Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

679 results found
Article

COL4A1-related disorders

COL4A1-related disorders are a group of autosomal dominant disorders caused by a mutation in the COL4A1 gene. Epidemiology The exact prevalence is unknown, but the group of disorders is considered to be under-recognized, especially asymptomatic variants 1. Clinical presentation The clinical ...
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Systemic lupus erythematosus

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease with multisystem involvement. Although abnormalities in almost every aspect of the immune system have been found, the key defect is thought to result from a loss of self-tolerance to autoantigens. Epidemiology There is a strong...
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Endocardial fibroelastosis

Endocardial fibroelastosis (EFE) is a rare cardiac condition which is classically described in the pediatric population (typically first two years). It is one of the causes in infants of unexplained heart failure. Epidemiology Associations mitral valve abnormalities: e.g mitral regurgitation ...
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Heart

The heart is a hollow, muscular organ of the middle mediastinum, designed to pump oxygenated blood around the systemic circulation and deoxygenated blood around the pulmonary circulation. Gross anatomy The heart has a somewhat conical form and is enclosed by the pericardium. It is positioned p...
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Left atrium

The left atrium (LA) (plural: atria) is one of the four chambers of the heart. It receives oxygenated blood from the pulmonary circulation that is then delivered to the left ventricle (LV) and then into the systemic circulation. Gross anatomy The left atrium is grossly cuboidal, and the right ...
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Myocardial injury

Myocardial injury or myocardial necrosis refers to the cell death of cardiomyocytes and is defined by an elevation of cardiac troponin values. It is not only considered a prerequisite for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction but also an entity in itself and can arise from non-ischemic or non-c...
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Myocarditis

Myocarditis (rare plural: myocarditides) is a general term referring to inflammation of the myocardium.  Clinical presentation Clinical presentation is variable in severity, ranging from asymptomatic to cardiogenic shock, but it typically is associated with other viral symptoms, including feve...
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Intracardiac thrombus

Intracardiac thrombi are seen in a variety of clinical settings and can result in severe morbidity or even death from embolic events. They can occur following myocardial infarction with ventricular thrombus formation, or with atrial fibrillation and mitral stenosis where atrial thrombi predomina...
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Coronary artery bypass graft

A coronary artery bypass graft (CABG or CAG) is placed during a surgical procedure to increase blood flow to the myocardium due to coronary stenoses, usually caused by coronary artery disease. Arteries or veins can be grafted during this procedure. Long term outcome of coronary artery bypass gr...
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Scleroderma (cardiac manifestations)

Cardiac manifestations of scleroderma are highly variable, seen in approximately 15% of patients and are associated with a poor prognosis 2. For a discussion of scleroderma in general, refer to parent article: scleroderma. Clinical presentation Patients may present with: myocardial infarctio...
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Pericarditis

Pericarditis is defined as inflammation of the pericardium. It is normally found in association with cardiac, thoracic or wider systemic pathology and it is unusual to manifest on its own. Epidemiology Associations camptodactyly arthropathy coxa vara pericarditis syndrome Clinical presentati...
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Coronary CT angiography (CT protocol)

The coronary CT angiography or cardiac CT angiogram protocol is the most common dedicated cardiac CT examination and is a non-invasive tool for the evaluation of the coronary arteries. Note: This article is intended to outline some general principles. Protocol specifics especially medications, ...
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Congenital pulmonary stenosis

Congenital pulmonary stenosis (CPS) refers to congenital narrowing of the right ventricular outflow tract, pulmonary valve, or pulmonary artery. See pulmonary valve stenosis for a general discussion about this valvulopathy. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is 1 in 2000 births. Pathology ...
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Enlarged pulmonary trunk on chest radiography (differential)

The differential of an enlarged pulmonary trunk/main pulmonary artery on chest radiography includes:  normal may appear prominent in young patients especially women projectional rotation lordotic view rotation of the heart pectus excavatum left lower lobe collapse pulmonary arterial hyp...
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Cardiac conduction devices

Implantable cardiac conduction devices (also known as cardiac implantable electronic devices or CIEDs) are a very common medical device of the thorax, with over one million implanted in the United States of America alone. There are two major types of cardiac conduction devices: pacemakers and a...
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Isthmus (disambiguation)

Isthmus (plural isthmi) is an anatomical term and refers to a slender structure joining two larger components. Some of these uses of the word isthmus are now rarely used or only seen in older texts and articles: isthmus (aorta) isthmus (auditory tube) isthmus (auricle of the ear) isthmus (ci...
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Triple rule out

A triple rule out (TRO) protocol is a cardiac CT protocol that aims to assess for different problems at the same time in one single examination: obstructive coronary artery disease, aortic dissection or pulmonary embolism. The approach itself has been continuously under discussion due to diffic...
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Cardiac cycle

The cardiac cycle describes the electrical and mechanical actions of the heart, contraction and relaxation of the atria and ventricles during every heartbeat. The cardiac cycle consists of the following phases 1-3: Systole isovolumetric contraction and closure of the atrioventricular valves  ...
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Cardiac function

Cardiac function refers to the hearts capability to fulfill its task as the motor or pump of the blood circuit satisfying the bodies demands of oxygen and nutritive substances as well as the removal of waste products. A direct measure of cardiac function is cardiac output which can be increased...
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Cardiac CT (prospective acquisition)

A prospective ECG gated cardiac CT angiogram also known as the step and shoot method is considered the default or ‘bread and butter’ protocol for coronary CTA  and combines a reasonably low radiation dose with diagnostic results in most situations. Nowadays, this protocol is available on most CT...
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Cardiac CT (prospective high-pitch acquisition)

The prospective ECG-gated high-pitch dual-source CT cardiac angiogram is a high pitch helical acquisition of the heart that is able to capture a single phase of the cardiac cycle, a dual-source scanner is required to perform it. Although this is the CT cardiac angiogram with the lowest dose it a...
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Cardiac CT (retrospective acquisition)

A retrospective ECG-gated cardiac CT is usually conducted in cases in which adequate control of heart rate cannot be achieved or in which additional information on ventricular or valvular function is required. Indications Please refer to our coronary CT angiography article for general indicati...
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Structural heart disease

Structural heart disease refers to any non-coronary congenital or acquired cardiac defect in a broad sense. In a narrower sense, it refers to any type of non-coronary heart disease for which there are therapeutic percutaneous interventional or catheter-based options available. Typical examples ...
Article

Pericardial ligaments

The pericardial ligaments is a name given to a group of variable fibrous ligaments or adhesions that connect the pericardium to adjacent structures. These ‘ligaments’ tether the fibrous pericardium to its surrounds, hence movements of the chest wall and diaphragm  influence the position of the h...
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Cardiac CT

Computed tomography of the heart or cardiac CT is routinely performed to gain knowledge about cardiac or coronary anatomy, to detect or diagnose coronary artery disease (CAD), to evaluate patency of coronary artery bypass grafts or implanted coronary stents or to evaluate volumetry and cardiac f...
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Mitral annular dilation

Mitral annular dilation refers to an increased mitral annulus in relation to the size of the mitral valvular leaflets and is a potential cause for mitral regurgitation. Epidemiology Associations Mitral annular dilation is seen in the following clinical conditions 1-3: secondary mitral regurg...
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Dilated cardiomyopathy

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is defined as left ventricular chamber dilation with decreased systolic function (FEVG <40%) in the absence of coronary artery disease or conditions that impose a chronic pressure overload. There may also be right ventricular dysfunction. Causes are related to intrin...
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Flail leaflet

Flail leaflet or leaflet flail refers to an abnormally increased leaflet mobility of the atrioventricular valves associated with valvular prolapse and a systolic excursion of the leaflet tip or edge into the atria. Pathology Flail leaflet can be seen in leaflets of the mitral and tricuspid val...
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Left ventricular hypertrophy

Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is present when the left ventricular mass is increased. It is a common condition, typically due to systemic hypertension, and it increases with age, obesity and severity of hypertension. Epidemiology Studies have demonstrated a prevalence on echocardiography ...
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Mitral valve repair

Mitral valve repair or mitral valvuloplasty is a surgical method for treatment of a deficient mitral valve, which comprises removal of redundant valvular tissue and fixation of ruptured/elongated chordae tendineae rather than the whole replacement of the valve. History and etymology The first ...
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Coronary microvascular dysfunction

Coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) or coronary microvascular disease is refers to a wide spectrum of clinical situations with an impairment of the coronary microcirculation and myocardial blood flow in subjects with respective risk factors. It can contribute to or induce myocardial ischemi...
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Papillary muscle rupture

Papillary muscle rupture (PMR) is a dangerous complication that can evolve as a consequence of myocardial infarction or infective endocarditis leading to severe acute mitral or tricuspid regurgitation leading to left or right-sided heart failure. Epidemiology Papillary muscle rupture is rare a...
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Mitral valve replacement

Mitral valve replacement refers to the substitution of the mitral valve either by a mechanical valve or bioprosthesis. Indications Mitral valve replacement has been superseded by mitral valve repair in most situations of mitral valve dysfunction 1-3. Further existing indications of operative m...
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Cardiac ischemia protocol (MRI)

The cardiac MRI ischemia or stress protocol encompasses a set of different MRI sequences for the assessment of myocardial ischemia. Note: This article aims to frame a general concept of a cardiac MRI protocol in the setting of vasodilator stress perfusion testing. Protocol specifics will vary ...
Article

Myocardial edema

Myocardial edema refers to an increased water content of the myocardium particularly within the extracellular interstitium 1. Clinical presentation Myocardial edema often reflects an acute or subacute cardiac event, most often either ischemic or inflammatory and thus can be associated with che...
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Myxomatous mitral valve degeneration

Myxomatous mitral valve degeneration, myxomatous degeneration of the mitral valve, myxomatous mitral valve disease or simply myxomatous mitral valve is a non-inflammatory progressive alteration of the mitral valve structure associated with mitral prolapse and mitral insufficiency. Terminology ...
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Non-compaction of the left ventricle

Non-compaction of the left ventricle, also known as spongiform cardiomyopathy or left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC) is a phenotype of hypertrophic ventricular trabeculations and deep interventricular recesses. It has been hypothesized to result from arrest of normal myocardial compaction dur...
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Mitral valve leaflet calcification

Mitral valve leaflet calcification (MVL) or mitral leaflet calcification refers to the deposition of calcium on the mitral valvular leaflets as opposed to mitral annular calcification in the mitral annulus. Mitral valve leaflet calcification can coexist with mitral annular calcification has been...
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Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), also referred to as arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) or simply arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy, is a cardiomyopathy that is one of the more common causes of sudden cardiac death in young patients.  Epidemiology The estimate...
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Years criteria for pulmonary embolism

The YEARS criteria is a diagnostic algorithm that determines the risk of pulmonary embolism (PE) derived from three items in the Wells score that are most predictive of PE1. Unlike the Wells score, it uses a variable D-dimer threshold based off clinical pre-test probability. The YEARS criteria i...
Article

Mitral annulus disjunction

Mitral annulus disjunction (MAD) is an anatomic mitral annular abnormality characterized by a separation of the mitral annulus the left atrial wall and the basal portion of the left ventricular myocardium. Epidemiology Mitral annulus disjunction has been reported in 42-90% of patients with myx...
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Mitral valve calcification

Mitral valve calcification can refer to 1 mitral annular calcification (MAC) or mitral valve leaflet calcification (MVL)
Article

D sign (right ventricle)

A D-shaped left ventricle or flattening of the interventricular septum with a D-shaped configuration is a feature described with significant right ventricular (RV) overload / right heart strain such as that occurring with complications of a sizable pulmonary embolic event. It was initially descr...
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Myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries

Myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA) is referred to as a syndrome characterized by the clinical characteristics of myocardial infarction but with normal coronary arteries or no significant coronary stenosis on coronary angiography. Epidemiology The suggested pr...
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Mitral valve prolapse

Mitral valve prolapse (MVP), also known as Barlow syndrome, is often defined as systolic bowing of the mitral leaflet more than 2 mm beyond the annular plane into the atrium 1. It is a common cause of mitral regurgitation (considered most frequent cause of severe non-ischemic mitral regurgitatio...
Article

Mitral annular calcification

Mitral annular calcification (MAC) refers to the deposition of calcium (along with lipid) in the annular fibrosa of the mitral valve. Epidemiology Annular calcification is seen in up to 35% of elderly patients. It is common in females over 65 years, in those with myxomatous degeneration of the...
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Unroofed coronary sinus

An unroofed coronary sinus, a.k.a. coronary sinus type ASD, is a rare variant of atrial septal defect (ASD). The atrial wall between the coronary sinus and left atrium is either partially or completely absent, resulting in a right-to-left shunt. It is associated with persistent left-sided SVC a...
Article

Heart failure (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Heart failure is a syndrome of cardiac ventricular dysfunction, where the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to meet the body's blood flow requirements. Reference article This is a summary article; read more in our arti...
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Takotsubo cardiomyopathy

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) (a.k.a. apical ballooning syndrome) is a condition characterized by transient regional abnormal cardiac wall motion, not confined to a single coronary arterial territory. It has been described predominantly in postmenopausal women, often following exposure to sudden...
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Troponin

Troponin is a protein of key importance in the functioning of skeletal and cardiac muscles. It forms part of the contractile mechanism and comprises three main subunits: troponin C, troponin I, and troponin T.  Troponin elevation Elevation of serum troponin can occur from a number of causes an...
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Myocardial infarction

Myocardial infarction (MI), colloquially known as a heart attack, an acute coronary syndrome, results from interruption of myocardial blood flow and resultant ischemia and is a leading cause of death worldwide.  Epidemiology Risk factors male > females age >45 years for males >55 years for...
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Thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) risk score

The thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) risk score is a prognostic risk stratification system that categorizes the risk of death and ischemic events in patients with unstable angina / non-ST elevation myocardial infarction and provides a basis for therapeutic decision making. It is thou...
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Stunned myocardium

Stunned myocardium refers to a situation in which an acute transient myocardial ischemic event results in a prolonged wall motion abnormality which eventually resolves. The term is usually distinguished from "hibernating" myocardium, in which a chronic ischemic process leads to chronic left ven...
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Hibernating myocardium

Hibernating myocardium is myocardial tissue that has reduced contractility due to poor perfusion but remains viable. In ischemic heart disease, evaluating myocardial viability is important because hibernating myocardium can recover function after revascularization.  Pathology Hibernating myoca...
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Electrocardiogram (ECG)

Electrocardiography is the process of recording an electrocardiogram (ECG). An ECG is a recording of the heart's electrical activity carried out by measuring the potential difference across different points on the skin surface using electrodes. Technique This is often carried out as a '12 lead...
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Mitral annulus

The mitral annulus (MA) or mitral annular ring refers to a membrane-like structure of the atrioventricular junction, that forms a hinge for the mitral leaflets and separates the left atrial and ventricular myocardial walls. Gross anatomy The mitral annulus is a ‘D-shaped’ structure resembling ...
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Right heart strain

Right heart strain (or more precisely right ventricular strain) is a term given to denote the presence of right ventricular dysfunction usually in the absence of an underlying cardiomyopathy. It can manifest as an acute right heart syndrome. Pathology Right heart strain can often occur as a re...
Article

Tuberculous pericarditis

Tuberculous pericarditis is an infection of the pericardium with tubercle bacilli that features different pathological stages and is the most common form of cardiac tuberculosis. Epidemiology Tuberculous pericarditis makes up for ≤4% of pericardial disease in developed countries but is the maj...
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Pyrexia

Pyrexia (or fever) is a clinical sign, indicated by an abnormally elevated core body temperature, which is defined by several medical societies as ≥38.3°C (≥≈101°F). The temperature elevation may be persistent or episodic. If the body temperature is greater than 41.5°C - a rare phenomenon - it i...
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Down syndrome

Down syndrome (or trisomy 21) is the most common trisomy and also the commonest chromosomal disorder. It is a major cause of intellectual disability, and also has numerous multisystem manifestations. Epidemiology The approximate worldwide incidence is approximately 1 in 800 live births 15. The...
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Cardiac tuberculosis

Cardiac tuberculosis refers to the rare infection of the heart with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Pathology Generally associated with and occurring as a complication of mediastinal and pulmonary tuberculosis. Pericardial and myocardial involvement is known. Endocardial spread may occur from myo...
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Paravalvular leak

A paravalvular leak, paravalvular leakage or paravalvular regurgitation are an abnormal flow between the valvular annulus and the prosthetic valve and is a common complication after valvular replacement surgery due to inadequate sealing. Epidemiology Paravaluvar leaks are common, with an estim...
Article

Vasospastic angina

Vasospastic angina (VSA), variant angina or Prinzmetal angina is a clinical entity that refers to a hyper-reactive response of the epicardial coronary arteries to vasoconstrictor stimuli. Epidemiology Incidence and prevalence seem not entirely explored and highly variable between certain popul...
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Chronic coronary syndrome

Chronic coronary syndrome (CCS) is a term that defines coronary artery disease as a chronic progressive course that can be altered, stabilized or improved by lifestyle modifications, pharmacotherapy and coronary revascularization. It has been introduced to replace the previous term ‘stable coron...
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Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a type of cardiomyopathy and is the leading cause of sudden cardiac death (from arrhythmias) in infants, teenagers, and young adults. Terminology Although hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can generally describe a hypertrophied and non-dilated left ventricle due ...
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Constrictive pericarditis

Constrictive pericarditis (or perhaps better termed pericardial constriction) is a type of pericarditis which leads to diastolic dysfunction and potential symptoms of right heart failure.  Epidemiology No single demographic is affected as there are numerous causes of constrictive pericarditis....
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Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI)

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation or replacement (TAVI/TAVR) is a technique to replace the aortic valve through a transvascular or transapical approach. Compared to traditional open aortic valve replacement with sternotomy and a heart-lung bypass machine, the TAVI technique is less invasiv...
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Fabry disease (cardiac manifestations)

Fabry disease or Anderson-Fabry disease is the most frequent X-linked lysosomal disorder with cardiac involvement and the isolated ‘cardiac variant’ is next in frequency after the ‘classic phenotype’. Diagnosis of cardiac involvement is important because of the potentially adverse outcome otherw...
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Congestive cardiac failure

Congestive cardiac failure (CCF), also known as congestive heart failure (CHF) or simply heart failure, refers to the clinical syndrome caused by inherited or acquired abnormalities of heart structure and function, causing a constellation of symptoms and signs that lead to decreased quality and ...
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Cardiomyopathy (WHO/ISFC 1995 classification)

Cardiomyopathy classification separates the various cardiomyopathies into several subtypes. Cardiomyopathy is defined as a "disease of the myocardium with associated cardiac dysfunction". It was initially classified according to the 1995 World Health Organization / International Society and Fed...
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Obtuse marginal artery

The obtuse marginal (OM) arteries sometimes referred to as lateral branches are branch coronary arteries that come off the circumflex artery. There can be one or more obtuse marginal arteries. It typically traverses along the left margin of heart towards the apex. The first obtuse marginal arter...
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Coronary in-stent restenosis

Coronary in-stent restenosis (ISR) is referred to as an increasing loss of the stented arterial lumen after a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary stent placement which requires revascularization. Terminology However, there are different clinical and angiographic definitions: ...
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Coronary stent

Coronary stents or coronary artery stents are expandable tubular medical meshwork devices used for interventional treatment of coronary artery disease and prevention of negative remodeling and vascular recoil, restenosis as well as abrupt vessel occlusion from local coronary artery dissection af...
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Roesler sign

Roesler sign is the name given to the inferior rib notching seen in coarctation of the aorta. Although by no means pathognomonic, the sign is fairly specific. Although many other causes of inferior rib notching have been recorded most of them are very rare 1. Strictly-speaking it is only called...
Article

Cardiac arrest

Cardiac arrest is the term used for the abrupt loss of cardiac pump function such that an adequate circulation cannot be maintained. Despite recent modest improvements in survival, it usually leads to death, if not immediately treated. Arrests may be in-hospital or out-of-hospital.  Epidemiolog...
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Neoplastic pericardial disease

Neoplastic pericardial disease, neoplastic pericardial involvement or neoplastic pericarditis refers to a pericardial infiltration by tumor cells usually associated with a variably sized pericardial effusion and is a form of non-infectious pericarditis. It needs to be differentiated from other c...
Article

Adenosine

Adenosine is a vasodilating agent, which acts on the vascular smooth muscle surface and leads to vasodilation and a considerable increased vascular flow. Note: This article aims to give a rough description of adenosine.  For detailed and exact information please refer to the information and di...
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Coronary stent thrombosis

Coronary stent thrombosis or scaffold thrombosis refers to a recent acute thrombus or occlusion in a coronary segment previously treated with a coronary stent or scaffold. It is a severe complication of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and a major adverse cardiovascular event. Epidemiol...
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Major adverse cardiovascular event

Major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) refers to a combined or composite clinical endpoint that is used for outcome evaluations in clinical trials for cardiovascular research intended as a measure of safety and effectiveness and does not have a specific definition. In the setting relevant fo...
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Myocardial ischemia

Myocardial ischemia refers to the result of a mismatch in myocardial oxygen supply and demand as a consequence of the cessation of blood flow resulting in reversible injury or myocardial cell death if prolonged associated with a loss of contractile function. Epidemiology The total prevalence o...
Article

Sudden cardiac death

Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a term used for an unexpected, non-traumatic fatal event in an otherwise healthy subject that applies under the following circumstances 1: death occurs within one hour of symptom onset (if witnessed) or the person was in good health 24 hours earlier (if not witness...
Article

Cine imaging (MRI)

Cine imaging, a.k.a. cine sequences or cine MRI, are a type of MRI sequence acquired to capture motion. Imaging technique Cine images are obtained by repeatedly imaging the area of interest for a certain time typically within a single slice, although 3D solutions already exist 3. For the hear...
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Restrictive cardiomyopathy

Restrictive cardiomyopathy is the least common subtype of cardiomyopathy and is characterized by a marked decrease in ventricular compliance.  Clinical presentation Patients can present with symptoms and signs of left ventricular failure and/or right ventricular failure 9.  Pathology It is p...
Article

Double outlet right ventricle

Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a congenital cardiac anomaly where both the aorta and pulmonary trunk arise from the morphologically right ventricle. It is reported to account for ~2% of congenital cardiac defects 1. It is usually classed as a conotruncal anomaly. There is almost always ...
Article

Purulent pericarditis

Purulent pericarditis or pericardial empyema is a serious form of a bacterial, fungal or parasitic infection of the pericardium associated with a neutrophilic pericardial effusion. Epidemiology Purulent pericarditis is rare nowadays and makes up for <1% of pericarditis cases. Risk factors Fa...
Article

Passive hepatic congestion

Passive hepatic congestion, also known as congested liver in cardiac disease, describes the stasis of blood in the hepatic parenchyma, due to impaired hepatic venous drainage, which leads to the dilation of central hepatic veins and hepatomegaly.  Passive hepatic congestion is a well-studied re...
Article

Jaffe-Campanacci syndrome

Jaffe-Campanacci syndrome is characterized by: multiple non-ossifying fibromas of the long bones and jaw café au lait spots intellectual disability kyphoscoliosis hypogonadism or cryptorchidism ocular malformations cardiovascular malformations giant cell granuloma of the jaw axillary an...
Article

Secondary malignant cardiac tumor

Secondary malignant cardiac tumors or cardiac metastases refer to a secondary malignant tumor involving any structural component of the heart. It represents spread of a primary neoplasm via lymphatic, hematogenous, or endovascular pathways, or potentially by direct extension from an adjacent tis...
Article

Right atrial enlargement

Right atrial (RA) enlargement is less common, and harder to delineate on chest radiograph, than left atrial (LA) enlargement. Pathology Etiology Enlargement of the right atrium (RA) can result from a number of conditions, including: raised right ventricular pressures pulmonary arterial hype...
Article

Behçet disease

Behçet disease is a multisystemic and chronic inflammatory vasculitis of unknown etiology. Epidemiology The mean age at which Behçet disease occurs is 20-30 years. The disease is most prevalent in the Mediterranean region, Middle East and East Asia. The highest incidence has been reported in T...
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Normal chest imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the chest and surrounding structures, divided by modality. Plain radiographs Adult examples chest radiograph PA adult male example 1 example 2: with inverted windows example 3 PA adult female example 1 example 2 example 3: with labels ...
Article

Infective endocarditis

Infective endocarditis is defined as infection of the endocardium. It commonly affects the valve leaflets and chordae tendineae, as well as prosthetic valves and implanted devices. Epidemiology Infective endocarditis has an estimated general prevalence of 3 to 9 cases per 100,000. Intravenous ...
Article

Cardiac valves

The four cardiac valves direct the flow of blood through the heart during the cardiac cycle. Gross anatomy The heart valves are located in the cardiac fibrous skeleton: two are atrioventricular (AV) valves: the right-sided tricuspid valve (TV) and left-sided mitral (bicuspid) valve (MV) open...

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