Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

295 results found
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Metachronous breast cancer

Metachronous breast cancers are two breast cancers that occur in either breast in two different time periods. Treatment and prognosis The survival rate of women with metachronous breast cancers diagnosed within 2 years of the original primary is worse than those with unilateral disease 4.
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Metaplastic breast carcinoma

Metaplastic breast carcinoma (MBC), also known as spindle cell carcinoma of the breast (SpCC), is a rare form of primary breast malignancy and accounts < 5% of breast carcinomas. These are scarce lesions, rarely seen in general radiology practice. The lesions usually present as mass in postmeno...
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Metastases to the breast

Metastases to the breast from non-mammary primary tumours are uncommon and account for 0.5-2.0% of all breast malignancies.  Clinical presentation Metastases do not tend to cause retraction of the skin or nipple. Metastatic lesions are much more likely to be multiple or bilateral than primary ...
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Metastatic axillary lymphadenopathy of unknown primary

Metastatic axillary lymphadenopathy of unknown primary can be a very chellanging situation.  Pathology Usual potential sites include: occult breast cancer: the incidence of an axillary lymph node manifestation from an occult primary breast cancer is low, ranging from 0.3-0.8% of all patients ...
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Metastatic intramammary lymph node

A metastatic intramammary lymph node refers to an intramammary lymph node involved with metastatic or malignant disease. Radiographic features Breast ultrasound Sonographic features that suggest metastatic involvement include 4: disappearance or loss or central echogenic hilar region marked...
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Microcystic cluster

A microcystic cluster refers to part of the spectrum of cystic change in the breast on ultrasound. These small lesions are found on high resolution ultrasound imaging of the breast; before the days of high resolution ultrasound these lesions were unknown.  They consist of groupings of minute c...
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Microglandular adenosis of the breast

Microglandular adenosis (MGA) of the breast is a pathological subtype of mammary adenosis. It is benign breast condition although can mimic a breast cancer (particularly tubular breast carcinoma 3,5) both clinically, radiology and pathologically. Pathology It is considered the only benign brea...
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Milk fistula

A milk fistula is a situation where a fistulous connection develops between there skin and the lactiferous ducts. It is rare but potential complication if a core biopsy or excision biopsy of the breast is performed in a lactating patient.
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Milk of calcium

Milk of calcium (MOC) is a term given to dependent, sedimented calcification within a cystic structure or hollow organ. This sort of colloidal calcium suspension layering can occur in various regions: renal cysts: milk of calcium in renal cyst (most common) breast cysts: milk of calcium in bre...
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Milk of calcium within a breast cyst

Milk of calcium within a breast cyst is a mammographic feature observed when there is dependent calcium layering within breast cysts. It is typically observed as "tea cup" or "crescent shaped" calcifications on a true lateral (LM or ML) view on occasionally on a MLO view. On a CC view, these cal...
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Mondor disease

Mondor disease is a rare benign breast condition characterised by thrombophlebitis of the subcutaneous veins of the breast and anterior chest wall. Epidemiology Although Mondor disease is rarely reported in the literature, this is likely in part due to lack of awareness of the entity. It tends...
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Montgomery glands

Montgomery glands are large sebaceous glands in the breast, representing a transition between a mammary gland and a sweat gland. Gross anatomy Located within the nipple-areolar complex, Montgomery glands open onto the skin surface via protrusions on the skin known as Montgomery tubercles. They...
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Montgomery tubercles

Montgomery tubercles are the openings of Montgomery glands on the skin surface.  Gross anatomy They are about 1-2 mm papules on the skin surface located on the skin of the nipple and areola.  These tubercles become prominent during stimulation and pregnancy Etymology They are named after Wi...
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Mucinous carcinoma of the breast

Mucinous carcinoma of the breast, also known as colloid breast carcinoma, is a subtype of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). They account for about ~ 2% (range 1-7% 4) of breast cancers.  Epidemiology It tends to occur in older women where a prevalence of as much as 7% is found among women 75 ye...
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Multicentric breast cancer

A multicentric breast cancer is a term given to a breast cancer where there are two or more breast cancers separated by normal breast tissue (often taken as 5 cm of separation 4). It is related to but distinct from the term multifocal breast cancer. At a pathological level It can also mean 2 t...
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Multifocal breast cancer

Multifocal breast cancer refers to two or more individual breast cancers diagnosed at the same time within the same quadrant of the same breast 1. 
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Neurofibromatosis type 1 (breast manifestations)

Breast manifestations of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), or von Recklinghausen disease, it is characterised by multiple subcutaneous neurofibromas affecting the breast.  For a general discussion of the underlying condition, please refer to the article on neurofibromatosis type 1.  Radiographic...
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Nevoid hyperkeratosis of the nipple and the areola

Nevoid hyperkeratosis of the nipple and the areola (NHNA) is a rare, idiopathic and benign dermatological condition. Epidemiology Most often seen in females of reproductive age, especially during 2nd and 3rd decades of life. Less than 70 cases have been reported till now. Clinical presentatio...
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Nipple adenoma

Nipple adenoma is a rare, benign breast lesion which often mimics a malignancy Clinical presentation  Patient presents with bloody discharge from an ulcerated and painful nipple in one breast. There is itching associated with this lesion. Symptoms may show variation with the menstrual cycle. T...
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Nipple inversion

Nipple inversion is an important finding on mammography and correlation with patient history is essential. When nipple abnormalities such as inversion are identified, it is important for the technologist to document them in the medical record / mammography worksheet so that the radiologist will ...
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Nipple markers

Nipple markers can be a useful technique in the evaluation of densities overlying the expected position of the nipple on a chest radiograph. Not uncommonly a small round opacity projects over the lower thorax on a chest radiograph (see: solitary pulmonary nodule). Often, especially in women, th...
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Nipple-areolar complex

During the 6th week of gestation, a pair of longitudinal thickening of the epidermis develop on the ventral surface of the embryo, extending from the axilla to the medial thigh, called  "mammary ridges" (or "mammary line", “milk lines"). In large part these milk lines later atrophy, leaving only...
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Non-comedo type ductal carcinoma in situ

Non-comedo type ductal carcinoma in situ is a subgroup of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). This group comprises of relatively less aggressive types with low nuclear grade. It can have has multiple patterns which are often mixed:  cribriform type non-comedo DCIS micropapillary type non-comedo D...
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Non-palpable breast lesions

With increasing use of screening mammography and ultrasound for various indications, a large number of non-palpable breast lesions are being detected. Among this large number of non-palpable masses, not all are malignant. The incidence of malignancy among these non-palpable lesions varies betwe...
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Normal breast imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the breast and surrounding structures, divided by region and modality. Breast Mammography MLO and CC (standard mammographic views) labelled example lateral: example needed compression: example needed cleavage view: example axillary lymph n...
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Nottingham classification

The Nottingham classification is used at the end of work up of a breast lesion to help guide management. A = malignant lesion needs surgical excision regardless of biopsy result B = indeterminate will accept a benign biopsy result, but only if it is congruent with imaging, i.e. a well circum...
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Oil cyst (breast)

An oil cyst in breast imaging refers to a benign breast lesion where an area of focal fat necrosis becomes walled off by fibrous tissue.  Clinical presentation non tender, palpable lump asymptomatic Pathology Fat debris from ruptured lipocytes tend to conglomerate to form a macroscopic pool...
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Paget disease

Paget disease can refer to either:  Paget disease of bone Paget disease of breast History and etymology Both conditions are named after Sir James Paget (1814-1899), British surgeon and physiologist. 
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Paget disease of the breast

Paget disease of the breast, which is also known as Paget disease of the nipple, has traditionally been described as a form of breast malignancy characterised by infiltration of the nipple epidermis by malignant cells. Although most cases have underlying focus or foci of in situ or invasive carc...
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Papillary carcinoma of the breast

Papillary carcinoma of the breast is a rare ductal breast malignancy. Epidemiology They are thought to account for 1-2% of breast carcinomas 2. They typically present in postmenopausal patients with the mean age at being ~63-67 years. Clinical presentation A papillary carcinoma may manifest ...
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Papillary lesions of the breast

Papillary lesions of the breast comprise of a wide group and can range from being benign to malignant. Pathology They develop as tufts of epithelium with a fibrovascular core that arborize into branching papillae and protrude into the duct lumen. Benign papilloma of breast / intraductal papil...
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Parenchymal patterns in breast imaging

Mammographic density is considered a risk factor for breast cancer, and parenchymal patterns in breast imaging are important in the way in which the effects mammographic screening sensitivity. Women with high-risk density patterns should be screened more frequently and/or with additional views p...
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Pectoralis major

The pectoralis major muscle is a muscle of the pectoral region, overlying the anterior chest wall but is considered an upper limb muscle due to its function.  Summary origin sternal part: sternum and superior six costal cartilages clavicular part: medial half of the clavicle insertion: late...
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PGMI evaluation system

PGMI (Perfect, Good, Moderate, Inadequate) is a method of evaluation of clinical image quality in mammography developed by the United Kingdom Mammography Trainers Group with the support of the Royal College of Radiographers, aimed to ensure the maintenance of a high standard of mammography in Br...
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Phyllodes tumour

Phyllodes tumour, also known as cystosarcoma phyllodes, is a rare fibroepithelial tumour of the breast which has some resemblance to a fibroadenoma. It is typically a large, fast growing mass that forms from the periductal stroma of the breast. Epidemiology Phyllodes tumours account for less t...
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Plasma cell mastitis

Plasma cell mastitis is a benign breast condition which represents calcification of inspissated secretions in or immediately adjacent to ectatic benign ducts.  Epidemiology It is typically seen in older women (e.g. > 60 years of age). Pathology It is thought to represent aseptic inflammation...
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Poland syndrome

Poland syndrome refers to a congenital unilateral absence of the pectoralis major and minor muscles and is a recognised cause of unilateral hyperlucent hemithorax.  Epidemiology Poland syndrome is usually sporadic, although rare familial cases have been described 1. It is rare, with an estimat...
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Popcorn calcification

Popcorn calcification refers to amorphous calcifications often with rings and arcs that resemble popped corn kernels. This type of calcification may be seen in many radiological settings including 1: chondroid lesions (e.g enchondroma, chondrosarcoma) fibrous dysplasia pulmonary hamartomas d...
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Popcorn calcification within the breast

Popcorn calcification in the breast is the classical description for the calcification seen in involuting fibroadenomas which, as the name suggests, has a popcorn-like appearance.  Pathology A fibroadenoma in the long run may degenerate and calcify. Initially there are a few punctate periphera...
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Post surgical breast scar

Post surgical breast scar is a benign complication that usually occurs following  surgical intervention to breast tissue. It can however be a strong and potentially very confusing mimicker of breast malignancy. Radiographic features Review of the patient's past history and previous mammography...
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Posterior nipple line

The posterior nipple line (PNL) refers to a line drawn posteriorly and perpendicularly from the nipple towards the pectoral muscle on the mammogram. In an adequately exposed breast, the measurement difference of this line between a CC view and MLO view should be ideally within 1 cm. It is the fi...
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Pregnancy associated breast cancer

Pregnancy associated breast cancer (PABC) is usually defined as a breast breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy or one year following delivery. PABC occurs in one out of every 1500-10,000 pregnancies 5-6 and represents up to 3% of all breast malignancies. The incidence may be increasing due to...
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Primary osteosarcoma (breast)

Primary osteosarcoma of the breast is an uncommon breast malignancy and is a sub type extraskeletal osteosarcoma. Epidemiology While it can present in a wide are group, the peak age at presentation is around the 6th decade 7. Pathology  The presence of bone in breast lesions is not diagnosti...
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Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia

Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) is a benign, relatively uncommon form of stromal (mesenchymal) overgrowth within breast tissue that derives from a possible hormonal aetiology.  Epidemiology Typically affects women of reproductive age. It rarely affects males. Clinical presentatio...
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Pseudocalcifications in the breast

Pseudocalcifications and artifacts in the breast include  gold deposits in lymph nodes  from intramuscular gold therapy for rheumatoid arthritis  adhesive tape deodorant film-screen artifacts They should be differentiated from parenchymal calcification. Precautions to be taken are t...
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Pseudogynaecomastia

Pseudogynaecomastia refers to breast enlargement in men primarily due to fatty tissue but with no associated glandular or stromal tissue.
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Puerperal mastitis

Puerperal mastitis refers to mastitis occurring during pregnancy and lactation. Epidemiology It occurs most often during breast feeding and is rarely encountered during pregnancy. Pathology The source of infection is the nursing infants nose and throat; the organisms being Staphylococcus aur...
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Punctate microcalcification within the breast

Punctate microcalcifications in the breast are defined as calcific opacities <0.5 mm in diameter seen within the acini of a terminal duct lobular unit. Pathology Associations fibrocystic changes skin calcification skin talc rarely in DCIS: punctate, clustered, segmentally distributed Radi...
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Radial scar

Radial scar, or complex sclerosing lesion, is a rosette-like proliferative breast lesion. It is not related to surgical scarring. Some authors, however, reserve the latter term to lesions over 1 cm 5.  It is an idiopathic process with sclerosing ductal hyperplasia.  Its significance is that it...
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Recurrent breast cancer

The term recurrent breast cancer in medical imaging is given to recurrence of malignancy within the same breast at or close to the resection bed more than two years following surgical excision. Epidemiology The rate of local recurrence may be as high as 19% in 10 years. The maximum for recurre...
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Residual breast cancer

A residual breast cancer is a remaining portion of the original primary breast cancer after an incomplete resection or following radiotherapy or chemotherapy. The term is particularly used in assessing patients who have had neo-adjuvant chemo +/- radiotherapy.
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Reversed CC view

The reversed CC view is an additional view. It is useful for the study of breasts with surgical scars in the lower quadrants. The ability to see the scar through the compressor paddle offers to the mammographer the possibility to flatten it properly, reducing the formation of scar folds as well ...
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Rolled CC view

Given that the rolled projections can be performed from any standard projection, the most commonly used is certainly the cranio-caudal one.  A rolled CC view It's performed to locate a lesion only visible in the cranio-caudal view, or when overlapped tissues in the standard view can simulate or...
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Salad oil sign

Salad oil sign, also referred as droplet sign, is characterised by small rounded high T2 signal foci within a breast implant on MRI studies and represents water droplets or small amounts of air within the silicone. It also can be characterised as hypointense foci on the water-suppressed sequence...
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Sandbox (test page)

Feel free to edit this page however you want, if you want to just play and see how editing works.  Subheadings bullets  more bullets more bullets Capitalisation words after bullets should not be capitalised unless they represent a name, e.g. Churg-Strauss syndrome will have "C" and "S" cap...
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Sappey plexus

Sappey plexus is a network of lymphatics in the areola of the nipple. The breast is originally an ectodermal tissue, thus its lymphatic drainage is mostly parallel to the lymph flow of the overlying skin. Lymphatic flow from the skin finds its way to the diffuse subcutaneous plexus between the ...
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Scirrhous carcinoma (breast)

Scirrhous carcinoma of the breast is a pathological sub type of breast cancer. It is a sub type of invasive ductal carcinoma not otherwise specified and present as a hard lump. The proportion of pathologic lymph node metastasis among scirrhous carcinomas is significantly higher than that among c...
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Sclerosing adenosis of the breast

Sclerosing adenosis (SA) is a benign (non-cancerous) proliferative condition of the terminal duct lobular units characterised by an increased number of the acini and their glands. It is sometimes placed under the category of borderline breast disease. In women with sclerosing adenosis, multiple...
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Sclerosing lobular hyperplasia of breast

Sclerosing lobular hyperplasia (SLH) of the breast, also known as fibro-adenomatoid mastopathy, is an uncommon benign proliferative breast lesion. Epidemiology It tends to occur more often in adolescent and young adult patients (peak age in the thirties). In the United States, there may be a g...
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Sclerosing papilloma (breast)

Sclerosing papillomas of the breast are a sub type of intraductal papilloma of breast. It is termed when a papillary lesion form well-defined solid masses with a dominant sclerosed architecture 2. It is usually a histological diagnosis and usually cannot be differentiated from a non sclerosing p...
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Screening for breast cancer

There are few areas in imaging specifically and in medicine in general, fraught with more controversy than screening for breast cancer. Due to the emotive issues surrounding the diagnosis, the scientific literature on breast screening and its issues reaches the lay press quickly and is sometimes...
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Seroma

Seromas are collections of serous fluid that usually occur as a complication of surgery, but can also be seen post-trauma. It is most commonly associated with post-breast surgery, where a potential space is left. Terminology Seromas are distinct from a haematoma as it contains almost no red bl...
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Silicone injection (cosmetic)

Silicone injection into various parts of the body has been used in many countries to achieve what are perceived to be cosmetic improvements. Most common sites for such injections are the breasts, face, and buttocks, although anywhere could be targeted.  This article is general discussion of the...
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Skin calcification in breast

Skin calcifications in the breast usually form in dermal sweat glands after low grade folliculitis and inspissation of sebaceous material. Calcifications may also form in moles and other skin lesions.  Often, these calcifications are in groups as they extend into small glands in the skin. Occasi...
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Skin thickening on mammography (differential)

The presence of skin thickening on mammography is variably defined, usually being more than 2mm in thickness. It can result from a number of both benign and malignant causes. They include: Malignant inflammatory breast cancer: one of the most concerning causes of skin thickening: this usually ...
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Snowstorm sign (disambiguation)

Snowstorm sign may refer to: snowstorm sign: complete hydatiform mole (ultrasound) snowstorm sign: extracapsular breast implant rupture (ultrasound)
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Snowstorm sign (extracapsular breast implant rupture)

Snowstorm sign on breast ultrasound imaging represents the presence of free silicone droplets mixed with breast tissue giving a characteristic heterogeneous echogenic appearance with the dispersion of the ultrasound beam. It is considered the most reliable sign of extracapsular breast implant ru...
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Spence tail

Spence tail is the prolongation of upper outer quadrant of the breast in the axillary direction. It is also called the axillary tail, once it passes through the foramen of Langer, it pierces the axillary fascia. The duct system is seen to extend into the axilla. If this direct continuity with t...
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Spontaneous nipple discharge

Spontaneous nipple discharge in a non lactating breast can result from many causes which include: papillary lesions of breast: present in ~35-50% of cases with spontaneous nipple discharge intraductal papilloma fibrocystic change ductal carcinoma in situ: 5-21%
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Spot view

A spot view (also known as a spot compression view or focal compression view) is an additional view performed by applying the compression to a smaller area of tissue using a small compression paddle, increasing the effective pressure on that spot. This results in better tissue separation and all...
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Steatocystoma multiplex of the breast

Steatocystoma multiplex is a rare familial hamartomatous malformation that is characterised by the presence of multiple intradermal cysts, and can result in abnormal breast examinations.  Epidemiology They usually appear during adolescence and progress with age. Clinical presentation The dis...
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Stellate breast lesions: causes (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to recall the causes of a stellate breast lesion is: STARFACE Mnemonic S: summation shadow T: tumour (i.e. invasive breast cancer) A: abscess R: radial scar F: fibroadenoma / fat necrosis A: adenosis (sclerosing) CE: other causes, haematoma (e.g. postoperative, post bio...
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Step-and-shoot tomosynthesis (breast)

Step-and-shoot is a technology of image acquisition in digital breast tomosynthesis characterised by stop scanning at every single angle during images acquisition. Step-and-shoot technology allows advantages in microcalcifications conspicuity, spatial resolution, signal-to-noise Ratio improveme...
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Step-oblique mammography

Step-oblique mammography is an accurate technique for determining whether a mammographic finding visible on multiple images on only one projection (but not elucidated using standard additional mammographic projections) represents a summation artefact or a true mass and for precisely localizing t...
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Stepladder sign (disambiguation)

Stepladder sign may refer to: intra-capsular breast implant rupture (ultrasound) air-fluid levels in obstructed small bowel (erect abdominal radiograph)
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Stepladder sign (intracapsular breast implant rupture)

Stepladder sign is a sonographic sign indicating an intracapsular breast implant rupture. It is considered the most reliable ultrasonographic finding in silicone gel breast implant intracapsular rupture. It is identified as multiple, discontinuous, parallel, linear echoes in the lumen, and is an...
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Stereotactic breast biopsy

Breast biopsy is performed whenever it becomes necessary to characterise a breast lesion. This consists of the withdrawal and collection of cells (cytologic exam) or tissue fragments (histologic exam) and in the anatomical-pathological analysis of the sample tissue.  There are many different wa...
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Stereotactic mammotome

Stereotactic mammotome is method of biopsing breast lesions, particularly if they are occult on ultrasound. A vacuum assisted core biopsy (VACB)-stereotactic breast biopsy is performed as a diagnostic approach when mammography shows irregularities with micro-calcifications, parenchymal distorti...
Article

Sternalis muscle

The sternalis muscle is an uncommon anatomic variant of the chest wall musculature and is of uncertain aetiology and function. Its importance lies in that it should not be mistaken for a pathological lesion.  Epidemiology Cadaveric studies have shown that the muscle is present in ~5% (range 1-...
Article

Stewart-Treves syndrome

Stewart-Treves syndrome refers to an angiosarcoma seen in the setting of post-mastectomy lymphoedema. It however only accounts for 10% of all angiosarcomas seen in the setting of chronic post-mastectomy lymphoedema.
Article

Subareolar abscess

Subareolar breast abscess are relatively uncommon and tend to occur mostly in young women.  Clinical features Mastalgia, signs of inflammation, lump formation in the subareolar region and nipple discharge. In chronic cases fistula formation and nipple deformity may be seen. Pathology Locatio...
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Supernumerary nipples

Supernumerary nipples are a common minor congenital malformation that consists of accessory nipples. Supernumerary nipples are located along the embryonic milk lines. Ectopic supernumerary nipples are found beyond the embryonic milk lines. In human beings, the embryonic milk line extends from a...
Article

Supraclavicular lymph nodes

The supraclavicular lymph nodes are a paired group of lymph nodes located on either side in the hollow of clavicle close to the sternoclavicular joint. It is the final common pathway of the lymphatic system as it joins the central venous system. They oversee transport of lymph from the thoracic ...
Article

Suspensory ligament of the axilla

The suspensory ligament of the axilla is the inferior extension of the clavipectoral fascia on each side of the thorax. Gross anatomy The suspensory ligament of the axilla originates from the inferior border of pectoralis minor, where the 'leaflets' of the clavipectoral fascia have fused again...
Article

Suspicious breast calcifications

Suspicious breast calcifications are calcifications within the breast that are not benign. These calcification need further work up and biopsy. These can be divided as suspicious calcification of intermediate concern  suspicious calcification raising high probability of malignancy
Article

Suture calcification in breast

Suture calcification in breast can be seen after a lumpectomy and/or radiation therapy. It is theorized that tissue damage from radiation therapy delays the resorption of the suture. The residual suture material is thought to act as a nidus for calcification. Radiographic features Mammography ...
Article

Synchronous breast cancer

Synchronous breast cancers are two breast cancers that occur in either breast at the same time.  Epidemiology Up to 10% of all breast cancers may be synchronous (particularly found with the use of breast MRI). The occurrence of bilaterality is greatest with invasive lobular carcinoma. Radiogr...
Article

Tabar 5-tier grading system

The Tabar 5-tier grading system is used to classify mammographic lesions. This should not be confused with the Tabar classification of parenchymal patterns in breast imaging. It is a separate but translatable system to the BI-RADS classification system (please note that Tabar grade 3 ≠ BI-RADS 3...
Article

Tangential views

Tangential views are useful to differentiate intracutaneous radiopaque particles in a tattoo from intraparenchymal microcalcifications. Mammographic findings close to the skin such as masses, microcalcifications, skin dimpling or shaded areas always pose a problem of differential diagnosis. Va...
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Tattoo sign (mammogram)

The tattoo sign is a feature given to describe dermal calcifications seen on mammography 1. The basis of this sign is that dermal calcifications maintain fixed relationships to one another which are reproducible with similar projections at different times. This is in contrast to intramammary cal...
Article

Technique of masking

Masking is very important when viewing mammograms, especially with high-density breasts. It helps the adaptation of the eye to the luminance of the mammograms on the viewbox.                     The technique of masking allows the comparative study of small areas of both breasts and is a featur...
Article

Tent sign (breast)

The tent sign is a term referred to a characteristic of the posterior edge of the breast parenchyma when a mass (usually an infiltrating lesion) causes its retraction and forms an inverted "V" that resembles the tip of a circus tent. The detection of a "tent-sign" is facilitated by the systemat...
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Terminal ductal lobular unit

Each breast lobe is drained by a collecting duct terminating in the nipple. The collecting duct has several branches, which ends in a terminal ductal-lobular unit (TDLU), the basic functional and histopathological unit of the breast. The TDLU is composed of a small segment of the terminal duct a...

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