Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

295 results found
Article

Transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap

Transplantation of a transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap is a commonly used surgical procedure for breast reconstruction following mastectomy. An autologous myocutaneous flap consisting of abdominal skin, subcutaneous fat, the rectus abdominis muscle, and adjoining vasculature ...
Article

Triangulation

Triangulation is a technique for determining if a questionable structure is genuine or superimposition of structures. Technique hang the CC, MLO, and 90° lateral films (in that order) on the view box the nipple on each film must be at the same level use a ruler and place one end over the les...
Article

Triple receptor negative breast cancer

Triple receptor-negative (TRN) breast cancer refers to the lack of hormone receptors and HER2/neu staining: oestrogen receptor negative progesterone receptor negative human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) negative Epidemiology It is more likely to affect younger people and races s...
Article

Tuberculous mastitis

Tuberculous mastitis is often considered a form of granulomatous mastitis secondary to Mycobacterium tuberculous infection of the breast. Some authors however reserve the term granulomatous mastitis to idiopathic granulomatous mastitis.  Tuberculous mastitis can mimic many other pathologies in ...
Article

Tuberous breasts

Tuberous breasts are congenital deformities of breast. They are defined by reduced parenchymal volume and herniation of breast tissue through the nipple-areola complex. Epidemiology The exact incidence is not clear. However, it is a common cause of patients presenting with breast asymmetry. Pr...
Article

Tubular adenoma of the breast

Tubular adenomas (TA) of the breast, also known as pure adenoma of the breast, are a rare benign breast lesion. It is a type of adenomatous breast lesion. Epidemiology They are typically found in young women and are usually palpated by the patient or her physician. Pathology On gross patholo...
Article

Tubular carcinoma of the breast

Tubular carcinoma of the breast is a subtype of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC).  Epidemiology These account for ~1% of breast cancers. The peak age at presentation may be comparatively younger than with other types of breast cancer 7. Clinical presentation The vast majority of tubular carci...
Article

Tubulolobular carcinoma of the breast

A tubulolobular carcinoma (TLC) of the breast is considered a subtype of breast cancer that features of both invasive lobular carcinoma and tubular carcinoma of the breast. It therefore exhibits features of both ductal and lobular differentiation. Multifocality, muticentricity and percentage of ...
Article

Tucked CC views

In the standard CC views posterior tissue may be excluded from the field of view, due to the anatomical attachment to the chest wall restricting mobility of breast tissues. The tucks CC views are useful to depict lesions deep in the posterior portion of the breast, located between 10 and 2 o'clo...
Article

Ultrasound evaluation of breast cysts

Ultrasound evaluation of breast cysts is the modality of choice. Obstruction of the ducts, often appearing as the result of epithelial hyperplastic processes or the stromal fibrosis, or both processes lead to the formation of cysts, disabling the drainage of the terminal ducts of the lobules. I...
Article

Ultrasound guided breast biopsy

Ultrasound guided percutaneous breast biopsy is a widely used technique for an accurate histopathological assessment of suspected breast pathology. It is a fast, safe and economical procedure. Indications Ultrasound guidance is limited to lesions visible on ultrasound study, such as:  BIRADS ...
Article

Unilateral axillary lymphadenopathy (differential)

Unilateral axillary lymphadenopathy while being more concerning than bilateral axillary lymphadenopathy can still arise from a various benign as well as malignant causes. Benign mastitis other regional infective causes tuberculosis ipsilateral arm infection, e.g. cellulitis silicone induce...
Article

Vascular calcification in breast

Vascular calcifications in the breast are calcifications associated with blood vessels.   Epidemiology They are most often seen in post menopausal women with arteriosclerotic heart disease.  Pathology Results due to calcified atherosclerotic plaques in the arterial walls. Associations coro...
Article

Well-defined breast cancers (differential)

Certain well-defined breast cancers tend lack the characteristic spiculation and can give false reassurance of more benign entities on both ultrasound and mammography. These include: certain high grade invasive ductal carcinomas: not enough time for a desmoplastic reaction to form spiculation ...
Article

XCCL view

An XCCL view is a supplementary mammographic view. It is a type of exaggerated cranio-caudal view. It is particularly good for imaging the lateral aspect of the breast.  It is often done when a lesion is suspected on a MLO view but cannot be seen on the CC view. In this view, the lateral aspect...
Article

XCCM view

An XCCM view is a supplementary mammographic view. It is a type of exaggerated cranio-caudal view. It is particularly good for imaging the medial portion of the breast. In this view, the medial portion of the breast is placed forward. A negative 15° tube tilt is suggested. An optimal XCCM view ...

Updating… Please wait.
Loadinganimation

Alert accept

Error Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

Alert accept Thank you for updating your details.