Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

331 results found
Article

Accessory left atrial appendage

An accessory left atrial appendage is a frequent fortuitous finding in cardiac imaging, encountered in ~10% of patients. They are more often seen as a small diverticular structure projecting from the right upper side of the left atrial wall. Differential diagnosis it must not be confused with ...
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Acute right heart syndrome

Acute right heart syndrome (ARHS) is defined as a sudden deterioration in right ventricular (RV) function and failure of the RV to deliver adequate blood flow to the pulmonary circulation. This can result in systemic hypoperfusion. Pathology ARHS can occur in several settings 1 in the setting...
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Acyanotic congenital heart disease

There are numerous causes of acyanotic congenital heart disease and can be divided into those that have increased pulmonary vascularity (pulmonary plethora) and those that do not: increased pulmonary vascularity ventricular septal defect (VSD) atrial septal defect (ASD) atrioventricular sept...
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Agatston score

Agatston score is a semi-automated tool to calculate a score based on the extent of coronary artery calcification detected by an unenhanced low-dose CT scan which is routinely performed in patients undergoing cardiac CT. Due to an extensive body of research, it allows for an early risk stratific...
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Anatomy curriculum

The anatomy curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core anatomy knowledge. General anatomy Neuroanatomy Head and neck anatomy Thoracic anatomy Abdominal and pelvic anatomy Spinal anatomy Lower limb anatomy Upper limb anato...
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Anomalous course of coronary arteries

Anomalous course of a coronary artery is a type of congenital coronary artery anomaly. It may represent a benign and incidental finding, but can also be a malignant course predisposing patients to life-threatening myocardial ischaemia or arrhythmias, depending on where the artery runs.  Clinica...
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Anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery

Anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA), also known as Bland-White-Garland syndrome (BWG), is a rare congenital coronary artery anomaly and is considered one of the most serious of such anomalies. There are two forms based on onset of disease each of which has differen...
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Aortic annulus

The aortic annulus is a fibrous ring at the aortic orifice to the front and to the right of the atrioventricular aortic valve and is considered the transition point between the left ventricle and aortic root. The annulus is part of the fibrous skeleton of the heart.  It is at the level of the si...
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Aortic isthmus

The aortic isthmus is the part of the aortic arch just distal to the origin of the left subclavian artery at the site of the ductus arteriosus. This portion of the aorta is partly constricted in the fetus because of the lack of flow within the aortic sac and ascending aorta. It marks the partia...
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Aortic root

The aortic root is the first part of the aorta and connects the heart to the systemic circulation.  Gross anatomy The aortic root lies between the junction of the aortic valve and ascending aorta. It has several subparts 1: three aortic valve leaflets and leaflet attachments three aortic sin...
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Aortic valve

The aortic valve is one of the four cardiac valves. It is the semilunar valve that allows blood to exit the left ventricle. It opens during systole and closes during diastole. The valve has left, right and posterior cusps, the bases of which attach around the valve orifice to a fibrous ring or a...
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Aortic valve stenosis

Aortic valve stenosis (also known as aortic stenosis) is the most common type of valvular heart disease that requires valve replacement. It can be classified according to the anatomical location: supravalvular, valvular and subvalvular 1.  Epidemiology There are several causes of aortic valve ...
Article

Aortopulmonary septal defect

Aortopulmonary septal defect (APSD), also known as aortopulmonary window (APW), is a congenital anomaly where there is an abnormal communication between the proximal aorta and the pulmonary trunk in the presence of separate aortic and pulmonary valves. Terminology APSD should not be confused w...
Article

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) is classified as a type of cardiomyopathy. It is seen particularly in young males, and is one of the more common causes of sudden death in these patients.  Epidemiology The estimated population prevalence is thought to range around 1 in 1000-50...
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Arrthymogenic right ventricular dysplasia diagnostic criteria

For the diagnosis of arrthymogenic right ventricular dysplasia to be made patients must have either two major criteria, one major and two minor criteria, or four minor criteria. Major criteria global or regional dysfunction and structural alterations: severe dilatation of the right ventricle ...
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Arterial Doppler assessment in LVAD patients

In patients with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD), spectral Doppler waveforms are altered due to continuous flow provided by the pump in the device: waveforms are monophasic with a constant antegrade flow and no flow below the baseline. the waveform is typically parvus-tardus with a slo...
Article

Arterial switch procedure

The arterial switch procedure (or Jatene switch) is an intervention designed to correct D-transposition of the great arteries at the level of the aorta and main pulmonary artery. First, the left and right coronary arteries are transferred to the posterior artery (the main pulmonary artery, now ...
Article

Atrial escape

Atrial escape refers to a chest x-ray sign of massive left atrial enlargement and is an exaggerated version of the double density sign.   Normally, the right border of the left atrium is not visible. As it enlarges it forms a distinct border projecting through the right heart shadow, medial to ...
Article

Atrial septal defect

Atrial septal defects (ASD) are the second most common congenital heart defect after ventricular septal defects and the most common to become symptomatic in adulthood. They are characterised by an abnormal opening in the atrial septum allowing communication between the right and left atria. Due...
Article

Atrio-oesophageal fistula

Atrial-oesophageal fistulas are rare pathological connections between the left atrium and the oesophagus.  Clinical presentation The presentation is non-specific. Patients may complain of fever, malaise, dysphagia or present with neurological symptoms 3.  Pathology The chief cause of atrial-...
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Atrioventricular septal defect

Atrioventricular septal defects (AVSDs), also known as atrioventricular canal defects or endocardial cushion defects, comprise of a relatively wide range of defects involving the atrial septum, ventricular septum and one or both of the tricuspid or mitral valve. They can represent 2-7% of congen...
Article

Barth syndrome

Barth syndrome (BTHS), also referred to as 3-methylglutaconic aciduria type II is an extremely rare X-linked multi-system disorder that is usually diagnosed in infancy. It is characterised by: fetal cardiomyopathy: (dilated fetal cardiomyopathy (DCM) +/- endocardial fibroelastosis (EFE) +/- le...
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Beck triad

Beck triad is a collection of three clinical signs associated with pericardial tamponade which is due to excess accumulation of fluid within the pericardial sac. The three signs are: low blood pressure (weak pulse or narrow pulse pressure) muffled heart sounds  raised jugular venous pressure ...
Article

Bentall procedure

Bentall procedure is performed for the repair of ascending aortic root lesions. Typically the native aortic root and aortic valve are replaced with a composite graft that comprises of both ascending aortic and aortic valve grafts, into which the coronary arteries are anastomosed. History and et...
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Bicuspid aortic valve

Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) refers to a spectrum of deformed aortic valves with two functional leaflets or cusps which are often unequal in size. They are most often congenital while an acquired bicuspid valve occurs when there is fibrous fusion between the right and left cusps of a pre-existin...
Article

Blalock-Taussig shunt

Blalock-Taussig shunt, also known as Blalock-Thomas-Taussig shunt, is a palliative procedure performed in patients with tetralogy of Fallot (prior to the ability to repair the defect) to increase the pulmonary blood flow.  Originally the shunt sacrificed the subclavian artery (with a distal lig...
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Blocked premature atrial contractions

Blocked premature atrial contractions (BPACs) are considered a type cardiac bradyarrhythmia and if occurring in utero is classified under a fetal bradyarrhythmia. Pathophysiology It is seen when a premature atrial contraction occurs very early on and consequently it is not conducted into the v...
Article

Boot-shaped heart

A 'boot-shaped' heart ("cœur en sabot" in French) is the description given to the appearance of the heart on plain film in some cases of Tetralogy of Fallot. It describes the appearances of an upturned cardiac apex due to right ventricular hypertrophy and a concave pulmonary arterial s...
Article

Box-shaped heart

A 'box-shaped' heart is a radiographic description given to the cardiac silhouette in some cases of Ebstein anomaly. The classic appearance of this finding is caused by the combination of the following features: huge right atrium that may fill the entire right hemithorax shelved appearance of ...
Article

Cabrol shunt

The Cabrol shunt or Cabrol fistula, also known as a perigraft-to-right atrial shunt, is a technique used for uncontrolled bleeding following aortic root operations. Rationale The Cabrol shunt is applied when bleeding from an aortic root reconstruction cannot be controlled by traditional means ...
Article

Carcinoid cardiac lesions

Carcinoid cardiac lesions are a known complication of carcinoid tumours, and are particularly prevalent in those who develop the carcinoid syndrome (up to 50%). Pathology There is thickening of mural and valvular endothelial surfaces of right-sided cardiac structures. This is thought to occur ...
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Cardiac amyloidosis

Cardiac amyloidosis is a significant source of morbidity among patients with systemic amyloidosis, and is the most common cause of restrictive cardiomyopathy outside the tropics. Amyloidosis represents the extra-cellular deposition of insoluble fibrillar proteinaceous material in various organs...
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Cardiac angiosarcoma

Cardiac angiosarcomas are the most common sarcoma involving the heart (see cardiac tumours).  Epidemiology and clinical presentation As these tumours tends to occur in the right atrium and involve the pericardium, patients usually present with right-sided heart failure or cardiac tamponade. Th...
Article

Cardiac blood pool scan

A multi-gated (MUGA) cardiac blood scan scan is a common study performed in patients who are receiving potentially cardiotoxic chemotherapy.  Indications acute myocardial infarction (AMI) coronary artery disease (CAD) evaluation after coronary artery bypass graft surgery cardiomyopathy / my...
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Cardiac chamber enlargement

Cardiac chamber enlargement can be recognised by cardiac contour changes, new or different interfaces with adjacent lung, and/or displacement of adjacent mediastinal structures. These are discussed separately: right atrial enlargement right ventricular enlargement left atrial enlargement lef...
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Cardiac cirrhosis

Cardiac cirrhosis is the end-point of passive hepatic congestion from heart failure.  Pathology Aetiology Causes of cardiac cirrhosis include 1: ischaemic heart disease (~30%) cardiomyopathy (~25%) valvular heart disease (~25%) restrictive lung disease (~15%) pericardial disease (~10%) ...
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Cardiac conduction devices

Implantable cardiac conduction devices are a very common medical device of the thorax, with over one million implanted in the United States of America alone. There are two major types of cardiac conduction devices: pacemakers and automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (AICD/ICD), and...
Article

Cardiac CT

Computed tomography of the heart (or cardiac CT) is routinely performed to gain knowledge about cardiac or coronary anatomy, to detect or diagnose coronary artery disease, to evaluate patency of coronary artery bypass grafts or implanted coronary stents or to evaluate volumetry and cardiac funct...
Article

Cardiac curriculum

The cardiac curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core cardiac knowledge. Definition Topics pertaining to the heart and pericardium, but excluding the mediastinum (see: chest curriculum) and great vessels (see: vascular curricul...
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Cardiac fibroma

Cardiac fibroma, also known as cardiac fibromatosis, are benign congenital cardiac tumours that usually manifest in children.  Epidemiology Cardiac fibroma is a tumour that primarily affects children (most cases is detected in infants or in utero). They are the second most common benign primar...
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Cardiac fibrous skeleton

The fibrous skeleton of the heart is a complex set of collagenous rings that connect annuli of all four cardiac valves. Between the four annuli are two trigones (right and left) and the membranous portions of the interatrial, interventricular, and atrioventricular septa. The annuli of the two se...
Article

Cardiac herniation

Cardiac herniation is refers to herniation of heart outside its expected position. It can be intrathoracic or extrathoracic. Pathology A cardiac herniation secondary to pericardial rupture is rare, but a highly lethal injury with most patients dying before arrival at a hospital. Diagnosis in ...
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Cardiac imaging planes

Cardiac imaging planes are used to orientate imaging in cardiac MRI, and are reconstructed for cardiac CT. There are three main planes, which are centred on a line (using body imaging planes) from the cardiac apex to the middle of the mitral valve, that is the true long axis of the heart 1,2:  ...
Article

Cardiac lipoma

Cardiac lipomas are uncommon benign primary cardiac neoplasms and occur across a wide age range.  Clinical presentation They are soft and may grow to a large size without causing symptoms and are usually incidentally discovered. In the pericardial space, they may compress the ventricles or cau...
Article

Cardiac lymphoma

Cardiac lymphoma is a rare tumour of the myocardium and/or pericardium. It may be considered as primary or secondary. Epidemiology Primary cardiac lymphoma is a rare occurrence, representing only 10% of primary malignant cardiac tumours (1% of all primary cardiac tumours). Secondary involveme...
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Cardiac MRI

Cardiac MRI consists of using MRI to study heart anatomy and pathology. Advantages Main advantages of cardiac MRI in comparison with other techniques are: a better definition of soft tissues use of different types of sequences improves diagnostic accuracy avoid ionising radiation neverthel...
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Cardiac myxoma

Cardiac myxomas, although uncommon are one of commonest primary cardiac tumours and account for ~50% primary benign cardiac tumours.  Epidemiology Cardiac myxomas are the most common primary cardiac tumour in adults but are relatively infrequent in childhood, where cardiac rhabdomyomas are mor...
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Cardiac plexus

The cardiac plexus is a plexus of nerves situated at the base of the heart. It is formed by cardiac branches derived from both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. Gross anatomy Sympathetic cardiac nerves are derived from T1 to T4 segments and partly from the T5 segment of the ...
Article

Cardiac rhabdomyoma

Cardiac rhabdomyomas are a type of benign myocardial tumour and are considered the most common fetal cardiac tumour.  Epidemiology Cardiac rhabdomyomas are often multiple and can represent up to 90% of cardiac tumours in the paediatric population 1. The majority are diagnosed before the age of...
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Cardiac rhabdomyosarcoma

Cardiac rhabdomyosarcoma is a muscular tumour that arises in the heart. Epidemiology They account for only 4-7% of cardiac sarcomas overall but are the most common cardiac malignancy in infants and children. There is a slight male predilection. Pathology Location Cardiac rhabdomyosarcoma ha...
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Cardiac segmentation model

The American Heart Association (AHA) has published the nomenclature and segmentation of the left ventricular myocardium (the cardiac segmentation model), now widely used for the description of disease-affected myocardial territories and wall function. There are 17 segments that have a reasonably...
Article

Cardiac silhouette

Cardiac silhouette refers to the outline of the heart as seen on frontal and lateral chest radiographs and forms part of the cardiomediastinal contour. The size and shape of the cardiac silhouette provide useful clues for underlying disease. Radiographic features From the frontal projection, t...
Article

Cardiac tamponade

Cardiac tamponade is the result of accumulation of fluid, pus, blood, gas, or benign or malignant neoplastic tissue within the pericardial cavity, which can occur either rapidly of gradually over time, but eventually results in impaired cardiac output. This is to be distinguished from a pericar...
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Cardiac tuberculosis

Cardiac tuberculosis refers to the rare infection of the cardiac musculature with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Pathology Generally associated with and occurring as a complication of mediastinal and pulmonary tuberculosis. Pericardial and myocardial involvement is known. Endocardial spread may ...
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Cardiac valves

The four cardiac valves direct the flow of blood through the heart during the cardiac cycle. Gross anatomy The heart valves are located in the cardiac fibrous skeleton: two are atrioventricular (AV) valves: the right-sided tricuspid valve and left-sided mitral (bicuspid) valve open during di...
Article

Cardiac venous malformations

Cardiac venous malformations (also known as cardiac haemangiomas) consists of a slow flow venous malformation and is composed of numerous non-neoplastic endothelial-lined thin-walled channels with interspersed fat and fibrous septae. Terminology It is important to note that according to newer ...
Article

Cardiomegaly

Cardiomegaly is a catch-all term to refer to enlargement of the heart, and should not be confused with causes of enlargement of the cardiomediastinal outline, or enlargement of the cardiac silhouette.  Although in most cases merely 'eye-balling' a chest x-ray will be sufficient in detecting car...
Article

Cardiomyopathy

Cardiomyopathy is defined as a "disease of the myocardium with associated cardiac dysfunction" 1. It has been classified according to several systems: 1995 WHO/ISFC cardiomyopathy classification system Elliott et al classification system: published by the European Society of Cardiolo...
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Cardiomyopathy (classification) - WHO/ISFC 1995

Cardiomyopathy classification separates the various cardiomyopathies into several subtypes. A cardiomyopathy is defined as a "disease of the myocardium with associated cardiac dysfunction". It was initially classified according to the 1995 WHO/ISFC system as follows: dilated cardiomy...
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Cardiomyopathy in haemochromatosis

Cardiomyopathy in haemochromatosis refers to an iron overload cardiomyopathy which can occur in those with the condition. In primary haemochromatosis leading to iron overload, the cardiomyopathy has classically categorised as an infiltrative cause of restrictive cardiomyopathy. While in those w...
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Cardiovascular shunts

Cardiovascular (cardiac) shunts are abnormal connections between the pulmonary and systemic circulations. Most commonly they are the result of congenital heart disease. Pathology Blood can either be shunted from the systemic circulation to pulmonary circulation (left-to-right shunt) or between...
Article

Carotid pacemaker

Carotid pacemaker, also known as implantable carotid sinus stimulators, is a device that delivers activation energy through the carotid leads and the leads conduct activation energy to the carotid baroreceptors. This is sometimes offered for drug-resistant hypertension. The baroreceptors send si...
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Causes of pulmonary hypertension

The causes of pulmonary arterial hypertension are protean and can be divided in many ways. A simple and systematic approach is to proceed along the cardiopulmonary pulmonary circulation, as causes are found at each site (for a more official classification system see 2003 third world symposium on...
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Causes of pulseless electrical activity (mnemonic)

Pulseless electrical activity is a very disconcerting medical scenario with a very high mortality unless its aetiology can be quickly ascertained and corrected. A mnemonic to remember the different causes of pulseless electrical activity is: MAD (triple H) Cat Mnemonic M: massive pulmonary em...
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Cavo-atrial junction

The superior cavo-atrial junction, generally referred to as simply the cavo-atrial junction (CAJ), is the junction of the right lateral border of the superior vena cava (SVC) and the superior border of the right atrium. It is an important landmark to recognise because it marks an optimum site f...
Article

Cervical aortic arch

Cervical aortic arch is a rare anomaly characterised by an elongated, high-lying aortic arch extending at or above the level of the medial ends of the clavicles. Clinical presentation Patients with cervical aortic arch are usually asymptomatic. Symptomatic patients may present with 1-13: palp...
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Chagas disease

Chagas disease, also referred as trypanosomiasis, is a tropical parasitic infection with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, since it can virtually affect any organ, but there are characteristic radiological features. Epidemiology Chagas disease is endemic to Central and South America....
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Chest x-ray (early clinical)

The chest x-ray is a ubiquitous tool used in the assessment of a vast number of sick (and potentially sick) patients.  In the early clinical years, it will appear be challenging to interpret. However, with practice and repeated exposure, you will learn to interpret chest x-rays with relative ea...
Article

Chordae tendineae

The chordae tendineae are thin strong inelastic fibrous chords that extend from the free edge of the cusps of the atrioventricular valves (the tricuspid and mitral valves) to the apices of the papillary muscles within the right and left ventricles respectively.  They transmit the force of the co...
Article

Circumflex artery

The circumflex artery (Cx) is a major coronary artery that divides off the left main coronary artery (the other branch being the left anterior descending artery). Terminology The circumflex artery has been referred to with multiple terms: circumflex artery (Cx) left circumflex artery (LCx) ...
Article

Congenital absence of the pericardium

To be merged with pericardial agenesis Congenital absence of the pericardium is rare, and although often asymptomatic, can result in mechanical impairment of cardiac function and even death.  Clinical presentation In most cases of isolated absence of the pericardium, patients are asymptomati...
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Congenital aortic stenosis

Congenital aortic stenosis broadly refers to a congenital narrowing of the aortic lumen. Although the term can mean narrowing at any point, it often relates to a narrowing of the aortic valve. As a broad group, there can be some overlap with ascending aortic coarctation depending on the definiti...
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Congenital coronary artery anomalies

Congenital coronary artery anomalies (CCAAs) are not common, found only in ~1% (range 0.1-2%) of patients 1,3.The most important finding to look for is the "malignant" course of anomalous coronary artery, namely, does the artery run between big pulsating objects - RVOT and pulmonary ar...
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Congenital heart disease chest x-ray (an approach)

With the advent of echocardiography, and cardiac CT and MRI, the role of chest radiographs in evaluating congenital heart disease has been largely been relegated to one of historical and academic interest, although they continue to crop up in radiology exams. In most instances a definite diagnos...
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Congenital pulmonary stenosis

Congenital pulmonary stenosis (CPS) refers to congenital narrowing of the right ventricular outflow tract, pulmonary valve or pulmonary artery. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is 1 in 2000 births. Pathology Can be morphologically categorised depending on the relationship to the pulmonar...
Article

Congenital pulmonary venolobar syndrome

Congenital pulmonary venolobar syndrome is a condition comprised of a rare group of cardiac and pulmonary congenital abnormalities occurring variably in combination. The abnormalities include: anomalous pulmonary venous drainage particularly scimitar syndrome with hypogenic right lung pulmona...
Article

Congestive cardiac failure

Congestive cardiac failure (CCF) is a form of cardiac failure which is primarily manifested by the heart inability to pump the volume of blood. It can affect the left (common) or right cardiac chambers or both. Pathology It may be precipitated by intrinsic cardiac or extrinsic factors (which i...
Article

Conotruncal cardiac anomalies

Conotruncal heart defects are a group of congenital cardiovascular anomalies. They are a leading cause symptomatic cyanotic cardiac disease diagnosed in utero. Epidemiology They may account for up to a fifth of all congenital cardiac anomalies diagnosed prenatally 2. Clinical presentation Du...
Article

Constrictive pericarditis

Constrictive pericarditis (or perhaps better termed pericardial constriction) is a type of pericarditis which leads to diastolic dysfunction and potentially symptoms of right heart failure.  Epidemiology No single demographic is affected as there are numerous causes of constrictive pericarditi...
Article

Conus artery

The conus artery is a small early branch off the right coronary artery (RCA) circulation. Gross anatomy Supply The artery has a variable distribution, but usually supplies a region of the anterior interventricular septum and the conus of the main pulmonary artery (hence its name). Variant an...
Article

Cor pulmonale

Cor pulmonale is defined as an failure of the structure and function of the right ventricle caused by an underlying primary disorder of the respiratory system. It has a generally chronic and slowly progressive course, although acute onset or worsening with life-threatening complications can occu...
Article

Cor triatriatum

Cor triatriatum is an extremely rare and serious congenital cardiac anomaly.  Epidemiology It is thought to account for ~0.1% of all congenital cardiac anomalies 3,4.  Clinical presentation Clinical presentation depends on: degree of stenosis in the fibromuscular membrane integrity of the ...
Article

Coronary arterial dominance

Coronary arterial dominance is defined by the vessel which gives rise to the posterior descending artery (PDA), which supplies the myocardium of the inferior 1/3rd of the interventricular septum. Most hearts (80-85%) are right dominant where the PDA is supplied by the RCA. The remaining 15-20% ...
Article

Coronary arterial ectasia

Coronary arterial ectasia (CAE) refers to diffuse dilatation of the coronary arteries. Under some classification systems there is some overlap with the term coronary arterial aneurysms (which is a more focal dilatation). Terminology It is often defined as dilatation of an arterial segment to a...
Article

Coronary arteries

The coronary arteries arise just distal (superior) to the aortic valve from the coronary sinuses and supply the myocardium with oxygenated blood. They divide and encircle the heart to cover its surface with a lacy network resembling perhaps a slightly crooked crown. Gross anatomy The typical c...
Article

Coronary artery aneurysm

Coronary artery aneurysms (CAA's) are an uncommon, predominantly incidental finding. Epidemiology CAA is most common in men 3, likely reflecting the increased rates of atherosclerosis in men compared to women. Prevalence varies in the literature between 0.1-5% 4. Clinical presentation Most c...
Article

Coronary artery bypass graft

A coronary artery bypass graft (CABG or CAG) is placed during a surgical procedure to increase blood flow to the myocardium due to coronary stenoses, usually caused by coronary artery disease. Arteries or veins can be grafted during this procedure. Long term outcome of coronary artery bypass gr...
Article

Coronary artery disease

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of mortality globally.  Clinical presentation CAD is asymptomatic in most of the population. When severe enough it can cause angina, or an acute coronary syndrome including myocardial infarction. CAD may also present with heart failure or sudd...
Article

Coronary microvascular obstruction

Microvascular obstruction (MVO), also known as no reflow phenomenon, is an established complication encountered in coronary angioplasty for prolonged acute myocardial infarction.  Pathology The phenomenon results from obstruction of the myocardial microcirculation, which is composed of vessel...
Article

Coronary MR angiography

Coronary MR angiography (coronary MRA) is a developing approach to imaging the coronary arteries. Advantages of coronary MRA include avoidance of the intravenous iodinated contrast and ionizing radiation used in coronary CT angiography and conventional angiography. A disadvantage of coronary M...
Article

Coronary sinus

The coronary sinus is the major coronary vein. It returns the majority of the left ventricular blood flow to the right atrium. Gross anatomy The coronary sinus courses along the posterior wall of the left atrium into the left atrioventricular groove. It normally drains into the right atrium. T...
Article

Coronary veins

The coronary veins return blood from the myocardium back to the right atrium. Coronary venous anatomy is highly variable, but is generally comprised of: coronary sinus cardiac veins (drain into the coronary sinus) great cardiac vein (adjacent to the left anterior descending artery) left post...
Article

Crista terminalis

Crista terminalis is a smooth muscular ridge in the superior aspect of right atrium. It represents junction between the sinus venosus and the heart. It divides the pectinate muscle origin and the right atrial appendages in the right atrium. Its identification is significant in the determination...

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