Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

656 results found
Article

Determination of atrial situs

Atrial situs refers to the relative position of the cardiac atria in relation to abdominal viscera and the midline. Pathology Identification of atrial situs is an important initial step in the antenatal and postnatal diagnosis of cardiac structural and situs anomalies. Radiographic features ...
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De Winter pattern (electrocardiogram)

An electrocardiographic finding suggestive of impending myocardial infarction, the de Winter's pattern (or "de Winter's T-waves") describes an abnormality thought to be indicative of acute occlusion of the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) 2. Timely recognition of this patt...
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Dextrocardia

Dextrocardia is a congenital cardiac malposition in which the heart is situated on the right side of the body (dextroversion) with the cardiac apex pointing to the right. Terminology Dextrocardia merely refers to the laterality of the heart, it says nothing about the orientation of the patient...
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Diagonal branches of the left anterior descending artery

Diagonal branches of the left anterior descending coronary artery supply blood flow to the anterior and anterolateral walls of the left ventricle. There are usually denoted as D1, D2, D3, etc.   There are termed "diagonal" due to them branching from their parent vessel at acute angles. They ext...
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Diastolic dysfunction assessment (echocardiography)

According to the American Society of Echocardiography and the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging, diastolic dysfunction assessment on echocardiography is divided into two different groups based on left ventricular systolic function.  Normal left ventricular systolic function There ...
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Diastolic dysfunction (point of care ultrasound)

Assessment for diastolic dysfunction is an advanced application of point-of-care ultrasonography, most commonly used as a supplemental non-invasive estimate of left atrial pressure in hemodynamically complex patients 1. Of note, this article will discuss the simplified, binary approach used in c...
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Diastolic pseudogating

Diastolic pseudogating appears as periodic bright and dark signal in arteries such as the aorta as one progresses through a series of images. Synchronization of the cardiac cycle and the pulse sequence results in high signal in the artery during diastole when blood is relatively stationary and l...
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Differential diagnosis for a small cardiothoracic ratio

A small cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) is defined as <42%/0.42 when assessed on a PA chest radiograph, and is often called small heart syndrome. A pathologically-small heart is also known as microcardia.It can be due to/associated with a number of entities: adrenal insufficiency, e.g. Addison disea...
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Dilated cardiomyopathy

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is defined as left ventricular chamber dilation with decreased systolic function (FEVG <40%) in the absence of coronary artery disease or conditions which impose a chronic pressure overload. There may also be right ventricular dysfunction. Causes are related to intri...
Article

Double density sign (disambiguation)

The double density sign can refer to several radiological signs: double density sign (left atrial enlargement) double density sign (berry aneurysm) double density sign (osteoid osteoma)
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Double density sign (left atrium)

The double-density sign, also known as the double right heart border, is seen on frontal chest radiographs in the presence of left atrial enlargement, and occurs when the right side of the left atrium extends behind the right cardiac shadow, indenting the adjacent lung and forming its own distin...
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Double density sign (osteoid osteoma)

The double density sign, also sometimes clumsily referred to as the hotter spot within hot area sign, is a bone scan sign of an osteoid osteoma. It refers to a central focus of intense uptake (the nidus) within a surrounding lower, but nonetheless increased uptake, rim. See also double densit...
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Double inlet left ventricle

Double inlet left ventricle (DILV) describes a congenital cardiac anomaly in which both atrioventricular valves are associated with a single ventricle which demonstrates left ventricular morphology. Epidemiology This uncommon entity constituents 1% of all congenital cardiac anomalies, and is o...
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Double oblique multiplanar reconstruction

Double oblique is a type of multiplanar reconstruction used in cardiac cross-sectional imaging. It is useful for an accurate assessment of the ascending aorta and aortic annulus, and is particularly useful for pre- and post-procedure evaluation of a transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR)....
Article

Double outlet left ventricle

Double outlet left ventricle (DOLV) is an extremely rare congenital cardiac anomaly where both the aorta and pulmonary trunk arise from the anatomical left ventricle. It is usually classified as a conotruncal anomaly and is often associated with a ventricular septal defect with normal continuity...
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Double outlet right ventricle

Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a congenital cardiac anomaly where both the aorta and pulmonary trunk arise from the morphologically right ventricle. It is reported to account for ~2% of congenital cardiac defects 1. It is usually classed as a conotruncal anomaly. There is almost always ...
Article

Double switch procedure

The double switch procedure is a surgical technique used to repair congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries (L-TGA), which is a cardiovascular anomaly with atrioventricular and ventriculoarterial discordance. The procedure consists of any of the following surgical combinations...
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Down syndrome

Down syndrome (or trisomy 21) is the most common trisomy and also the commonest chromosomal disorder. It is a major cause of intellectual disability, and also has numerous multisystem manifestations. Epidemiology The approximate worldwide incidence is approximately 1 in 800 live births 15. The...
Article

Dressler syndrome

Dressler syndrome (DS) is a delayed immune-mediated or secondary pericarditis developing weeks to months after a myocardial infarction (MI). Terminology Dressler syndrome is not to be confused with pericarditis epistenocardica (which is seen earlier in the post-MI period) and is considered a r...
Article

Drug and toxin induced pulmonary hypertension

Drug and toxin induced pulmonary hypertension is one of the causes of pulmonary arterial hypertension. It falls under group 1.3 under the Dana point classification system of pulmonary hypertension.  Pathology A wide range of difference drugs have been associated with developing pulmonary hyper...
Article

D-SPECT

D-SPECT represents the next step in the evolution of SPECT technology and is based on a unique acquisition geometry. It has nine arrays of cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors, each of which rotates around its central axis with programmable angular rotation 1. The detectors are very compact al...
Article

Dual left anterior descending coronary artery

A dual left anterior descending coronary arteries are a group of rare variants of the left anterior descending artery. Almost all dual variants have short and long LAD branches. Subtypes Several (up to 9) subtypes have been described including the 4 initial types originally described by Spindo...
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Dual right coronary artery

Dual or split right coronary artery also known as duplication of the right coronary artery is a congenital coronary artery anomaly of intrinsic coronary anatomy in which the right coronary artery is divided into two branches early. Epidemiology This is very common if not the most common corona...
Article

Duchenne muscular dystrophy

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a dystrophinopathy and the most common muscular dystrophy. Epidemiology DMD has an incidence of 1 in 3500 to 5000 males 1,2. The condition is extremely rare in females due to its inheritance pattern, as discussed below 1. Clinical presentation The charact...
Article

Ductus arteriosus

The ductus arteriosum (DA) (or arteriosus) is the thick short conduit for blood to bypass the non-ventilated lungs in the fetus. It is located between and connects the proximal left pulmonary artery and the undersurface of the aortic arch distal to the origin of the last branch of the arch, at t...
Article

Duke criteria for infective endocarditis

The Duke criteria are a set of clinical criteria set forward for the diagnosis of infective endocarditis For diagnosis the requirement is:  2 major and 1 minor criteria or 1 major and 3 minor criteria or 5 minor criteria For adequate diagnostic sensitivity, transesophageal echocardiography ...
Article

Dysphagia megalatriensis

Dysphagia megalatriensis, also known as cardiovascular dysphagia or cardiac dysphagia, is an impairment of swallowing due to esophageal compression from a dilated left atrium.  Clinical presentation Presentation is generally with mild dysphagia, although a minority of patients will have dyspha...
Article

Earth-heart sign

The earth-heart sign is a newly recognized sign of cardiac compromise that may be seen on chest radiographs of patients with tension pneumomediastinum. The substantial pressure exerted on the heart by the gas trapped in the mediastinum with subsequent impairment of central venous return and obs...
Article

Ebstein anomaly

Ebstein anomaly is an uncommon congenital cardiac anomaly, characterized by a variable developmental anomaly of the tricuspid valve. Epidemiology The anomaly accounts for only ~0.5% of congenital cardiac defects 6,7, although it is the most common cause of congenital tricuspid regurgitation. T...
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Echogenic intracardiac focus

Echogenic intracardiac focus (EIF) is a relatively common sonographic observation that may be present on an antenatal ultrasound scan. Epidemiology They are thought to be present in ~4-5% of karyotypically normal fetuses. They may be more common in the Asian population 5.  Pathology They are...
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Ectopia cordis

Ectopia cordis is an extremely rare congenital malformation where the heart is located partially or totally outside the thoracic cavity. The four main ectopic positions are: adjacent to the thorax: ~60% abdominal: 15-30% thoracoabdominal: 7-18%  cervical: ~3% Epidemiology The incidence is ...
Article

Effusive-constrictive pericarditis

Effusive-constrictive pericarditis is a rare constrictive pericardial syndrome of a constellation of findings in which a fibrotic visceral pericardium and a pericardial effusion contribute to cardiac tamponade pathophysiology. It is most often encountered after the performance of a pericardiocen...
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Egg-on-a-string sign (heart)

Egg-on-a-string sign, also referred to as egg on its side, refers to the cardiomediastinal silhouette seen in transposition of the great arteries (TGA). The heart appears globular due to an abnormal convexity of the right atrial border and left atrial enlargement and therefore appears like an ...
Article

Eisenmenger complex

Eisenmenger complex is a specific subset of Eisenmenger syndrome, and consists of: ventricular septal defect (VSD) severe pulmonary arterial hypertension resulting in shunt reversal and cyanosis
Article

Electrocardiogram (ECG)

Electrocardiography is the process of recording an electrocardiogram (ECG). An ECG is a recording of the heart's electrical activity carried out by measuring the potential difference across different points on the skin surface using electrodes. Technique This is often carried out as a '12 lead...
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Elliott et al. classification of cardiomyopathies

The Elliott et al. classification system of cardiomyopathies is one of the cardiomyopathy classification systems. This was published by the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases. This places emphasis on phenotypic classification 1-2. See also cardi...
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End-diastolic volume

The end-diastolic volume (EDV) is referred to as the volume of blood in the left or right ventricle at the end of the diastolic filling phase immediately before the beginning of systole. Terminology The end-diastolic volume index (EDVI) is referred to as the end-diastolic volume (EDV) correcte...
Article

Endocardial fibroelastosis

Endocardial fibroelastosis (EFE) is a rare cardiac condition which is classically described in the pediatric population (typically first two years). It is one of the causes in infants of unexplained heart failure. Epidemiology Associations mitral valve abnormalities: e.g mitral regurgitation ...
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Endocardium

The endocardium defines the inner soft tissue lining oft he heart within the cardiac chambers and constitutes the superficial surface of the cardiac valves. It apparently serves as a regulatory mechanism on myocardial contractility. Gross anatomy The endocardium represents the inner layer of t...
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Endomyocardial fibrosis

Endomyocardial fibrosis (EMF) is an idiopathic disorder characterized by the development of restrictive cardiomyopathy. Epidemiology It usually occurs in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. There may be a greater predilection in children and adolescents.  Pathology The pathogenesi...
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End-sytolic volume

The end-systolic volume (ESV) is referred to as the volume of blood in the left or right ventricle at the end of the systolic ejection phase immediately before the beginning of diastole or ventricular filling. Terminology The end-systolic volume index (ESVI) is referred to as the end-systolic ...
Article

Enlarged azygos vein

An enlarged/dilated azygos vein may result from a number of physiological as well as pathological causes. The enlarged azygos vein may be seen as a widened right paratracheal/paraspinal stripe on a frontal chest radiograph. Terminology Spelling it "azygous" when referring to the vein is incorr...
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Enlarged pulmonary trunk on chest radiography (differential)

The differential of an enlarged pulmonary trunk/main pulmonary artery on chest radiography includes:  normal may appear prominent in young patients especially women projectional rotation lordotic view rotation of the heart pectus excavatum left lower lobe collapse pulmonary arterial hyp...
Article

Eosinophilic endocarditis

Eosinophilic endocarditis, also known as Loeffler endocarditis, is one of the cardiac manifestations of idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome. It also considered a form of cardiomyopathy. Epidemiology There is limited information on the incidence of eosinophilic endocarditis. the majority of ...
Article

Epicardial lipomatosis

Epicardial lipomatosis or epicardial lipomatous hypertrophy is a form of cardiac lipomatosis and is characterized by the accumulation of non-encapsulated mature adipose tissue in the epicardial space due to hyperplasia of lipocytes. Its exact etiology is not known, but it may be associated with ...
Article

Epicardial pacing wires

Epicardial pacing wires or temporary pacing wires (TPW) allow rapid commencement of atrial and/or ventricular pacing in the event of a perioperative cardiac arrhythmia that has the potential to cause significant hemodynamic compromise. They are usually inserted during open heart surgery, and es...
Article

Epicardium

The epicardium is the visceral part of the serous pericardium and forms the outer layer of the cardiac wall. Gross anatomy The epicardium is the visceral part of the serous pericardium, envelopes the heart, contains a variable amount of epicedial fatty tissue adjoining the myocardium at its ou...
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Eustachian valve

The eustachian valve (also known as the "valve of the inferior vena cava") is a ridge of variable thickness in the inferior right atrium. It is a remnant of a fetal structure that directed incoming oxygenated blood to the foramen ovale and away from the right atrium.   Incomplete regression of ...
Article

Extracellular volume (ECV) - myocardium

Extracellular volume (ECV) refers to the space or volume of a tissue, which is not occupied by cells. Apart from the usual extracellular space, which surrounds the cells of a specific tissue it also includes the intracapillary plasma volume 1,2. It measures the space, which is occupied by the ex...
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Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is used as a modified pulmonary or cardiopulmonary bypass technique in those with severe cardiac and/or respiratory failure refractory to conventional ventilatory support and medical intervention 1,3. There are two access paths for extracorporeal life s...
Article

Fabry disease (cardiac manifestations)

Fabry disease or Anderson-Fabry disease is the most frequent X-linked lysosomal disorder with cardiac involvement and the isolated ‘cardiac variant’ is next in frequency after the ‘classic phenotype’. Diagnosis of cardiac involvement is important because of the potentially adverse outcome otherw...
Article

Fallen contrast sign

The fallen contrast sign refers to a trace of concentrated contrast material layering along the dependent left atrial wall during contrast-enhanced cardiac CT, suggestive of a right-to-left shunt. The finding has primarily been described as an indirect sign in sinus venosus atrial septal defect ...
Article

Fat containing cardiac lesions

Fat containing cardiac lesions have a limited differential diagnosis. These include 1-4: normal aging/physiologic: mostly subepicardial, more in the right ventricle (especially right ventricular outflow tract) than left ventricle lipomatous hypertrophy of the interatrial septum chronic myocar...
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Fetal atrial fibrillation

Fetal atrial fibrillation is a type of fetal tachyarrhythmia and usually has an atrial rate of 400 beats per minute and a completely irregular ventricular rhythm.  Radiographic features Antenatal ultrasound - echocardiography The atrial contractions are usually too faint to be detected by M M...
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Fetal atrial flutter

Fetal atrial flutter is the second most common fetal tachyarrhythmia and can account for up to 30% of such cases 1,2.  Clinical presentation As with other tachyarrhythmias, it is often detected in the 3rd trimester. Pathology It has a typical atrial rate of 300-600 beats per minute (bpm) and...
Article

Fetal bradyarrhythmia

Fetal bradyarrhythmias refer to an abnormally low fetal heart rate (less than 100-110 beats per minute 3,7) as well as being irregular, i.e. irregular fetal bradycardia. Epidemiology Associations congenital cardiac anomalies: may be present in 50-60% of cases 2,3 maternal connective tissue d...
Article

Fetal bradycardia

Fetal bradycardia refers to an abnormally low fetal heart rate, a potentially ominous finding. A sustained first trimester heart rate below 100 beats per minute (bpm) is generally considered bradycardic. The average fetal heart rate changes during pregnancy, however, and some consider the lower ...
Article

Fetal cardiac tumors

Fetal cardiac tumors refer to primary cardiac tumors that can present in the in utero population.  Epidemiology Fetal cardiac tumors are rare; the prevalence, reported from autopsy studies of patients of all ages, varies from 0.0017-0.28 % 2. Pathology Known cardiac tumor types that present ...
Article

Fetal cardiomegaly

Fetal cardiomegaly (FC) refers to an enlarged fetal heart. It is variably defined with some sources stating the cut-off as a fetal cardio-thoracic circumference above two standard deviations 7.  Pathology It can arise from a number of situations: congenital cardiac anomalies: particularly tr...
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Fetal cardiomyopathy

Fetal cardiomyopathy refers to a very rare situation where a cardiomyopathy occurs in utero. It is often a diagnosis of exclusion where, by definition, there is an absence of an underlying congenital cardiac morphological anomaly. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is variable with the high ...
Article

Fetal cardiothoracic circumference ratio

Fetal cardiothoracic (C/T) circumference ratio is a parameter than can be used in assessment of fetal cardiac and thoracic/chest wall anomalies. It is the ratio of the cardiac circumference to the thoracic circumference and may be easily measured on fetal ultrasound/echocardiography.  Radiograp...
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Fetal complete atrioventricular block

Fetal congenital complete heart block (CAVB) is a rare cardiac conduction abnormality that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. It is considered the commonest of fetal bradyarrhymias. Epidemiology The estimated prevalence of complete heart block in newborns is at ~1 in 20,000. Pat...
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Fetal echocardiography views

A standard fetal echocardiogram consists of several specific views which can be obtained to optimize visualization of different structures and anomalies. They include: Basic views abdominal situs view / transverse view of abdomen four chamber view left ventricular outflow tract view (or a fi...
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Fetal pericardial effusion

Fetal pericardial effusions (FPE) occur when there is an accumulation of pericardial fluid in utero. In order to be considered as abnormal, it is generally accepted that the pericardial fluid thickness should be greater than 2 mm. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~ 2% of pregnancies ...
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Fetal pericardial teratoma

Fetal pericardial teratomas are rare pericardial teratomas that present in utero. They are an uncommon primary cardiac tumor occurring in a fetus. Pathology It is a type of germ cell tumor and arises from pluripotent cells derived from all three germinal layers. In contrast to ovarian teratoma...
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Fetal premature atrial contractions

Fetal premature atrial contractions are a type of extrasystoles that can be occasionally detected in fetal heart monitoring. They along with fetal premature ventricular contractions (PVC's) account for the majority of in utero rhythm disturbances. Terminology Premature atrial contractions may ...
Article

Fetal premature ventricular contractions

Fetal premature ventricular contractions (FPVC) are a type ectopic ventricular contractions detected in utero. They are a type of extrasystoles. Premature ventricular contractions are often followed by a compensatory pause due to the refractory state of the conduction system; the next conducted...
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Fetal right ventricular enlargement

Fetal right ventricular (RV) enlargement is an infrequently encountered situation in antenatal imaging. Pathology The right ventricle is the dominant ventricle during in utero development. Right ventricular enlargement can occur with a number of cardiac as well as non-cardiac anomalies. cardi...
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Fetal sinus bradycardia

Fetal sinus bradycardia is a subtype of fetal bradycardia where the fetal heart rate is abnormally slow (<100 bpm) but runs at the regular rate with sinus rhythm. Pathology Associations congenital long QT syndrome 1 maternal anti Ro antibodies 2-3
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Fetal supraventricular tachycardia

Fetal supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is considered the most common type of fetal tachyarrhythmia and can account for 60-90% of such cases. Pathology It has a typical ventricular rate of 230-280 beats per minute (bpm) 1 and isoften associated with an accessory AV conduction pathway. There i...
Article

Fetal tachyarrhythmia

Fetal tachyarrhythmia refers to an irregular increase in fetal heart rate.  Epidemiology Depending on its exact definition, the prevalance rate is thought to be around 0.5-1% of pregnancies.  Clinical presentation Many cases tend to be discovered in the 3rd trimester.  Pathology Sub types ...
Article

Fetal tachycardia

Fetal tachycardia is an abnormal increase in the fetal heart rate. It is variably defined as a heart rate above 160-180 beats per minute (bpm) and typically ranges between 170-220 bpm (higher rates can occur with tachyarrhythmias). Epidemiology The estimated prevalence is ~0.4-1% of pregnancie...
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Fetal tricuspid regurgitation

Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) (also known as tricuspid insufficiency) is a common finding in imaging of the fetus. Tricuspid regurgitation represents the abnormal backflow of blood into the right atrium during right ventricular contraction due to valvular leakage (i.e. it is a valvulopathy).  Ep...
Article

Fetal ventricular tachycardia

A rare entity, fetal ventricular tachycardia presents with a rapid ventricular rate exceeding, and occurring independently from, the atrial rate.  The ventricular rate is typically over 180 beats per minute 1. Atrioventricular dissociation is characteristic; two separate pacemakers dictate the a...
Article

Fibromuscular dysplasia

Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a heterogeneous group of vascular lesions characterized by an idiopathic, non-inflammatory, and non-atherosclerotic angiopathy of small and medium-sized arteries. Epidemiology The prevalence is unknown 7. It is most common in young women with a female to male r...
Article

Figure of eight appearance

The following lesions may resemble a figure of eight (sometimes referred to as snowman shaped): supracardiac variety of total anomalous pulmonary venous return 1 pituitary macroadenoma with suprasellar extension 2 intraspinal neurofibroma with extraspinal extension through neural foramina di...
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Filling defect

A filling defect is a general term used to refer to any abnormality on an imaging study which disrupts the normal opacification (filling) of a cavity or lumen. The opacification maybe physiological, for example, bile in the gallbladder or blood in a dural venous sinus, or maybe due to the instal...
Article

Finger clubbing

Finger clubbing, also called "drumstick fingers", is a common clinical sign in patients with heart or lung disease. The term is used to describe an enlargement of the distal phalanges of the fingers, giving them a drumstick or club-like appearance.  Clinical Presentation Finger clubbing presen...
Article

Five Ts of cyanotic congenital heart disease (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the most important congenital heart defects associated with cyanosis is: 5 Ts Mnemonic T: tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) T: transposition of the great arteries (TGA) T: truncus arteriosus T: total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR) T: tricuspid valve abnormalities...
Article

Focus‐assessed transthoracic echocardiography

FATE (focus‐assessed transthoracic echocardiography) is a goal-directed protocol used in critical care for indications such as hemodynamic instability, shock, and pulseless electrical activity (PEA) arrest 1. The protocol is designed as a series of questions as follows: does the left ventricle...
Article

Fontan procedure

The Fontan procedure is a repair surgical strategy for congenital cardiac anomalies. It is not usually used in isolation, but in combination with other repair procedures in a staged manner in an attempt to correct the underlying cardiac pathology. Rationale The procedure attempts to bypass the...
Article

Foramen ovale (cardiac)

The foramen ovale (or ovalis) is the opening in the interatrial septum in the fetal heart that allows blood to bypass the right ventricle and non-ventilated lungs, shunted from the right atrium to the left atrium. Specifically it represents the opening between the upper and lower portions of the...
Article

Fossa ovale

The fossa ovale (or ovalis) is the small oval depression in the interatrial septum at the site of the closed foramen ovale, which closes once fetal circulation ceases in the first few minutes of postnatal life. It represents the overlapping primary and secondary septa of the interatrial septum. ...
Article

Four chamber cardiac view (fetal)

The four chamber cardiac view is an important and routinely performed view in both fetal echocardiography as well as on a standard second trimester anatomy scan. Detectable pathology The four chamber view can only detect some of the congenital cardiac anomalies (~64% according to one study 2) ...
Article

Fractional flow reserve

Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is a technique to evaluate the hemodynamic relevance of coronary artery stenoses 1,2. It is defined as "the ratio of maximal flow achievable in the stenotic coronary artery to the maximal flow achievable in the same coronary artery if it was normal" 1. Fractional f...
Article

Gerbode defect

The Gerbode defect describes a rare abnormal left-to-right shunt between the left ventricle and right atrium through a defect in the atrioventricular septum, usually congenital in etiology. Epidemiology Gerbode defects are rare congenital cardiac anomalies, and are thought to account for less ...
Article

Glenn shunt

The Glenn shunt, also known as Glenn procedure, is a palliative surgical procedure for a variety of cyanotic congenital heart diseases. Rationale In this procedure, the systemic venous return is re-directed to the pulmonary circulation, bypassing the right heart 1-3. It can be used in a varie...
Article

Glycogen storage disease type II

Glycogen storage disease type II, also known as Pompe disease or acid maltase deficiency disease, is an inherited lysosomal storage disorder characterized by abnormal glycogen accumulation within lysosomes. It is a multisystem disorder involving the heart, skeletal muscle and liver. It is caused...
Article

Great cardiac vein

The great cardiac vein (GCV) runs in the anterior interventricular groove and drains the anterior aspect of the heart where it is the venous complement of the left anterior descending artery. It is the main tributary of the coronary sinus.  Gross anatomy It begins on the anterior surface of th...
Article

Great vessels

The great vessels is the collective term given to the major arteries and veins that convey blood to and away from the heart: aorta pulmonary artery pulmonary veins superior vena cava inferior vena cava The branches and tributaries of these named vessels are not great vessels, e.g. brachioc...
Article

Hemochromatosis (cardiac manifestations)

Cardiac involvement in hemochromatosis typically occurs with primary hemochromatosis, as the organ is usually spared in the secondary form of the disease. For a general discussion, and for links to other system specific manifestations, please refer to the article on hemochromatosis.  Epidemiol...
Article

Hemopericardium

Hemopericardium refers to the presence of blood within the pericardial cavity, i.e. a sanguineous pericardial effusion. If enough blood enters the pericardial cavity, then a potentially fatal cardiac tamponade can occur.  Pathology Etiology There is a very long list of causes 1,4 but some of ...
Article

Heart

The heart is a hollow, muscular organ of the middle mediastinum, designed to pump oxygenated blood around the systemic circulation and deoxygenated blood around the pulmonary circulation. Gross anatomy The heart has a somewhat conical form and is enclosed by the pericardium. It is positioned p...

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