Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

300 results found
Article

Ductal carcinoma in situ

Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) refers to a breast carcinoma limited to the ducts with no extension beyond the basement membrane, as a result of which the disease has not infiltrated the parenchyma of the breast and the lymphatics and cannot therefore metastasise. Epidemiology The detection of...
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Ductal adenoma of the breast

A ductal adenoma of the breast is a benign glandular tumour of the breast that usually fills and distends the ductal lumen. Epidemiology They may occur in women of all ages, although the majority of patients are 60 years of age or greater 3. Clinical presentation Ductal adenomas usually pres...
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Diabetic mastopathy

Diabetic mastopathy is a condition characterised by the presence of a benign tumour like breast masses in women with long-standing type 1 or type 2 insulin-dependent diabetes. The condition has also been reported in men. Clinical presentation Diabetic mastopathy manifests clinically as a large...
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Vascular calcification in breast

Vascular calcifications in the breast are calcifications associated with blood vessels.   Epidemiology They are most often seen in post menopausal women with arteriosclerotic heart disease.  Pathology Results due to calcified atherosclerotic plaques in the arterial walls. Associations coro...
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Comedo type ductal carcinoma in situ

A comedo-type ductal carcinoma in situ, also known as comedocarcinoma in situ is the high grade subtype of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).  It completely fills and dilates the ducts and lobules in TDLU with plugs of high grade tumour cells with central necrosis "comedonecrosis".  It is the mos...
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Complicated breast cyst

Complicated breast cysts are one of the cystic breast lesions that show intracystic debris which may imitate a solid mass appearance. They should be carefully differentiated from a complex cyst and may require alternative management 3. Radiographic features Ultrasound thin wall with or withou...
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Complex fibroadenoma

Complex fibroadenoma is a sub type of fibroadenoma harbouring one or more of the following features: epithelial calcifications papillary apocrine metaplasia sclerosing adenosis and  cysts larger than 3 mm Epidemiology Complex fibroadenomas tend to occur in older patients (median age, 47 ye...
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Cavernous venous malformation

Cavernous venous malformation, also traditionally referred to as a cavernous haemangioma (despite it not being a tumour) or cavernomas, are non-neoplastic slow flow venous malformations found in many parts of the body.  Terminology Despite the ubiquity of use of the traditional terms cavernoma...
Article

Capsular contracture

Capsular contractures are a potential complication of a breast implant and refers to a tightening and hardening of the capsule that surrounds a breast implant. It is a condition that can distort the shape and cause pain in the augmented breast. It seems to be the commonest complication post-brea...
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Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia

Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) is a benign, relatively uncommon form of stromal (mesenchymal) overgrowth within breast tissue that derives from a possible hormonal aetiology.  Epidemiology Typically affects women of reproductive age. It rarely affects males. Clinical presentatio...
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Breast varix

Breast varix is, as the name suggests, varices in the breast that are focally dilated veins in the breast.  Pathology If varices are seen bilaterally then a cause for central venous obstruction (superior vena cava syndrome) could be the underlying aetiology with the varices being a part of the...
Article

Breast sebaceous cyst

Breast sebaceous cyst, also sometimes known as an epidermal inclusion cyst or simply epidermoid cyst, is a benign breast lesion (BIRADS II).  For a general discussion of this entity outside the breast, please refer to epidermal inclusion cysts.  Terminology The two terms, breast sebaceous cys...
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Breast lymphoma

Breast lymphoma refers to involvement of the breast with lymphoma and may be primary or secondary. Epidemiology Both primary and secondary breast lymphoma are rare accounting for ~ 0.5% (range 0.3-1.1%) of all breast malignancies. Clinical presentation Breast lymphoma may present either as a...
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Breast lipoma

Breast lipomas are a benign breast lesion and is classified as a BIRADS II lesion. Clinical presentation Lipomas are mostly asymptomatic and coincidentally discovered on routine mammography. Patients may present with a painless palpable breast lump which is soft and mobile. In these cases the ...
Article

Breast implant rupture

Breast implant ruptures are a recognised complication of a breast implant. It can be intracapsular, when confined by the surrounding fibrous capsule, or extracapsular, when silicone freely extravasates.  Pathology After implantation of a silicone or saline breast implant, a fibrous capsule (sc...
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Breast hamartoma

Breast hamartoma (also known as a fibroadenolipoma) is a benign breast lesion. Epidemiology They typically occur in women older than 35 years of age.  Clinical presentation While it can present as a painless soft lump, it may also present as unilateral breast enlargement without a palpable l...
Article

Breast haematoma

Breast haematoma can result from preceding direct trauma, surgery, biopsy (rare) or contusion and can be easily misinterpreted as other lesions such has breast malignancy if the correct clinical context is not taken into account. They can rarely occur spontaneously, especially in those with coag...
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Breast cellulitis

Breast cellulitis is an acute pyogenic inflammatory change involving the dermis and subcutaneous tissue. This can be secondary to any wound, surgery or radiation for breast carcinoma. Clinical presentation inflammatory changes such as oedema, swelling and redness of the involved breast  no de...
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Breast aneurysm

Breast aneurysms are a rarely seen cause of a breast mass. Pathology Types true aneurysm: occurs post trauma and is seen as a slowly enlarging pulsatile mass false aneurysm / pseudoaneurysm: occurs in acute trauma, post percutaneous biopsy, due to spontaneous haemorrhage secondary to coagulo...
Article

Breast amyloidosis

Amyloid deposition in the breast is predominantly of two forms breast involvement in primary amyloidosis - commoner in association with other conditions like multiple myeloma, plasmacytosis and rheumatoid arthritis and another in the localised form which is rarer.  Clinical features usually...
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Breast abscess

A breast abscess is a relatively rare but significant complication of mastitis that may occur during breastfeeding, particularly in primiparous women. The clinical context is a key to diagnosis as imaging appearances (particularly ultrasound) can mimic many other entities such as breast carcinom...
Article

Atypical lobular hyperplasia

Atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH) is a pre-malignant lesion of the breast which falls at the milder end of the spectrum of lobular neoplasia. It is therefore considered a part of borderline breast disease.  Clinical presentation It is usually asymptomatic and mammographically occult and is in...
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Atypical ductal hyperplasia

Atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) is a histologically borderline lesion that has some, but not all the features of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Sometimes the distinction between ADH and DCIS is simply on the basis of the number of ducts involved.  Pathology Atypical ductal hyperplasia is a...
Article

Tent sign (breast)

The tent sign is a term referring to a characteristic appearance of the posterior edge of the breast parenchyma when a mass (usually an infiltrating lesion) causes its retraction and forms an inverted "V" that resembles the tip of a circus tent. The detection of a "tent sign" is facilitated by ...
Article

Stepladder sign (intracapsular breast implant rupture)

The stepladder sign is a sonographic sign indicating an intracapsular breast implant rupture. It is considered the most reliable ultrasonographic finding in silicone gel breast implant intracapsular rupture. It is identified as multiple, discontinuous, parallel, linear echoes in the lumen, and i...
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Stepladder sign (disambiguation)

Stepladder sign may refer to: intracapsular breast implant rupture (ultrasound) gas-fluid levels in obstructed small bowel (erect abdominal radiograph)
Article

Ultrasound guided breast biopsy

Ultrasound guided percutaneous breast biopsy is a widely used technique for an accurate histopathological assessment of suspected breast pathology. It is a fast, safe and economical procedure. Indications Ultrasound guidance is limited to lesions visible on ultrasound study, such as:  BIRADS ...
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Invasive ductal carcinoma

Invasive ductal carcinoma is a subset of ductal carcinoma. It is an infiltrating, malignant and abnormal proliferation of neoplastic cells in the breast tissues. It is the most frequently seen breast malignancy.  Epidemiology  Peak age of presentation is about 50 to 60 years. Clinical present...
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Snowstorm sign (disambiguation)

Snowstorm sign may refer to: snowstorm sign: complete hydatiform mole (ultrasound) snowstorm sign: extracapsular breast implant rupture (ultrasound) snowstorm sign: thyroid pulmonary metastases (chest radiograph)
Article

Albert Salomon

Albert Salomon (1883-1976) was the first physician to study x-rays of breast tissue. Salomon worked at the Royal Surgical University Clinic in Berlin and from about 1913 x-rayed 3000 breast specimens obtained from the morgue in an attempt to identify breast pathology. He demonstrated tumour sp...
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Breast tissue markers

Breast tissue markers are a common finding in breast radiology. These are typically inserted following percutaneous biopsy, either under ultrasound or sterotactic guidance. They can be invaluable in identifying known benign areas or shrinking/treated malignant lesions on follow up imaging. A nu...
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Montgomery glands

Montgomery glands are large sebaceous glands in the breast, representing a transition between a mammary gland and a sweat gland. Gross anatomy Located within the nipple-areolar complex, Montgomery glands open onto the skin surface via protrusions on the skin known as Montgomery tubercles. They...
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Forbidden areas in mammography

In breast imaging, forbidden, check or review areas are zones that, according to Tabár, require special attention in mammographic interpretation.  These are: on a mediolateral oblique (MLO) view the "milky way" (retromammary fat): a 3-4 cm wide band parallel to the edge of the pectoral muscle...
Article

Salad oil sign

Salad oil sign, also referred to as the droplet sign, is characterised by small rounded high T2 signal foci within a breast implant on MRI studies and represents water droplets or small amounts of air within the silicone. It also can be characterised as hypointense foci on the water-suppressed s...
Article

Gynaecomastia

Gynaecomastia refers to a benign excess of the male breast tissue, that is usually reversible. It is not a risk factor per se for developing male breast cancer. Epidemiology While it can occur at any age, it tends to have greater prevalence in two groups: adolescent boys and older men (some pu...
Article

Stewart-Treves syndrome

Stewart-Treves syndrome refers to an angiosarcoma seen in the setting of lymphoedema 1. It was classically attributed to lymphoedemas induced by radical mastectomy to treat breast cancer. Nowadays, we know that it can arise in any chronically lymphoedematous region due to any cause2.  The inci...
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Posterior nipple line

The posterior nipple line (PNL) refers to a line drawn posteriorly and perpendicularly from the nipple towards the pectoral muscle (or the posterior image edge in CC) on the mammograms. In an adequately positioned breast, the measurement difference of this line between a CC view and MLO view sho...
Article

Complex breast cyst

A complex breast cyst is a morphological type of breast cyst along with simple breast cysts and complicated breast cysts. The current preferred term for complex breast cysts is solid and cystic mass to avoid confusion with a complicated cyst. Radiographic features Breast ultrasound The presen...
Article

Breast cyst

Breast cysts are a common mammographic and sonographic finding, and can be of different types: simple breast cyst: typically is a well-defined, anechoic lesion with imperceptible wall and posterior acoustic enhancement 1 complicated breast cyst: contains intracystic echoes or debris with other...
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Ultrasound evaluation of breast cysts

Ultrasound evaluation of breast cysts is the modality of choice. Obstruction of the ducts, often appearing as the result of epithelial hyperplastic processes or the stromal fibrosis, or both processes lead to the formation of cysts, disabling the drainage of the terminal ducts of the lobules. I...
Article

Breast ultrasound

Breast ultrasound is an important modality in breast imaging. It is the usual initial breast imaging modality in those under 30 years of age in many countries. In assessing for malignancy, is important to remember that one must use most suspicious feature of 3 modalities (pathology, ultrasound,...
Article

Breast lumps

Breast lumps have different characteristics that allow simplification of differential diagnosis by breaking down the vast list into sections. Consider whether the lump fits into one of these categories. Spiculated lesion Spiculation is a feature of neoplasms and all masses that display spicula...
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Simple breast cyst

Breast cysts are a relatively common cause of a breast lump in perimenopausal women, and usually causing wage pain or discomfort and slightly tender on palpation. They are a benign (BIRADS II) entity. Pathology Breast cysts are caused by blockage of the terminal acini with resultant dilatation...
Article

Calcifying metastases (mnemonic)

A simple mnemonic to recall a list of commonly calcifying metastases is: BOTOM Mnemonic B: breast cancer O: osteosarcoma T: papillary thyroid cancer O: ovarian cancer (especially mucinous) M: mucinous adenocarcinoma (especially colorectal carcinoma)
Article

Sandbox (test page)

Feel free to edit this page however you want, if you want to just play and see how editing works.  Subheadings bullets more bullets more bullets Capitalisation words after bullets should not be capitalised unless they represent a name, e.g. Churg-Strauss syndrome will have "C" and "S" as ...
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Giant breast masses

Many patients, particularly in developing countries, can present late with giant breast masses. They may be single or multiple and either benign or malignant. Many of these conditions are indistinguishable on physical examination alone. Some of these lesions require mastectomy while others can b...
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Radial scar

Radial scar, or complex sclerosing lesion, is a rosette-like proliferative breast lesion. It is not related to surgical scarring. Some authors, however, reserve the latter term to lesions over 1 cm 5.  It is an idiopathic process with sclerosing ductal hyperplasia.  Its significance is that it...
Article

Oil cyst (breast)

Oil cysts in breast imaging refer to benign breast lesions where an area of focal fat necrosis becomes walled off by fibrous tissue.  Epidemiology Occurs across all age and ethnic groups with a female predilection. Usually associated with blunt trauma if present in males. Clinical presentatio...
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Metastatic intramammary lymph node

A metastatic intramammary lymph node refers to an intramammary lymph node involved with metastatic or malignant disease. Radiographic features Breast ultrasound Sonographic features that suggest metastatic involvement include 4: disappearance or loss of central echogenic hilar region marked...
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Medical devices in the thorax

Medical devices in the thorax are regularly observed by radiologists when reviewing radiographs and CTs. Extrathoracic devices tubing, clamps, syringes lying on or under the patient rubber sheets, foam mattresses, clothing, hair braids, nipple piercings etc. may also be visible These devices...
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Benign and malignant characteristics of breast lesions at ultrasound

Benign and malignant characteristics of breast lesions at ultrasound allow the classification as either malignant, intermediate or benign based on work published by Stavros et al. in 1995. Radiographic features Ultrasound Malignant characteristics (with positive predictive values) sonographi...
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RCR breast imaging classification system

work in progress - Fran/Derek   UK interpretation/system to guide investigation (2008) Classification Mammography   Ultrasound   MRI    
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Paget disease (disambiguation)

Paget disease can refer to either:  Paget disease of bone Paget disease of breast History and etymology Both conditions are named after Sir James Paget (1814-1899), British surgeon and physiologist. 
Article

Breast MRI classification flowchart

The breast MRI classification flowchart (or Tree algorithm) is an evidence-based clinical decision rule to distinguish benign from malignant lesions in breast MRI. It incorporates five diagnostic criteria that are mainly consistent with BI-RADS though assigning diagnostic weights. Diagnostic cr...
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Breast echotexture (BI-RADS categories)

Breast echotexture according to the BI-RADS lexicon is usually classified into three categories 1: homogenous: fat homogenous: fibroglandular heterogenous​
Article

PGMI evaluation system

PGMI (Perfect, Good, Moderate, Inadequate) is a method of evaluation of clinical image quality in mammography developed by the United Kingdom Mammography Trainers Group with the support of the Royal College of Radiographers, aimed to ensure the maintenance of a high standard of mammography in Br...
Article

Breast within a breast sign

The breast within a breast sign refers to the common mammographic appearance of breast hamartomas (fibroadenolipomas). Since these benign lesions are well-circumscribed and contain a mixture of fibrous, glandular and fatty tissue (just like normal breast), it is not surprising that they appear v...
Article

Breast neoplasms

There are many types of breast neoplasms, which can be divided into the following broad oversimplified categories as a starting point. intra-lobular (epithelial and stromal) inter-lobular breast lymphoma metastasis to breast Intralobular and interlobular refer to the terminal duct lobular ...
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BIRADS V

BIRADS V lesions under the BIRADS (breast imaging reporting and data system) refer to breast lesions that are highly suspicious for malignancy, requiring appropriate action to be taken (i.e. biopsy and management as appropriate). BIRADS V lesions have the characteristic morphology of breast canc...
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Apocrine carcinoma of the breast

Apocrine carcinoma of the breast is a rare variant of breast cancer. The diagnosis is mainly pathological as it is difficult to differentiate from other forms of breast cancer on imaging. Epidemiology It accounts for about 4% of all cases. It is seen most often in females in the age group of 5...
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Inflammatory carcinoma of the breast

Inflammatory carcinomas of the breast also referred as inflammatory breast cancers, are a relatively uncommon but aggressive form of invasive breast carcinoma which has a characteristic clinical presentation and unique radiographic appearances.  Epidemiology   Inflammatory carcinomas account f...
Article

Galactocele

Galactoceles, also referred as lactoceles, are the most common benign breast lesion typically occurring in young lactating women; however, they mostly happen on cessation of lactation 1.  Clinical presentation Patients usually present with a painless breast lump occurring over weeks to months....
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Medullary carcinoma of the breast

Medullary carcinoma of the breast (MCB) is an uncommon subtype of breast cancer and accounts for ~5% 1,4 of all breast cancers. Epidemiology They tend to occur more frequently in younger women than other breast cancer types 7. The mean age of presentation varies from 46-54 years but in 10% of ...
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Architectural distortion in mammography

Architectural distortion is a mammographic descriptive term in breast imaging. It may be visualised as tethering or indentation of breast tissue. Pathology Architectural distortion per se is not a mass. It is often due to a desmoplastic reaction in which there is focal disruption of the normal...
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Asymmetrical density in mammography

Asymmetrical mammographic density is a mammographic morphological descriptor. It is given when there is increased density in one of the breasts, on either one or both standard mammographic views but without evidence of a discrete mass. An asymmetrical density can be further characterised as: ma...
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Milk of calcium

Milk of calcium (MOC) is a term given to dependent, sedimented calcification within a cystic structure or hollow organ. This sort of colloidal calcium suspension layering can occur in various regions: renal cysts: milk of calcium in renal cyst (most common) breast cysts: milk of calcium in bre...
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Pectoralis major

The pectoralis major muscle is a muscle of the pectoral region, overlying the anterior chest wall but is considered an upper limb muscle due to its function.  Summary origin sternal part: sternum and superior six costal cartilages clavicular part: medial half of the clavicle insertion: late...
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Stellate breast lesions: causes (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to recall the causes of a stellate breast lesion is: STARFACE Mnemonic S: summation shadow T: tumour (i.e. invasive breast cancer) A: abscess R: radial scar F: fibroadenoma / fat necrosis A: adenosis (sclerosing) CE: other causes, haematoma (e.g. postoperative, post bio...
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Causes of breast oedema (mnemonic)

The causes of breast oedema can be remembered using the mnemonic: VIRALS Mnemonic V: venous obstruction I: inflammatory breast cancer R: radiotherapy A: abscess L: lymphatic obstruction S: surgery (recent)
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Breast lesion localisation (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to help remember breast lesion localisation when given a set of mammograms (MLO and CC) is: muffins rise and lead falls This can help localise the lesion into the quadrant (e.g. upper, outer) to make ultrasound correlation easier. Mnemonic muffins rise: if the lesion is located me...
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Abscess

Abscesses are focal confined collections of suppurative inflammatory material and can be thought of as having three components 1: a central core consisting of necrotic inflammatory cells and local tissue peripheral halo of viable neutrophils surrounded by a 'capsule' with dilated blood vessel...
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Breast cancer (staging)

Breast cancer staging uses the TNM staging system and then into stage groupings. Classification TNM staging Primary tumour (T) Tx: primary tumour cannot be assessed T0: no evidence of primary tumour Tis: carcinoma in situ T1 T1a: 0.1-0.5 cm T1b: 0.5-1.0 cm T1c: 1.0- 2.0 cm T2: 2-5 cm ...
Article

Apocrine metaplasia of the breast

Apocrine metaplasia of the breast is a benign breast condition and is sometimes considered part of or associated with fibrocystic change. It is a common finding in the female breast, particularly after the age of 25, and many regard it as a normal component of the breast. Epidemiology Seen mos...
Article

Mammography

Mammography is a dedicated radiographic technique for imaging the breast. Types of mammography In general terms, there are two types of mammography: screening and diagnostic. Mammography differs significantly in many respects from the rest of diagnostic imaging. Screening mammography  In ge...
Article

Phyllodes tumour

Phyllodes tumour, also known as cystosarcoma phyllodes, is a rare fibroepithelial tumour of the breast which has some resemblance to a fibroadenoma. It is typically a large, fast growing mass that forms from the periductal stroma of the breast. Epidemiology Phyllodes tumours account for less t...
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Anatomy curriculum

The anatomy curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core anatomy knowledge for radiologists and imaging specialists. General anatomy Neuroanatomy Head and neck anatomy Thoracic anatomy Abdominal and pelvic anatomy Spinal anat...
Article

Breast core biopsy

The percutaneous breast biopsy is one of the current choices for focal histopathological assessment of breast lesions. In contrast to fine needle aspiration, during a core needle biopsy, a hollow needle is used to withdraw small cores of tissue from the area of interest in the breast.  This pro...
Article

Angiosarcoma of breast

Breast angiosarcomas are a rare vascular breast malignancy. Epidemiology As primary tumours of the breast, they account for ~0.04% 2 of all breast cancers and tend to occur in younger women, in their 3rd to 4th decades. Secondary angiosarcoma has an estimated incidence of ~0.09-0.16% and occur...
Article

Accessory breast tissue

Accessory breast tissue is a relatively common congenital condition in which abnormal accessory breast tissue is seen in addition to the presence of normal breast tissue. This normal variant can present as a mass anywhere along the course of the embryologic mammary streak (axilla to the inguinal...
Article

Skin thickening on mammography (differential)

The presence of skin thickening on mammography is variably defined, usually being more than 2mm in thickness. It can result from a number of both benign and malignant causes. They include: Malignant inflammatory breast cancer: one of the most concerning causes of skin thickening: this usually ...
Article

Punctate microcalcification within the breast

Punctate microcalcifications in the breast are defined as calcific opacities <0.5 mm in diameter seen within the acini of a terminal duct lobular unit. Pathology Associations fibrocystic changes skin calcification skin talc rarely in DCIS: punctate, clustered, segmentally distributed Radi...
Article

Seroma

Seromas are collections of serous fluid that usually occur as a complication of surgery, but can also be seen post-trauma. It is most commonly associated with post-breast surgery, where a potential space is left. Terminology Seromas are distinct from a haematoma as it contains almost no red bl...
Article

Popcorn calcification within the breast

Popcorn calcification in the breast is the classical description for the calcification seen in involuting fibroadenomas which, as the name suggests, has a popcorn-like appearance.  Pathology A fibroadenoma in the long run may degenerate and calcify. Initially there are a few punctate periphera...
Article

Eggshell calcification (breast)

Eggshell calcifications in the breast are benign peripheral rim like calcifications Pathology They are typically secondary to fat necrosis or calcification of oil cysts. Radiographic features thin rim-like calcification (<1 mm in thickness) lucent centres small to several centimetres in di...
Article

Intraductal papilloma of breast

Intraductal papillomas, or more specifically solitary intraductal papillomas of the breast, are benign breast lesions. Papillomas are the most common intraductal mass lesions of the breast. Epidemiology Typically present in women in their late reproductive or postmenopausal years (with an aver...
Article

Terminal ductal lobular unit

Each breast lobe is drained by a collecting duct terminating in the nipple. The collecting duct has several branches, which ends in a terminal ductal-lobular unit (TDLU), the basic functional and histopathological unit of the breast. The TDLU is composed of a small segment of the terminal duct a...
Article

Non-palpable breast lesions

With increasing use of screening mammography and ultrasound for various indications, a large number of non-palpable breast lesions are being detected. Among this large number of non-palpable masses, not all are malignant. The incidence of malignancy among these non-palpable lesions varies betwe...
Article

Step-oblique mammography

Step-oblique mammography is an accurate technique for determining whether a mammographic finding visible on multiple images on only one projection (but not elucidated using standard additional mammographic projections) represents a summation artefact or a true mass and for precisely localizing t...
Article

Fat necrosis (breast)

Fat necrosis within the breast is a pathological process that occurs when there is saponification of local fat. It is a benign inflammatory process and is becoming increasingly common with the greater use of breast conserving surgery and mammoplasty procedures. Epidemiology Most at risk are mi...
Article

Triangulation

Triangulation is a technique for determining if a questionable structure is genuine or superimposition of structures. Technique hang the CC, MLO, and 90° lateral films (in that order) on the view box the nipple on each film must be at the same level use a ruler and place one end over the les...
Article

Conditions involving the nipple-areolar complex

The nipple areolar complex is a major anatomic landmark of the breast. It may be affected by variation in its embryological development, breast maturation and also by other benign and malignant conditions. Variant anatomy amazia polythelia nipple retraction or inversion enlarged nipple Ben...
Article

Artifacts that mimic breast calcification

Artifacts that mimic breast calcification can arise from a number of sources. These include: deodorants on skin: most practices recommend that clients for mammography do not use deodorant or perfume on the day of the study for this reason. The residue from deodorant is a very fine, dense, misty...
Article

Breast density

Breast density on mammography can significantly vary between individuals. The density is a function of the relationship between radiolucent fat and radiodense glandular tissue. Breast density varies with age and generally younger women have denser breasts (i.e. more glandular tissue relative to...

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