Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

302 results found
Article

Subcapsular line sign (intracapsular breast implant rupture)

The subcapsular line sign is a small localised leak from a silicone implant that leads to the formation of a thin layer of silicone between the implant shell and the fibrous capsule. It represents a minimally collapsed intracapsular breast implant rupture. It is best appreciated by MRI.
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Breast implant rupture

Breast implant ruptures are a recognised complication of a breast implant. It can be intracapsular, when confined by the surrounding fibrous capsule, or extracapsular, when silicone freely extravasates.  Pathology After implantation of a silicone or saline breast implant, a fibrous capsule (sc...
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Primary breast chondrosarcoma

Primary breast chondrosarcoma is a rare type of sarcoma that originates from the mammary stroma and not from the underlying bone or cartilage of the chest wall. Epidemiology The prevalence of primary breast chondrosarcoma is reported to be 0.5-1%, they represent <5% of all sarcomas 1,14. Clin...
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Seroma

Seromas are collections of serous fluid that usually occur as a complication of surgery, but can also be seen post-trauma. They are commonly seen as an early complication of breast surgery, where a potential space is left. Terminology Seromas are distinct from haematoma as they contain almost ...
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Breast neoplasms

There are many types of breast neoplasms, which can be divided into the following broad oversimplified categories as a starting point. intralobular (epithelial and stromal) interlobular breast lymphoma metastasis to breast Intralobular and interlobular refer to the terminal duct lobular un...
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Male breast disease

Male breast disease includes a wide spectrum of conditions. Many conditions and entities that affect the female breast may also affect the male breast.  Pathology Malignant male breast cancer lymphoma dermatofibrosarcoma Benign gynaecomastia pseudogynaecomastia: fat deposition within the...
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Male breast cancer

Male breast cancer is exceptionally rare and only accounts for less than 0.25% of male malignancies and ~0.5-1% of all breast cancer (both genders). The diagnosis is sometimes delayed due to the patient's hesitancy to seek advice. Workup from a radiological point of view is the same as for women...
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Gynaecomastia

Gynaecomastia refers to a benign excess of the male breast tissue, that is usually reversible. It is not a risk factor per se for developing male breast cancer. Epidemiology While it can occur at any age, it tends to have greater prevalence in two groups: adolescent boys and older men (some pu...
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Albert Salomon

Albert Salomon (1883-1976), a German surgeon, was the first physician to study x-rays of breast tissue. Early life to be completed Development of mammography Salomon worked at the Royal Surgical University Clinic in Berlin and from about 1913 x-rayed 3000 breast specimens obtained from the ...
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Cowden syndrome

Cowden syndrome, also known as multiple hamartoma syndrome, is characterised by multiple hamartomas throughout the body and increased risk of several cancers. Terminology Type 2 segmental Cowden syndrome is the association of Cowden syndrome with a Cowden naevus, when it is considered a type o...
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Breast cancer metastases

Metastases from breast cancer can be a frequent finding in routine onco-radiological practice. Clinical presentation With the universal use and acceptance of screening mammography, the isolated clinical presentation from metastases from breast carcinoma has become rare in clinical practice. Hi...
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Breast hamartoma

Breast hamartoma (also known as a fibroadenolipoma) is a benign breast lesion. Epidemiology They typically occur in women older than 35 years of age.  Clinical presentation While it can present as a painless soft lump, it may also present as unilateral breast enlargement without a palpable l...
Article

Metastases to the breast

Metastases to the breast from non-mammary primary tumours are uncommon and account for 0.5-2.0% of all breast malignancies.  Clinical presentation Metastases do not tend to cause retraction of the skin or nipple. Metastatic lesions are much more likely to be multiple or bilateral than primary ...
Article

Milk of calcium (disambiguation)

The term milk of calcium (MOC) is given to dependent, sedimented calcification within a cystic structure or hollow organ. This sort of colloidal calcium suspension layering can occur in various regions: renal: milk of calcium in renal cyst (most common) breast: milk of calcium in breast cyst ...
Article

Normal breast imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the breast and surrounding structures, divided by region and modality. Breast Mammography MLO and CC (standard mammographic views) labelled example lateral: example needed compression: example needed cleavage view: example axillary lymph n...
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Silicone injection and insertion (cosmetic)

Silicone injection into various parts of the body has been used in many countries to achieve what are perceived to be cosmetic improvements. Most common sites for such injections are the breasts, face, and buttocks, although anywhere could be targeted.  This article is general discussion of the...
Article

Breast implants

Breast implants are increasingly common in general breast radiology practice. Classification Location Breast implants may be placed behind the glandular tissue but in front of the pectoral muscle: sub-glandular sub-mammary retro-glandular retro-mammary The second position of breast impla...
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Eklund technique

Eklund modified compression technique is a technique which can be used for patients with augmented or reconstructed breasts post mastectomy.  Technique It consists of posterosuperior displacement of the implants simultaneously to an anterior traction of the breast, pushing the implants towards...
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Parenchymal patterns in breast imaging

Mammographic density is considered a risk factor for breast cancer, and parenchymal patterns in breast imaging are important in the way in which the effects mammographic screening sensitivity. Women with high-risk density patterns should be screened more frequently and/or with additional views p...
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Breast imaging-reporting and data system (BI-RADS)

BI-RADS classification is proposed by the American College of Radiology (ACR), last updated in November 2015, and is a widely used classification system at the time of writing this article (July 2016). The BI-RADS acronym stands for Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System which is a widely acc...
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BI-RADS VI

BI-RADS VI is a new addition to the ACR (American College of Radiology) BI-RAD system. The prior classification system was a 5-tier system. The current system is a 6-tier system. According to the current BI-RADS tier, patients with biopsy proven cancer prior to definitive therapy would be categ...
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5-tier ACR system of radiologic breast findings

The 5-tier ACR system was a previously used system for classification of radiologic breast findings, proposed by the American College of Radiology (ACR). It is no longer in widespread use, having been gradually superseded by the 6-tier BI-RADS classification system first published in 1992.  5: ...
Article

Breast density

Breast density on mammography can significantly vary between individuals. The density is a function of the relationship between radiolucent fat and radiodense glandular tissue. Breast density varies with age and generally younger women have denser breasts (i.e. more glandular tissue relative to...
Article

Breast calcifications (an approach)

Breast calcifications are relatively frequent on mammograms and are indicative of focally active process, however about 80% of these processes are benign. Thus the ability to distinguish these calcifications based on their morphological characteristics, size, number and distribution is important...
Article

Granulomatous mastitis

Granulomatous mastitis is a very rare breast inflammatory disease of unknown origin that can clinically mimic carcinoma of the breast. Clinical presentation The condition generally manifests as a distinct, firm to hard mass that may involve any part of the breast. The subareolar regions may be...
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Sclerosing adenosis of the breast

Sclerosing adenosis (SA) is a benign proliferative condition of the terminal duct lobular units characterised by an increased number of acini and their glands. It manifests as multiple small, firm, tender nodules, fibrous tissue, and variable microcysts within the breast. It is sometimes placed ...
Article

Angiosarcoma of breast

Breast angiosarcomas are a rare vascular breast malignancy. Epidemiology As primary tumours of the breast, they account for ~0.04% 2 of all breast cancers and tend to occur in younger women, in their 3rd to 4th decades. Secondary angiosarcoma, related to prior therapy of breast cancer, has an...
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Breast MRI enhancement curves

Following administration of Gadolinium there can be three possible enhancement kinetic curves for a lesion on breast MRI (these are also applied in other organs such as prostate MRI). These are sometimes termed the Kuhl enhancement curves. type I curve: progressive enhancement pattern typicall...
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Breast imaging and the technologist

Breast screening and diagnostic programmes cannot exist without the technologists. They play an indispensable role in the acquisition of mammogram and ultrasound images  in both screening and diagnostic settings. The mammogram technologist: the primary responsibility of the "mammo tech" is the ...
Article

Adenoid cystic carcinoma

Adenoid cystic carcinomas are a rare histological subtype of adenocarcinoma. Pathology Adenoid cystic carcinomas are generally considered low grade 4. The tumours have a notable tendency for perineural spread. Location They have a wide distribution and mainly occur in relation to the airways...
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Medical devices in the thorax

Medical devices in the thorax are regularly observed by radiologists when reviewing radiographs and CTs. Extrathoracic devices tubing, clamps, syringes lying on or under the patient rubber sheets, foam mattresses, clothing, hair braids, nipple piercings etc. may also be visible These devices...
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Inflammatory carcinoma of the breast

Inflammatory carcinomas of the breast also referred as inflammatory breast cancers, are a relatively uncommon but aggressive form of invasive breast carcinoma with a characteristic clinical presentation and unique radiographic appearances.  Epidemiology   Inflammatory carcinomas account for 1-...
Article

Breast cancer (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Breast cancer is the commonest malignancy in female patients. Reference article This is a summary article; read more in our article on breast cancer. Summary epidemiology [content pending] presentation breast lump c...
Article

Popcorn calcification within the breast

Popcorn calcification in the breast is the classical description for the calcification seen in involuting fibroadenomas which, as the name suggests, has a popcorn-like appearance.  Pathology A fibroadenoma in the long run may degenerate and calcify. Initially there are a few punctate periphera...
Article

Gigantomastia

Gigantomastia (also known as macromastia or mammomegaly) is the term employed when there is massive breast enlargement. It is often associated with pregnancy. It may be rarely unilateral. Gigantomastia is a very common condition characterised by proliferation of either breast fatty tissue or gl...
Article

Sternalis muscle

The sternalis muscle is an uncommon anatomic variant of the chest wall musculature and is of uncertain aetiology and function. Its importance lies in that it should not be mistaken for a pathological lesion.  Epidemiology Cadaveric studies have shown that the muscle is present in ~5% (range 1-...
Article

Aberrations in the normal development and involution of the breast

Aberrations in the Normal Development and Involution of the breast (ANDI) is an all-encompassing term that is used to describe a wide spectrum of the benign breast diseases. As the name suggests, it is based on the theory that most of the encountered benign breast disorders are essentially minor...
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Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome

Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) syndrome is caused by a mutation to either BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. These patients have an increased risk of breast cancer, ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer and prostate cancer. However, these gene mutations are not the only cause of hereditary breast ca...
Article

Triple receptor negative breast cancer

Triple receptor-negative (TRN) breast cancer is a subtype of breast cancer characterised by a relative absence of immunohistochemical staining for the following hormone receptors/protein: oestrogen receptor (OR) progesterone receptor (PR) human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu) E...
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Medullary carcinoma of the breast

Medullary carcinoma of the breast (MCB) is an uncommon subtype of breast cancer and accounts for ~5% 1,4 of all breast cancers. Epidemiology They tend to occur more frequently in younger women than other breast cancer types 7. The mean age of presentation varies from 46-54 years but in 10% of ...
Article

Breast MRI

Breast MRI is the most sensitive method for detection of breast cancer. Depending on international health regulations, it is either applied for screening of women at high risk for developing breast cancer (e.g. BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers), as an additional diagnostic test in pretherapeutic breast ...
Article

Lymphocytic mastitis

Lymphocytic mastitis, also known as lymphocytic mastopathy or sclerosing lymphocytic lobulitis, is a rare benign inflammatory disease of the breast that can mimic breast cancer. Terminology Diabetic mastopathy is a closely-related entity although it is sometimes used synonymously in the litera...
Article

Diabetic mastopathy

Diabetic mastopathy is a condition characterised by the presence of a benign tumour like breast masses in women with long-standing type 1 or type 2 insulin-dependent diabetes. The condition has also been reported in men. A similar condition is lymphocytic mastitis but this occurs in non-diabetic...
Article

Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia

Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) is a benign, relatively uncommon form of stromal (mesenchymal) overgrowth within breast tissue that derives from a possible hormonal aetiology.  Epidemiology Typically affects women of reproductive age. It rarely affects males. Clinical presentatio...
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Skin calcification in breast

Skin calcifications in the breast usually form in dermal sweat glands after low grade folliculitis and inspissation of sebaceous material. Calcifications may also form in moles and other skin lesions.  Often, these calcifications are in groups as they extend into small glands in the skin. Occasi...
Article

Sclerosing papilloma (breast)

Sclerosing papillomas of the breast are a sub type of intraductal papilloma of breast. It is termed when a papillary lesion form well-defined solid masses with a dominant sclerosed architecture 2. It is usually a histological diagnosis and usually cannot be differentiated from a non sclerosing p...
Article

Sclerosing lobular hyperplasia of breast

Sclerosing lobular hyperplasia (SLH) of the breast, also known as fibro-adenomatoid mastopathy, is an uncommon benign proliferative breast lesion. Epidemiology It tends to occur more often in adolescent and young adult patients (peak age in the thirties). In the United States, there may be a g...
Article

Scirrhous carcinoma (breast)

Scirrhous carcinoma of the breast is a pathological subtype of breast cancer. It is a subtype of invasive ductal carcinoma not otherwise specified and presents as a hard lump. The proportion of pathologic lymph node metastasis among scirrhous carcinomas is significantly higher than that among ca...
Article

Breast sarcoma

Breast sarcoma refers to a relatively heterogenous group of rare breast tumours which can include: angiosarcoma of the breast pleomorphic sarcoma of the breast fibrosarcoma of the breast myxofibrosarcoma of the breast leiomyosarcoma of the breast primary osteosarcoma of the breast Epidem...
Article

Subareolar abscess

Subareolar breast abscess are relatively uncommon and tend to occur mostly in young women.  Clinical features Mastalgia, signs of inflammation, lump formation in the subareolar region and nipple discharge. In chronic cases fistula formation and nipple deformity may be seen. Pathology Locatio...
Article

Primary osteosarcoma (breast)

Primary osteosarcoma of the breast is an uncommon breast malignancy and is a sub type extraskeletal osteosarcoma. Epidemiology While it can present in a wide are group, the peak age at presentation is around the 6th decade 7. Pathology  The presence of bone in breast lesions is not diagnosti...
Article

Simple breast cyst

Breast cysts are a relatively common cause of a breast lump in perimenopausal women, and usually causing wage pain or discomfort and slightly tender on palpation. They are a benign (BIRADS II) entity. Pathology Breast cysts are caused by blockage of the terminal acini with resultant dilatation...
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Puerperal mastitis

Puerperal mastitis refers to mastitis occurring during pregnancy and lactation. Epidemiology It occurs most often during breast feeding and is rarely encountered during pregnancy. Pathology The source of infection is the nursing infants nose and throat; the organisms being Staphylococcus aur...
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Plasma cell mastitis

Plasma cell mastitis is a benign breast condition which represents calcification of inspissated secretions in or immediately adjacent to ectatic benign ducts.  Epidemiology It is typically seen in older women (e.g. >60 years of age). Pathology It is thought to represent aseptic inflammation ...
Article

Snowstorm sign (extracapsular breast implant rupture)

Snowstorm sign on breast ultrasound imaging represents the presence of free silicone droplets mixed with breast tissue giving a characteristic heterogeneous echogenic appearance with the dispersion of the ultrasound beam. It is considered the most reliable sign of extracapsular breast implant ru...
Article

Suture calcification in breast

Suture calcification in breast can be seen after a lumpectomy and/or radiation therapy. It is theorised that tissue damage from radiation therapy delays the resorption of the suture. The residual suture material is thought to act as a nidus for calcification. Radiographic features Mammography ...
Article

Synchronous breast cancer

Synchronous breast cancers are two (or more) primary breast cancers that occur in either breast at the same time.  Epidemiology Up to 10% of all breast cancers may be synchronous (particularly found with the use of breast MRI). The occurrence of bilaterality is greatest with invasive lobular c...
Article

Phyllodes tumour

Phyllodes tumour, also known as cystosarcoma phyllodes, is a rare fibroepithelial tumour of the breast which has some resemblance to a fibroadenoma. It is typically a large, fast growing mass that forms from the periductal stroma of the breast. Epidemiology Phyllodes tumours account for less t...
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Dystrophic calcification within the breast

Dystrophic calcifications within the breast are usually seen as small macrocalcifications with relatively smooth margins. Pathology They are generally considered benign and can occur in a number of situations which include: evolving mammary fat necrosis post reduction mammoplasty 2 post tra...
Article

Lactating adenoma

Lactating adenomas are a benign breast tumour that typically occur in the peri-partum period, and are one of the most prevalent breast lesions during puerperium 4. Clinical presentation Lactating adenomas commonly present as painless breast masses late in pregnancy or in the postpartum period....
Article

Breast abscess

A breast abscess is a relatively rare but significant complication of mastitis that may occur during breastfeeding, particularly in primiparous women. The clinical context is a key to diagnosis as imaging appearances (particularly ultrasound) can mimic many other entities such as breast carcinom...
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Papillary carcinoma of the breast

Papillary carcinoma of the breast is a rare ductal breast malignancy. Epidemiology They are thought to account for 1-2% of breast carcinomas 2. They typically present in postmenopausal patients with the mean age at being ~63-67 years. Clinical presentation A papillary carcinoma may manifest ...
Article

Paget disease of the breast

Paget disease of the breast, which is also known as Paget disease of the nipple, has traditionally been described as a form of breast malignancy characterised by infiltration of the nipple epidermis by malignant cells. Although most cases have underlying focus or foci of in situ or invasive carc...
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Lobular carcinoma in situ

Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) represents the next step up from atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH) along the malignant spectrum of lobular breast carcinoma. Epidemiology LCIS occurs predominantly in premenopausal women with a mean age of 45 years old, approximately 10-15 years younger than t...
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Lobular breast carcinoma

Lobular breast carcinoma is a subtype of breast cancer can range from lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) to invasive lobular carcinoma. Pathology Multicentricity and bilaterality tend to be quite common with lobular breast carcinomas.
Article

Supraclavicular lymph nodes

The supraclavicular lymph nodes are a paired group of lymph nodes located on either side in the hollow of clavicle close to the sternoclavicular joint. It is the final common pathway of the lymphatic system as it joins the central venous system. They oversee the transport of lymph from the thora...
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Recurrent breast cancer

The term recurrent breast cancer in medical imaging is given to recurrence of malignancy within the same breast at or close to the resection bed more than two years following surgical excision. Epidemiology The rate of local recurrence may be as high as 19% in 10 years. The maximum for recurre...
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Radial scar

Radial scar, or complex sclerosing lesion, is a rosette-like proliferative breast lesion. It is not related to surgical scarring. Some authors, however, reserve the latter term to lesions over 1 cm 5.  It is an idiopathic process with sclerosing ductal hyperplasia.  Its significance is that it...
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Invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast

Infiltrating or invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) of the breast is the second most common type of invasive breast cancer after invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) "not otherwise specified" (NOS). Epidemiology They represent 5-10% of all breast cancer. The mean age at presentation may be higher than...
Article

Invasive ductal carcinoma

Invasive ductal carcinoma is a subset of ductal carcinoma. It is an infiltrating, malignant and abnormal proliferation of neoplastic cells in the breast tissues. It is the most frequently seen breast malignancy.  Epidemiology  Peak age of presentation is about 50 to 60 years. Clinical present...
Article

Intraductal papilloma of breast

Intraductal papillomas, or more specifically solitary intraductal papillomas of the breast, are benign breast lesions. Papillomas are the most common intraductal mass lesions of the breast. Epidemiology Typically present in women in their late reproductive or postmenopausal years (with an aver...
Article

Intracystic papillary carcinoma (breast)

An intracystic papillary carcinoma of the breast is a type of papillary carcinoma of the breast. It accounts for a significant proportion of intracystic breast cancers. Epidemiology As with papillary carcinomas in general, it tends to occur in postmenopausal women. Pathology Pathologically, ...
Article

Intracystic carcinoma (breast)

Intracystic carcinoma of the breast refers to a breast cancer located within a cyst.  Epidemiology They represent ~0.2-1.3% of all breast cancers. Pathology Often they tend to represent papillary breast cancer 2: intracystic papillary breast carcinoma (ICPC) cystic degeneration of ductal c...
Article

Juvenile papillomatosis of the breast

Juvenile papillomatosis (JP) of the breast is a relatively common benign localised proliferative lesion in the breast. Epidemiology As the name implies, it is mainly seen in young women (mean age ~19-23 years 4,6) and is unusual in women over 30 years old. Clinical presentation Patients pres...
Article

Juvenile fibroadenoma (breast)

A juvenile fibroadenoma of the breast is a term given to a fibroadenoma presenting in children or adolescents. These may account for ~0.5-2% of all fibroadenomas, and are rapidly-growing masses that cause asymmetry of the breast, distortion of the overlying skin, and stretching of the nipple. 1...
Article

Infiltrating syringomatous adenoma of the nipple

Infiltrating syringomatous adenoma of the nipple is a relatively rare, benign dermal neoplasm of the areola and nipple. Clinical presentation Syringomatous adenomas of the nipple usually present as unilateral 1 to 3 cm firm lesion in the subareolar or nipple region of the breast. Tenderness, i...
Article

Oil cyst (breast)

Oil cysts in breast imaging refer to benign breast lesions where an area of focal fat necrosis becomes walled off by fibrous tissue.  Epidemiology Occurs across all age and ethnic groups with a female predilection. Usually associated with blunt trauma, if present in males. Clinical presentati...
Article

Non-comedo type ductal carcinoma in situ

Non-comedo type ductal carcinoma in situ is a subgroup of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). This group comprises of relatively less aggressive types with low nuclear grade. It can have has multiple patterns which are often mixed:  cribriform type non-comedo DCIS micropapillary type non-comedo D...
Article

Nipple adenoma

Nipple adenoma is a rare, benign breast lesion which often mimics a malignancy Clinical presentation  Patient presents with bloody discharge from an ulcerated and painful nipple in one breast. There is itching associated with this lesion. Symptoms may show variation with the menstrual cycle. T...
Article

Nevoid hyperkeratosis of the nipple and the areola

Nevoid hyperkeratosis of the nipple and the areola (NHNA) is a rare, idiopathic and benign dermatological condition. Epidemiology Most often seen in females of reproductive age, especially during 2nd and 3rd decades of life. Less than 70 cases have been reported till now. Clinical presentatio...
Article

Pseudogynaecomastia

Pseudogynaecomastia refers to breast enlargement in men primarily due to fatty tissue but with no associated glandular or stromal tissue.
Article

Mucinous carcinoma of the breast

Mucinous carcinoma of the breast, also known as colloid breast carcinoma, is a subtype of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). They account for about ~ 2% (range 1-7% 4) of breast cancers.  Epidemiology It tends to occur in older women where a prevalence of as much as 7% is found among women 75 ye...
Article

Mondor disease

Mondor disease is a rare benign breast condition characterised by thrombophlebitis of the subcutaneous veins of the breast and anterior chest wall. Epidemiology Although Mondor disease is rarely reported in the literature, this is likely in part due to lack of awareness of the entity. It tends...
Article

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (breast manifestations)

Breast involvement in granulomatosis with polyangiitis is seen in patients with avid systemic manifestations.  Clinical presentation Clinically they can mimic carcinoma as a palpable, tender mass. Pathology Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (or formerly known as Wegeners granulomatosis) is a ...
Article

Microglandular adenosis of the breast

Microglandular adenosis (MGA) of the breast is a pathological subtype of mammary adenosis. It is benign breast condition although can mimic a breast cancer (particularly tubular breast carcinoma 3,5) both clinically, radiology and pathologically. Pathology It is considered the only benign brea...
Article

Metaplastic breast carcinoma

Metaplastic breast carcinoma (MBC), also known as spindle cell carcinoma of the breast (SpCC), is a rare form of primary breast malignancy and accounts < 5% of breast carcinomas. These are scarce lesions, rarely seen in general radiology practice. The lesions usually present as a mass in postme...
Article

Granular cell tumour of the breast

A granular cell tumour (GCT) of the breast is an uncommon, usually benign tumour which is possibly of neural origin. Epidemiology They tend to occur at a younger age than other types of breast cancer 4. The age range of presentation, however, can be very variable although they occur more commo...
Article

Giant fibroadenoma

Giant fibroadenomas are fibroadenomas weighing more than 500 grams or measuring >5 cm in size 2. They are usually encountered in pregnant or lactating women.
Article

Gel bleed in breast implants

Gel bleed is a phenomenon associated with silicone breast implants. Pathology Gel bleed refers to microscopic diffusion of silicone gel through the breast implant elastomer shell. The implant shell, made of silicone, is a semipermeable membrane that allows for the egress or bleed of silicone n...
Article

Extensive intraductal component (invasive ductal carcinoma)

Extensive intraductal component (EIC) in breast imaging evaluation is the pathological description where an invasive ductal carcinoma has a prominent intraductal component within it or if there is intraductal carcinoma, DCIS is present within sections of normal adjacent tissue. It is sometimes c...
Article

Mammary duct ectasia

Mammary duct ectasia is characterised by chronic inflammatory and fibrotic changes leading to clogging of debris within the duct. It is of primary importance because of its features mimicking to that of malignancy. Terminology Some publications use this term synonymously with periductal mastit...
Article

Malignant phyllodes tumour

Malignant phyllodes tumour of the breast accounts for up to a quarter of the phyllodes tumours. Please, refer to the main article on phyllodes tumours for a general discussion.  Pathology It is generally thought that it is the stromal component that becomes malignant 4. This may account for t...
Article

Fibrosarcoma of the breast

Fibrosarcoma of the breast is a type of malignant stromal sarcoma that rarely occurs as a primary tumour within the breast.  Pathology A fibrosarcoma is composed of immature mesenchymal elements surrounded by a collagenous substance. It is a type of breast sarcoma with a predominant “herringbo...

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