Transplantation of a transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap is a commonly used surgical procedure for breast reconstruction following mastectomy.
An autologous myocutaneous flap consisting of abdominal skin, subcutaneous fat, the rectus abdominis muscle, and adjoining vasculature ...
Triangulation is a technique for determining if a questionable structure is genuine or superimposition of structures.
hang the CC, MLO, and 90° lateral films (in that order) on the view box
the nipple on each film must be at the same level
use a ruler and place one end over the les...
Triple receptor-negative (TRN) breast cancer refers to the lack of hormone receptors and HER2/neu staining:
oestrogen receptor negative
progesterone receptor negative
human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) negative
It is more likely to affect younger people and races s...
Tuberculous mastitis is often considered a form of granulomatous mastitis secondary to Mycobacterium tuberculous infection of the breast. Some authors however reserve the term granulomatous mastitis to idiopathic granulomatous mastitis.
Tuberculous mastitis can mimic many other pathologies in ...
Tuberous breasts are congenital deformities of breast. They are defined by reduced parenchymal volume and herniation of breast tissue through the nipple-areola complex.
The exact incidence is not clear. However, it is a common cause of patients presenting with breast asymmetry. Pr...
Tubular adenomas (TA) of the breast, also known as pure adenoma of the breast, are a rare benign breast lesion. It is a type of adenomatous breast lesion.
They are typically found in young women and are usually palpated by the patient or her physician.
On gross patholo...
Tubular carcinoma of the breast is a subtype of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC).
These account for ~1% of breast cancers. The peak age at presentation may be comparatively younger than with other types of breast cancer 7.
The vast majority of tubular carci...
A tubulolobular carcinoma (TLC) of the breast is considered a subtype of breast cancer that features of both invasive lobular carcinoma and tubular carcinoma of the breast. It therefore exhibits features of both ductal and lobular differentiation. Multifocality, muticentricity and percentage of ...
In the standard CC views posterior tissue may be excluded from the field of view, due to the anatomical attachment to the chest wall restricting mobility of breast tissues. The tucks CC views are useful to depict lesions deep in the posterior portion of the breast, located between 10 and 2 o'clo...
Ultrasound evaluation of breast cysts is the modality of choice. Obstruction of the ducts, often appearing as the result of epithelial hyperplastic processes or the stromal fibrosis, or both processes lead to the formation of cysts, disabling the drainage of the terminal ducts of the lobules.
Ultrasound guided percutaneous breast biopsy is a widely used technique for an accurate histopathological assessment of suspected breast pathology. It is a fast, safe and economical procedure.
Ultrasound guidance is limited to lesions visible on ultrasound study, such as:
Unilateral axillary lymphadenopathy while being more concerning than bilateral axillary lymphadenopathy can still arise from a various benign as well as malignant causes.
other regional infective causes
ipsilateral arm infection, e.g. cellulitis
Vascular calcifications in the breast are calcifications associated with blood vessels.
They are most often seen in post menopausal women with arteriosclerotic heart disease.
Results due to calcified atherosclerotic plaques in the arterial walls.
Certain well-defined breast cancers tend lack the characteristic spiculation and can give false reassurance of more benign entities on both ultrasound and mammography. These include:
certain high grade invasive ductal carcinomas: not enough time for a desmoplastic reaction to form spiculation
An XCCL view is a supplementary mammographic view. It is a type of exaggerated cranio-caudal view. It is particularly good for imaging the lateral aspect of the breast.
It is often done when a lesion is suspected on a MLO view but cannot be seen on the CC view. In this view, the lateral aspect...
An XCCM view is a supplementary mammographic view. It is a type of exaggerated cranio-caudal view. It is particularly good for imaging the medial portion of the breast. In this view, the medial portion of the breast is placed forward. A negative 15° tube tilt is suggested.
An optimal XCCM view ...