Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

656 results found
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Heart chambers

There are four heart chambers, the right atrium, left atrium, right ventricle and left ventricle. These receive blood from the body and lungs and contract to transmit blood to the lungs for oxygenation and to the body for use in metabolism. It is best to list the four chambers in order of the s...
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Heart failure (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Heart failure is a syndrome of cardiac ventricular dysfunction, where the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to meet the body's blood flow requirements. Reference article This is a summary article; read more in our arti...
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Heyde syndrome

Heyde syndrome is an association between aortic valve stenosis and gastrointestinal hemorrhage. The etiology of the gastrointestinal bleeding in this setting is uncertain, but it is thought to be related to intestinal angiodysplasia. The strength of this association independent of age-related d...
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Hibernating myocardium

Hibernating myocardium is myocardial tissue that has reduced contractility due to poor perfusion but remains viable. In ischemic heart disease, evaluating myocardial viability is important because hibernating myocardium can recover function after revascularization.  Pathology Hibernating myoca...
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High-output cardiac failure

High output cardiac failure refers to a state of cardiac failure that is associated with a higher than normal cardiac output which is still not sufficient for body tissue demands. Clinical presentation Patients can present with a number of symptoms of varying degrees which include tachycardia,...
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HIV/AIDS (cardiovascular manifestations)

Cardiovascular manifestations are seen with increased frequency in the HIV/AIDS adult population, and include: pericardial effusions dilated cardiomyopathy (prevalence 8-30%) endocarditis: either infective or non-bacterial thrombotic (marantic) which is associated with malignancy or HIV wasti...
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HIV associated pulmonary arterial hypertension

HIV associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (HIV-PAH) is a specific form of pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with HIV. Epidemiology It is thought that approximately 0.5% of patients with HIV infection can develop moderate to severe pulmonary arterial hypertension. This is consider...
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Holodiastolic flow reversal

Holodiastolic flow reversal (HDR) refers to a backward flow typically observed in the descending aorta during the whole diastolic phase and has been observed in the setting of moderate to severe aortic regurgitation. Usage It has been found to predict severe aortic regurgitation with high sens...
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Hunter syndrome

Hunter syndrome, also known as mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) is a rare genetic mucopolysaccharidosis disorder characterized by specific clinical features 1. Epidemiology Hunter syndrome is an X-linked recessive disease and therefore much more common in males. It is a rare disorder wit...
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Hyperlipidemia

Hyperlipidemia is a condition in which elevated levels of lipids circulating in the blood. Clinical presentation Hyperlipidemia is usually asymptomatic. However, certain forms may be associated with types of xanthomas. Pathology Several genetic disorders (e.g. familial hypercholesterolemia) ...
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Hypertension

Hypertension refers to an increase in blood pressure above the 'normal' for the age, sex, and ethnicity of the patient. This can be specified according to the vascular system involved. Although generally when it is not specified it is assumed to refer to the systemic type. systemic hypertension...
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Hypertensive heart disease

Hypertensive heart disease (HHD) refers to a condition covering morphological and physiological changes of the heart, the coronary arteries and the aorta. Epidemiology Over 1.1 billion people worldwide, ¼ of all men and ⅕ of all women suffer from hypertension and the condition is in control in...
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Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a type of cardiomyopathy and is the leading cause of sudden death (from arrhythmias) in infants, teenagers, and young adults. Terminology Although hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can generally describe a hypertrophied and non-dilated left ventricle due to any c...
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Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy protocol (MRI)

The MRI hypertrophic cardiomyopathy protocol encompasses a set of different MRI sequences for the cardiac assessment in case of suspected hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Note: This article aims to frame a general concept of a cardiac MRI protocol in the assessment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or...
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Hypoattenuated leaflet thickening

Hypoattenuated leaflet thickening (HALT), or subclinical leaflet thrombosis, is a focal area of hypoattenuating leaflet thickening seen in transcatheter aortic valve prostheses which begins at the leaflet insertion on the valve frame seen on CT.  HALT is a known complication of transcatheter ao...
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Hypoplastic circumflex artery

A hypoplastic circumflex artery refers to as a small-sized circumflex artery (Cx) with a small lumen and a short course. Epidemiology Hypoplastic circumflex arteries are rarely described in the literature. Associations Clinical conditions associated with a hypoplastic circumflex artery inclu...
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Hypoplastic left anterior descending artery

A hypoplastic left anterior descending artery (LAD) refers to a luminal narrowing or a short course of the left anterior descending artery. Epidemiology Not many cases of a hypoplastic left anterior descending coronary artery are described in the literature. Associations Clinical conditions ...
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Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a cyanotic congenital cardiac anomaly where affected individuals can have profound cyanosis and cardiac failure. It is one of the commonest causes for a neonate to present with congestive cardiac failure and the 4th most frequent cardiac anomaly to mani...
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Hypoplastic right coronary artery

A hypoplastic right coronary artery refers to an underdeveloped or small-sized right coronary artery (RCA) with a narrowed lumen or a short course.   Epidemiology Associations Clinical conditions associated with a hypoplastic right coronary artery include 1,2: left coronary arterial dominanc...
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Hypoplastic right heart syndrome

Hypoplastic right heart syndrome is a congenital cardiac anomaly. It is characterized by an underdeveloped right side of the heart, including the right ventricle, tricuspid valve, pulmonary valve, and pulmonary arteries. Epidemiology It may be present in around 1.1% of stillbirths and is rarer...
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Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy

Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy is a subtype of dilated cardiomyopathy. It is a type of non-ischemic cardiomyopathy where no underlying cause can be found. Epidemiology This form of cardiomyopathy may account for up to 50% of all dilated cardiomyopathies 4. Patients usually ranging around 20...
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Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome

Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (IHES) is a leukoproliferative disorder and refers to a situation when there is an unexplained prolonged eosinophilia with associated organ system dysfunction. The condition can affect several organ systems which includes: heart: cardiac involvement in idio...
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Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension is uncommon, representing only a tiny fraction of all cases of pulmonary arterial hypertension, which has a very long list of secondary causes (see causes of pulmonary arterial hypertension). Terminology Older terms for this entity include primary pul...
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IgG4-related cardiovascular disease

IgG4-related cardiovascular disease is one of the many manifestations of IgG4-related disease and may present as: aortitis and periaortitis arteritis and periarteritis of small to medium-sized arteries coronary arteritis and periarteritis inflammatory aneurysms pericarditis
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IgG4-related coronary disease

IgG4-related coronary disease is a form of inflammatory arteritis and/or periarteritis of the coronary arteries and a form of IgG4-related disease. Epidemiology Similar to atherosclerotic coronary artery disease IgG4-related coronary disease affects older people above 60 years of age. There is...
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Implantable loop recorder

Implantable loop recorders, also known as insertable cardiac monitors, are small insertable devices that continuously monitor and record cardiac rhythms. They are placed subcutaneously and used for the evaluation of patients with recurrent unexplained episodes of palpitations or syncope. They sh...
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Increased cardiothoracic ratio (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Increased cardiothoracic ratio describes widening of the cardiac silhouette on a chest radiograph. This is only of use when making an assessment of a PA chest x-ray since the AP chest x-ray causes the artefactual magnificat...
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Infective endocarditis

Infective endocarditis is defined as infection of the endocardium. It commonly affects the valve leaflets and chordae tendineae, as well as prosthetic valves and implanted devices. Epidemiology Infective endocarditis has an estimated general prevalence of 3 to 9 cases per 100,000. Intravenous ...
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Inferior aortic recess

The inferior aortic recess is one of the pericardial recesses forming a small space within the pericardium, which arises from the transverse pericardial sinus between the ascending aorta and the left atrium. It extends inferiorly to the level of the aortic valve. It may mimic mediastinal lympha...
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Inferior cavoatrial junction

The inferior cavoatrial junction (ICAJ) is the term given to the point at which the inferior vena cava (IVC) enters the right atrium. It is less commonly used/seen, in contradistinction to the superior cavoatrial junction.  Accurate localization of the inferior cavoatrial junction is of practic...
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Inferior interventricular artery

The inferior interventricular artery (also known as the posterior interventricular artery or posterior descending artery, PDA) is an artery that extends along the inferior interventricular sulcus. The artery supplies the posterior third of the interventricular septum through posterior septal per...
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Inferior mediastinum

The inferior mediastinum is the box-shaped space in the mediastinum below the transthoracic plane of Ludwig between the wedge-shaped superior mediastinum above and the diaphragm and inferior thoracic aperture below. There are no physical structures that divide the superior and inferior mediastin...
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Inferior pyramidal space of the heart

The inferior pyramidal space of the heart is an area filled with epicardial adipose tissue at the backside or diaphragmatic side of the heart immediately beneath the crux cordis. Gross anatomy The inferior pyramidal space is a pyramid-shaped fibrofatty structure between the two septal atrial w...
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Innervation of the heart

The heart has extrinsic and intrinsic innervation, which allows the heart to continue beating if its nerve supply is disrupted (e.g. in cardiac transplant). The extrinsic supply is from parasympathetic (from the vagus nerve) and sympathetic nerves from both the superficial and deep cardiac plex...
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Interarterial course of the left coronary artery

An interarterial course of the left coronary artery is defined as origination of the left main or left anterior descending coronary artery from the right coronary sinus of Valsalva, with a course between the ascending aorta and the pulmonary artery trunk.  Terminology An interarterial course i...
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Interarterial course of the right coronary artery

Interarterial course of the right coronary artery, may occur if the right coronary artery (RCA) has an aberrant origin from the left coronary sinus. The interarterial course occurs because the artery passes between the ascending aorta and the pulmonary trunk. It is an uncommon anatomic variant ...
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Interatrial septal aneurysm

Interatrial septal aneurysm or atrial septal aneurysm (ASA) is defined as an abnormal protrusion of the interatrial septum. The exact length of the protrusion that defines an interatrial septal aneurysm varies in the literature, ranging from >11 mm to >15 mm beyond normal excursion in adults 4,5...
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Interventricular septal aneurysm

Interventricular septal aneurysm is different from ventricular aneurysm which usually occurs in the cardiac apex. It is defined as a bowing of the interventricular septum of more than 15 mm on either side in adults and 5 mm in children during normal cardiac motion. It may involve either the memb...
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Interventricular septal bulge

Interventricular septal bulge​ (also known as a sigmoid septum) is a common finding in imaging studies in the elderly population and refers to an isolated thickened basal septum resulting in a sigmoid configuration. Although it is currently unclear whether this entity is part of the normal agin...
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Interventricular septum

The interventricular septum divides the right and left ventricles, running in the plane of the anterior and posterior interventicular grooves. Septation of the ventricles occurs in the fetus within 7 weeks of gestation, achieved by the formation of this embryologically heterogenous structure 6. ...
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Intra-aortic balloon pump

Intra-aortic balloon pumps (IABP) are used in the intensive care setting to provide hemodynamic assistance to patients in cardiogenic shock. Function and physiology The device is comprised of a catheter introduced via a femoral artery sheath, which extends retrogradely to the proximal descendi...
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Intra-atrial course of the right coronary artery

Intra-atrial course of the right coronary artery is an uncommon anatomic variation in the course of the right coronary artery, usually involving the mid and distal segments, where the vessel partially or completely courses through the right atrial chamber. It is the most common intracavitary (in...
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Intracardiac thrombus

Intracardiac thrombi are seen in a variety of clinical settings and can result in severe morbidity or even death from embolic events. They can occur following myocardial infarction with ventricular thrombus formation, or with atrial fibrillation and mitral stenosis where atrial thrombi predomina...
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Intramyocardial hemorrhage

Intramyocardial hemorrhage is referred to as the extravasation of erythrocytes and/or blood products into the myocardium. Epidemiology Intramyocardial hemorrhage occurs in 35-50% of the patients with successful coronary revascularization of ST-elevation myocardial infarction 1-4. Associations...
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Intraventricular

Intraventricular is a term used to denote lesions/processes that occur within either the ventricles of the brain or the ventricles of the heart.  In both cases, most lesions actually arise from the surrounding brain parenchyma/heart muscle and grow exophytically into the ventricles.  See also ...
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Iron overload cardiomyopathy

Iron overload cardiomyopathy (IOC) refers to a secondary form of cardiomyopathy resulting from the accumulation of iron in the myocardium. It occurs mainly due to genetically determined disorders of iron metabolism (e.g. cardiomyopathy in hemochromatosis, thalassemia 6,7) or multiple transfusion...
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Isomerism

Isomerism is a term which in general means 'mirror-image' and refers to finding normally-asymmetric bilateral structures to be similar. It is used in the context of heterotaxy and is of two types: left isomerism right isomerism Left isomerism Mirror image of the structures on the left side o...
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Isthmus (disambiguation)

Isthmus (plural isthmi) is an anatomical term and refers to a slender structure joining two larger components. Some of these uses of the word isthmus are now rarely used or only seen in older texts and articles: isthmus (aorta) isthmus (auditory tube) isthmus (auricle of the ear) isthmus (ci...
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Jaffe-Campanacci syndrome

Jaffe-Campanacci syndrome is characterized by: multiple non-ossifying fibromas of the long bones and jaw café au lait spots intellectual disability kyphoscoliosis hypogonadism or cryptorchidism ocular malformations cardiovascular malformations giant cell granuloma of the jaw axillary an...
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Kawasaki disease

Kawasaki disease (KD) is a small to medium vessel vasculitis predominantly affecting young children. It can affect any organ but there is a predilection for the coronary vessels. Epidemiology Japan has the highest incidence in the world, with an annual incidence of 300/100,000 children under t...
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Kawashima procedure

Kawashima procedure is a palliative surgical procedure performed in cases of: left isomerism and azygos continuation of the inferior vena cava single functional ventricle single atrium and common atrioventricular valve with or without regurgitation pulmonary stenosis It is performed by crea...
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Keshan disease

Keshan disease is a selenium-deficient condition characterized primarily by a dilated cardiomyopathy, resulting in congestive cardiac failure, cardiomegaly, and, on occasion, fulminant cardiogenic shock. It most commonly presents in young children and menstruating women. Historically it was ori...
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Kommerell diverticulum

Kommerell diverticula occur in some anomalies of the aortic arch system. It usually refers to the bulbous configuration of the origin of an aberrant left subclavian artery in the setting of a right-sided aortic arch. However, it was originally described as a diverticular outpouching at the origi...
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Kounis syndrome

Kounis syndrome, also known as allergic acute coronary syndrome, refers to an acute coronary syndrome accompanying mast cell activation from allergic, hypersensitivity, or anaphylactoid reactions. Pathology It is represented by a vasospastic acute coronary syndrome with or without the presence...
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Kugel's artery

An uncommon variant of coronary arterial anatomy, Kugel's artery was originally described as an anastomotic communication between branches of the proximal left circumflex artery with the distal right coronary artery. These coronary trunks often communicate indirectly through atrial anastomotic n...
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Labeled imaging anatomy cases

This article lists a series of labeled imaging anatomy cases by system and modality. Brain CT head: non-contrast axial CT head: non-contrast coronal CT head: non-contrast sagittal CT head: angiogram axial CT head: angiogram coronal CT head: angiogram sagittal CT head: venogram axial CT ...
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Lambl’s excrescence

Lambl’s excrescences, also known as valvular strands, are small, filiform, fibrous strands located on cardiac valves. Epidemiology Thought to be present in 70-80% of adults according to pathological studies, but only ~40% on echocardiograph studies 1. When present, multiple Lambl’s excrescence...
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Late gadolinium enhancement

Late gadolinium enhancement is a technique used in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging for cardiac tissue characterization, in particular, the assessment of regional scar formation and myocardial fibrosis 1-5. Terminology Late gadolinium enhancement is also known under the terms ‘late enhanceme...
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LCx and LAD arising separately from the left coronary sinus

One of the anatomical variants of coronary artery origin comprises the left circumflex coronary artery (LCx) and left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) arising separately from the left coronary sinus. Hence there is no common left main coronary artery (LCA/LMCA). It considered the commo...
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Leadless cardiac pacemaker

Leadless cardiac pacemakers are a recently introduced type of cardiac conduction device. These pacemakers are self-contained right ventricular single-chamber pacemakers that are implanted percutaneously via a femoral approach 1-3. There are currently two leadless cardiac pacemakers on the market...
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Left anterior descending artery

The left anterior descending (LAD) artery, also known as the anterior interventricular branch, is one of the two branches of the left coronary artery (the other branch being the circumflex (Cx) artery). Gross anatomy It descends along the interventricular groove. It can be divided into proxim...
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Left atrial aneurysm

Left arterial aneurysms refer to rare focal outpouchings arising from the left atrium. They can be congenital or acquired. Congenital left atrial aneurysms can be further divided into intra- and extra-pericardial types. Clinical presentation Patients may be asymptomatic or present with atrial ...
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Left atrial appendage

The left atrial appendage (LAA) (also known as left auricle) is a pouch-like projection from the main body of the left atrium, which lies in the atrioventricular sulcus in close proximity to the left circumflex artery, the left phrenic nerve, and the left pulmonary veins. Gross anatomy Morphol...
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Left atrial appendage closure devices

Left atrial appendage (LAA) closure devices are implantable cardiac devices which are placed in the left atrial appendage for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation who have contraindications to pharmacological anticoagulation. Depending on the device they may be inserted percuta...
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Left atrial diverticulum

A left atrial diverticulum (LAD) refers to a pouch-like structure with a saclike shape with a broad-based ostium and a smooth contour to its body. They are considered an anatomical variant.  Complications some suggest that there may be a possible latent relationship between LA diverticulum and...
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Left atrial enlargement

Left atrial enlargement (LAE) may result from many conditions, either congenital or acquired. It has some characteristic findings on a frontal chest radiograph. CT or MRI may also be used for diagnosis. Clinical presentation An enlarged left atrium can have many clinical implications, such as:...
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Left atrial line

A left atrial (LA) line monitors left atrial pressures acting as a surrogate for left ventricular function, preload and afterload. The left atrial line enters from the left superior pulmonary vein and exits the far side of the chest. The left atrial line is a single lumen catheter unlike the ri...
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Left atrium

The left atrium (LA) (plural: atria) is one of the four chambers of the heart. It receives oxygenated blood from the pulmonary circulation that is then delivered to the left ventricle (LV) and then into the systemic circulation. Gross anatomy The left atrium is grossly cuboidal, and like the r...
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Left bundle branch block

A form of interventricular conduction defect most often diagnosed on the electrocardiogram, the presence of a left bundle branch block (LBBB) disrupts the normal sequence of ventricular depolarization.  Epidemiology Aberrant conduction in the left bundle branch producing a conduction block is ...
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Left circumflex arising from right coronary sinus

Left circumflex (LCx) arising from right coronary sinus (RCA) is a coronary arterial variant. Epidemiology It is considered the most common coronary anomaly with prevalence range of around 0.37-1.3 % of all patients. Sub types According to some publications, anomalous LCx is divided into 3 t...
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Left dominant arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy

Left dominant arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy is a variant of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy that predominantly affects the left ventricle of the heart. It may also be known as arrhythmogenic left ventricular cardiomyopathy 4. Clinical presentation The main clinical diagnostic f...
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Left heart failure

Left heart failure (LHF) or left ventricular failure (LVF) is a type of heart failure when the left ventricle is unable to pump blood effectively out of the heart. It is often used synonymously with left ventricular failure. It is one of the commonest causes of cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Left...
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Left main coronary artery

The left main coronary artery (LMCA) or left coronary artery (LCA) is one of the two main coronary arteries that supply the heart with oxygenated blood. Gross anatomy Origin It is a branch of the ascending aorta, with its normal origin in the left aortic sinus, just superior to the aortic val...
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Left marginal vein

The left marginal vein also known as the left obtuse marginal vein is one of the tributary veins of the coronary sinus and belongs to the greater coronary venous system. Gross anatomy The left marginal vein drains the lateral wall of the left ventricle and usually courses with one of the obtus...
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Left pulmonary venous recess

The left pulmonary venous recess is one of the pericardial recesses forming a small space within the pericardium. It arises from the pericardial cavity proper located between the left superior and inferior pulmonary veins, posterior to the left atrium. It invaginates towards the oblique pericard...
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Left pulmonic recess

The left pulmonic recess is one of the pericardial recesses forming a small space within the pericardium, which arises from the transverse pericardial sinus. It is located posterior to the pulmonary trunk and left pulmonary artery.  It may mimic mediastinal lymphadenopathy or a bronchogenic cyst.
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Left-sided superior vena cava

A left-sided superior vena cava (SVC) is the most common congenital venous anomaly in the chest, and in a minority of cases can result in a right-to-left shunt 3,4. Epidemiology A left-sided SVC is seen in 0.3-0.5% of the normal population and in ~5% of those with congenital heart disease 3. I...
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Left ventricle

The left ventricle is one of four heart chambers. It receives oxygenated blood from the left atrium and pumps it into the systemic circulation via the aorta. Gross anatomy The left ventricle is conical in shape with an anteroinferiorly projecting apex and is longer with thicker walls than the ...
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Left ventricular aneurysm

Left ventricular aneurysms are discrete, dyskinetic areas of the left ventricular wall with a broad neck (as opposed to left ventricular pseudoaneurysms), thus often termed true aneurysms. Epidemiology True left ventricular aneurysms develop in less than 5% of all patients with ST-elevation my...
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Left ventricular assist device

Left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) are mechanical circulatory support device that are surgically implanted to aid pumping blood in patients with severe refractory cardiac failure. It may be used as a bridge to cardiac transplantation, or as destination therapy in patients who are not a trans...
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Left ventricular assist device (Doppler ultrasound)

In patients with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD), spectral Doppler waveforms are altered due to continuous flow provided by the pump in the device: waveforms are monophasic with a constant antegrade flow and no flow below the baseline the waveform is typically parvus-tardus with a slow...
Article

Left ventricular diverticulum

True diverticula of the left ventricle refer to congenital anomalies affecting the left ventricle. Epidemiology The condition typically occurs in children and is thought to occur in around 0.4% of cases based on autopsy studies. Clinical presentation In isolated cases, they are often asympto...
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Left ventricular ejection fraction (echocardiography)

Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is a surrogate for left ventricular global systolic function, defined as the left ventricular stroke volume divided by the end-diastolic volume. Terminology Point-of-care echocardiography protocols typically use a semi-quantitative approach in defining...
Article

Left ventricular enlargement

Left ventricular enlargement can be the result of a number of conditions, including: pressure overload hypertension aortic stenosis volume overload aortic regurgitation mitral regurgitation wall abnormalities left ventricular aneurysm hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Radiographic features ...
Article

Left ventricular false tendon

Left ventricular false tendons, also known as left ventricular muscular bands, are fibromuscular structures that arise from the inner trabeculated myocardial layer of the left ventricle. They may have different lengths and thicknesses. Epidemiology The incidence of false tendons ranges from 18...
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Left ventricular hypertrophy

Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is present when the left ventricular mass is increased. It is a common condition, typically due to systemic hypertension, and it increases with age, obesity and severity of hypertension. Epidemiology Studies have demonstrated a prevalence on echocardiography ...
Article

Left ventricular mass index

Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) is a parameter used in echocardiography and cardiac MRI.  LVMI is calculated using the following equations: LVMI = LVM (left ventricular mass)/body surface area left ventricular mass =  0.8{1.04[([LVEDD + IVSd +PWd]3 - LVEDD3)]} + 0.6 where LVEDD = LV end-...
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Left ventricular outflow tract

The left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) is considered represent the region of the left ventricle that lies between the anterior cusp of the mitral valve and the ventricular septum. Its dimensions are often recorded in TAVI work up studies.  Related pathology left ventricular outflow tract ob...
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Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction in echocardiography (differential)

Left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction describes a state in which the egress of blood from the left ventricle to the systemic circulation is impeded as it traverses the anatomic LVOT to the aortic arch. Echocardiography, particularly with the use of spectral Doppler, may be used to de...
Article

Left ventricular outflow tract view (fetal echocardiogram)

The left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) view (or five chamber view) is one of the standard views in a fetal echocardiogram. It is a long-axis view of the heart, highlighting the path from the left ventricle into the ascending aorta (left ventricle outflow tract). In this view, the right vent...
Article

Left ventricular pseudoaneurysm

Left ventricular pseudoaneurysms are false aneurysms that result from contained myocardial rupture, and are a rare complication of myocardial infarction (MI). They should not be confused with left ventricular aneurysms, which are true aneurysms containing all the layers (endocardium, myocardium,...
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Libman-Sacks endocarditis

Libmann-Sacks endocarditis (LSE), also known as verrucous endocarditis, is a form of nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis characterized by large thrombi vegetations over the endocardial surface. It was considered the predominant form of endocarditis in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) until tr...
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Lipomatous hypertrophy of the interatrial septum

Lipomatous hypertrophy of the interatrial septum (LHIS) is a relatively uncommon disorder of the heart characterized by benign fatty infiltration of the interatrial septum. It is commonly found in elderly and obese patients as an asymptomatic incidentally discovered finding.  Epidemiology The ...

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