoma (breast)

A juvenile fibroadenoma of the breast is a term given to a fibroadenoma presenting in children or adolescents. These may account for ~0.5-2% of all fibroadenomas, and are rapidly-growing masses that cause asymmetry of the breast, distortion of the overlying skin, and stretching of the nipple. 1...
Article

Juvenile papillomatosis of the breast

Juvenile papillomatosis (JP) of the breast is a relatively common benign localised proliferative lesion in the breast. Epidemiology As the name implies, it is mainly seen in young women (mean age ~19-23 years 4,6) and is unusual in women over 30 years old. Clinical presentation Patients pres...
Article

Kaiser score: breast MRI classification flowchart

The Kaiser score is an evidence-based clinical decision rule to distinguish benign from malignant lesions in breast MRI. It incorporates five BI-RADS descriptors: spiculations suspicious protrusion from the lesion surface that has concave lateral aspects this includes classical spiculations, ...
Article

Keyhole sign (intracapsular breast implant rupture)

The keyhole or noose sign indicates an uncollapsed intracapsular breast implant rupture seen as the focal invagination of the implant shell caused by a small concealed leak of silicone outside shell where the two membranes do not contact each other. It is best appreciated by MRI. Differential d...
Article

Labelled imaging anatomy cases

This article lists a series of labelled imaging anatomy cases by system and modality. Brain CT head: non-contrast axial CT head: non-contrast coronal CT head: non-contrast sagittal CT head: angiogram axial CT head: angiogram coronal CT head: angiogram sagittal CT head: venogram axial CT...
Article

Lactating adenoma

Lactating adenomas are benign breast tumours that typically occur in the peri-partum period, and are one of the most prevalent breast lesions during puerperium 4. Clinical presentation Lactating adenomas commonly present as painless breast masses late in pregnancy or in the postpartum period. ...
Article

Large rod like breast calcification

Large rod like calcifications are benign calcifications seen within ectatic ducts. Pathology Associations plasma cell mastitis Radiographic features >1 mm in diameter may have lucent centres (if calcium is only in walls of ducts) branching pattern may be seen radiation towards the nipple...
Article

Late mediolateral view

A late mediolateral projection is an additional view that can be used whenever,in the presence of rounded calcifications of probable intracystic nature, the standard ML view does not allow the recognition of the characteristic tea cups appearance due to the density of milk of calcium. A second ...
Article

Lateral intercostal artery perforator (LICAP) reconstruction

Lateral intercostal artery perforator (LICAP) flap is a technique performed in breast reconstruction. It is considered suitable for some patients who have breast cancer in the outer part of the breast. It aims to replace lost breast tissue, fat and occasionally skin that is removed at the time o...
Article

Lateral view

The lateral view is an additional view obtained at virtually every diagnostic evaluation. A lateral view may be obtained as a mediolateral view (ML) or lateromedial view (LM) view depending on where the imaging tube and detector are located. Technique for an ML view, the tube emitting the x-ra...
Article

Lateromedial oblique view

A lateral-medial oblique (LMO) view is a type of supplementary mammographic view.  The advantage of performing the lateromedial view is to depict lesions located far medio-posteriorly visible on the CC view only, or to depict palpable lesions in the inner quadrant not seen on mammography. This...
Article

Lateromedial view

The lateromedial view (or LM view) is a supplementary mammographic view where the bucky is placed up against the sternum and the and film is taken in a true lateral projection. This view allows the medial breast to be closest to the film. This view allows the medial breast to be more carefully e...
Article

Latissmus dorsi myocutaneous flap

A latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap is a form of breast reconstruction that transplants the patient’s own muscle, fat, and skin from the middle back to the chest to form a breast mound. Advantages This flap is more easily created and contains a robust vascular supply compared to other flaps s...
Article

Li-Fraumeni syndrome

Li-Fraumeni syndrome is a hereditary cancer syndrome due to mutations in the tumour suppressor gene TP53. Approximately half of affected individuals are thought to develop invasive cancer by 30 years of age 1. Associated malignancies sarcomas osteosarcoma rhabdomyosarcoma CNS tumours gliom...
Article

Linguine sign (breast)

Linguine sign is one of the imaging signs of intracapsular rupture of a breast implant. After implantation of a silicone or saline breast implant, a fibrous capsule (scar) forms around the implant shell. In an intracapsular rupture, the contents of the implant are contained by the fibrous scar,...
Article

Liponecrosis in breast

Liponecrosis in breast refers to areas of mammary fat necrosis with associated dystrophic calcification. It is further divided into: liponecrosis microcystica calcificans: <3 mm liponecrosis macrocystica calcificans: >3 mm Radiographic features Mammography Mammographic features are radioluc...
Article

Lobular breast carcinoma

Lobular breast carcinoma is a subtype of breast cancer can range from lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) to invasive lobular carcinoma. Pathology Multicentricity and bilaterality tend to be quite common with lobular breast carcinomas.

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