Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

543 results found
Article

Left atrial aneurysm

Left arterial aneurysms refer to rare focal outpouchings arising from the left atrium. They can be congenital or acquired. Congenital left atrial aneurysms can be further divided into intra- and extra-pericardial types. Clinical presentation Patients may be asymptomatic or present with atrial ...
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Left atrial appendage

The left atrial appendage (LAA) (also known as left auricle) is a pouch-like projection from the main body of the left atrium, which lies in the atrioventricular sulcus in close proximity to the left circumflex artery, the left phrenic nerve, and the left pulmonary veins. Gross anatomy Morphol...
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Left atrial appendage closure devices

Left atrial appendage (LAA) closure devices are implantable cardiac devices which are placed in the left atrial appendage for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation who have contraindications to pharmacological anticoagulation. Depending on the device they may be inserted percuta...
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Left atrial diverticulum

A left atrial diverticulum (LAD) refers to a pouch-like structure with a saclike shape with a broad-based ostium and a smooth contour to its body. They are considered an anatomical variant.  Complications some suggest that there may be a possible latent relationship between LA diverticulum and...
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Left atrial enlargement

Left atrial enlargement (LAE) may result from many conditions, either congenital or acquired. It has some characteristic findings on a frontal chest radiograph. CT or MRI may also be used for diagnosis. Clinical presentation An enlarged left atrium can have many clinical implications, such as:...
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Left atrial line

A left atrial (LA) line monitors left atrial pressures acting as a surrogate for left ventricular function, preload and afterload. The left atrial line enters from the left superior pulmonary vein and exits the far side of the chest. The left atrial line is a single lumen catheter unlike the ri...
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Left atrium

The left atrium (LA) (plural: atria) is one of the four chambers of the heart. It receives oxygenated blood from the pulmonary circulation that is then delivered to the left ventricle (LV) and then into the systemic circulation. Gross anatomy The left atrium is grossly cuboidal, and like the r...
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Left bundle branch block

A form of interventricular conduction defect most often diagnosed on the electrocardiogram, the presence of a left bundle branch block (LBBB) disrupts the normal sequence of ventricular depolarization.  Epidemiology Aberrant conduction in the left bundle branch producing a conduction block is ...
Article

Left circumflex arising from right coronary sinus

Left circumflex (LCx) arising from right coronary sinus (RCA) is a coronary arterial variant. Epidemiology It is considered the most common coronary anomaly with prevalence range of around 0.37-1.3 % of all patients. Sub types According to some publications, anomalous LCx is divided into 3 t...
Article

Left heart failure

Left heart failure (LHF) or left ventricular failure (LVF) is a type of heart failure when the left ventricle is unable to pump blood effectively out of the heart. It is often used synonymously with left ventricular failure. It is one of the commonest causes of cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Left...
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Left main coronary artery

The left main coronary artery (LMCA) or left coronary artery (LCA) is one of the two main coronary arteries that supply the heart with oxygenated blood. Gross anatomy Origin It is a branch of the ascending aorta, with its normal origin in the left aortic sinus, just superior to the aortic val...
Article

Left pulmonary venous recess

The left pulmonary venous recess is one of the pericardial recesses forming a small space within the pericardium. It arises from the pericardial cavity proper located between the left superior and inferior pulmonary veins, posterior to the left atrium. It invaginates towards the oblique pericard...
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Left pulmonic recess

The left pulmonic recess is one of the pericardial recesses forming a small space within the pericardium, which arises from the transverse pericardial sinus. It is located posterior to the pulmonary trunk and left pulmonary artery.  It may mimic mediastinal lymphadenopathy or a bronchogenic cyst.
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Left-sided superior vena cava

A left-sided superior vena cava (SVC) is the most common congenital venous anomaly in the chest, and in a minority of cases can result in a right-to-left shunt 3,4. Epidemiology A left-sided SVC is seen in 0.3-0.5% of the normal population and in ~5% of those with congenital heart disease 3. I...
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Left ventricle

The left ventricle is one of four heart chambers. It receives oxygenated blood from the left atrium and pumps it into the systemic circulation via the aorta. Gross anatomy The left ventricle is conical in shape with an anteroinferiorly projecting apex and is longer with thicker walls than the ...
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Left ventricular aneurysm

Left ventricular aneurysms are discrete, dyskinetic areas of the left ventricular wall with a broad neck (as opposed to left ventricular pseudoaneurysms), thus often termed true aneurysms. Epidemiology True left ventricular aneurysms develop in less than 5% of all patients with ST-elevation my...
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Left ventricular assist device

Left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) are mechanical circulatory support device that are surgically implanted to aid pumping blood in patients with severe refractory cardiac failure. It may be used as a bridge to cardiac transplantation, or as destination therapy in patients who are not a trans...
Article

Left ventricular diverticulum

True diverticula of the left ventricle refer to congenital anomalies affecting the left ventricle. Epidemiology The condition typically occurs in children and is thought to occur in around 0.4% of cases based on autopsy studies. Clinical presentation In isolated cases, they are often asympto...
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Left ventricular ejection fraction (echocardiography)

Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is a surrogate for left ventricular global systolic function, defined as the left ventricular stroke volume divided by the end-diastolic volume. Terminology Point-of-care echocardiography protocols typically use a semi-quantitative approach in defining...
Article

Left ventricular enlargement

Left ventricular enlargement can be the result of a number of conditions, including: pressure overload hypertension aortic stenosis volume overload aortic regurgitation mitral regurgitation wall abnormalities left ventricular aneurysm hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Radiographic features ...
Article

Left ventricular false tendon

Left ventricular false tendons, also known as left ventricular muscular bands, are fibromuscular structures that arise from the inner trabeculated myocardial layer of the left ventricle. They may have different lengths and thicknesses. Epidemiology The incidence of false tendons ranges from 18...
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Left ventricular hypertrophy

Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is present when the left ventricular mass is increased. It is a common condition, typically due to systemic hypertension, and it increases with age, obesity and severity of hypertension. Epidemiology Studies have demonstrated a prevalence on echocardiography ...
Article

Left ventricular mass index

Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) is a parameter used in echocardiography and cardiac MRI.  LVMI is calculated using the following equations: LVMI = LVM (left ventricular mass)/body surface area left ventricular mass =  0.8{1.04[([LVEDD + IVSd +PWd]3 - LVEDD3)]} + 0.6 where LVEDD = LV end-...
Article

Left ventricular outflow tract

The left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) is considered represent the region of the left ventricle that lies between the anterior cusp of the mitral valve and the ventricular septum. Its dimensions are often recorded in TAVI work up studies.  Related pathology left ventricular outflow tract ob...
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Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction in echocardiography (differential)

Left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction describes a state in which the egress of blood from the left ventricle to the systemic circulation is impeded as it traverses the anatomic LVOT to the aortic arch. Echocardiography, particularly with the use of spectral Doppler, may be used to de...
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Left ventricular outflow tract view (fetal echocardiogram)

The left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) view (or five chamber view) is one of the standard views in a fetal echocardiogram. It is a long axis view of the heart, highlighting the path from the left ventricle into the ascending aorta (left ventricle outflow tract). In this view the right ventr...
Article

Left ventricular pseudoaneurysm

Left ventricular pseudoaneurysms are false aneurysms that result from contained myocardial rupture, and are a rare complication of myocardial infarction (MI). They should not be confused with left ventricular aneurysms, which are true aneurysms containing all the layers (endocardium, myocardium,...
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Libman-Sacks endocarditis

Libmann-Sacks endocarditis (LSE), also known as verrucous endocarditis, is a form of nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis characterized by large thrombi vegetations over the endocardial surface. It was considered the predominant form of endocarditis in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) until tr...
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Lipomatous hypertrophy of the interatrial septum

Lipomatous hypertrophy of the interatrial septum (LHIS) is a relatively uncommon disorder of the heart characterized by benign fatty infiltration of the interatrial septum. It is commonly found in elderly and obese patients as an asymptomatic incidentally discovered finding.  Epidemiology The ...
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Lipomatous metaplasia of the myocardium

Lipomatous metaplasia of the myocardium is a phenomenon where there is fat deposition within the myocardium. It is often seen following a myocardial infarction but can also rarely been seen in conditions such as arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia. Pathology The exact etiology of lipoma...
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Lutembacher syndrome

Lutembacher syndrome refers to the association of an atrial septal defect (ASD) with mitral stenosis.  Both the defects can be either congenital or acquired. History and etymology It is named after Rene Lutembacher 4.
Article

Lyme disease

Lyme disease, also known as borreliosis, is a condition caused by the bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi, with infection being via the ixodid tick.  Terminology Controversy around Lyme disease centers on chronic infection with some authors doubting its existence 3. There are some terms that help di...
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Major aortopulmonary collateral arteries

Major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (MAPCAs) are persistent tortuous fetal arteries that arise from the descending aorta and supply blood to pulmonary arteries in the lungs usually at the posterior aspect of hilum. Pathology Embryologically, the intersegmental arteries regress with the no...
Article

Marfan syndrome

Marfan syndrome is a multisystem connective tissue disease caused by a defect in the protein fibrillin 1, encoded for by the FBN1 gene. Cardiovascular involvement with aortic root dilatation and dissection is the most feared complication of the disease. Epidemiology The estimated prevalence is...
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McConnell's sign (echocardiography)

The McConnell's sign describes a regional pattern of acute right ventricular dysfunction on transthoracic echocardiography first observed in a cohort of patients with acute pulmonary thromboembolism. In contrast to the global wall motion abnormalities observed in chronic right ventricular dysfun...
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Mediastinum (ITMIG classification)

The International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group (ITMIG) classification of mediastinal compartments was developed to reflect a division of the mediastinum based on cross-sectional imaging. It was in part an effort to consolidate prior discrepant classification systems in use by different medic...
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Medical devices in the thorax

Medical devices in the thorax are regularly observed by radiologists when reviewing radiographs and CTs. Extrathoracic devices tubing, clamps, syringes lying on or under the patient rubber sheets, foam mattresses, clothing, hair braids, nipple piercings etc. may also be visible These devices...
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Metabolic syndrome

The metabolic syndrome, also known as syndrome X, is a set of five conditions, which together increase a patient's risk of developing cardiovascular disease 1. Clinical presentation There are five central components of the metabolic syndrome: hyperinsulinemia impaired glucose tolerance dysl...
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Metaplasia

Metaplasia is a general pathology term that refers to process when one cell type is replaced by another. It usually occurs in the context of a changed cellular environment to which the new cell type is better adapted 1. Examples include 2-5: Barrett esophagus: normal squamous epithelium replace...
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Middle cardiac vein

The middle cardiac vein or posterior interventricular vein is a vein of the heart which accompanies the posterior interventricular artery. It courses in the posterior interventricular groove and drains directly into the coronary sinus close to it’s termination. It drains the posterior wall of bo...
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Milking effect

Milking effect phenomenon is a pathognomonic angiographic finding in myocardial bridging of coronary arteries. Systolic compression of coronary vessels with partial or complete decompression during diastole is described as milking effect. Its significance lies in:  increased risk of thrombus fo...
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Miminally invasive direct coronary artery bypass

Minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass (MIDCAB) is a novel method for bypassing diseased coronary arteries that can replace open coronary artery bypass grafts (CABG) in certain situations, most commonly when bypassing the left anterior descending artery (LAD) with a left internal thora...
Article

Mitraclip device

A MitraClip™ is a device for percutaneous mitral valve repair. It is a percutaneous edge-to-edge attachment system that mimics the surgical procedure. This technique creates a tissue bridge between the anterior and posterior leaflets employing one clip deployed through trans-septal catheterizati...
Article

Mitral annular calcification

Mitral annular calcification (MAC) refers to the deposition of calcium (along with lipid) in the annular fibrosa of the mitral valve. Epidemiology Annular calcification is seen in up to 35% of elderly patients. It is common in females over 65 years, in those with myxomatous degeneration of the...
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Mitral valve

The mitral valve (MV) (or bicuspid valve) is one of the four cardiac valves. It is the atrioventricular valve that allows blood to flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle. It opens during diastole and closes during systole. The valve has anterior and posterior leaflets (cusps), the bases...
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Mitral valve calcification

Mitral valve calcification can refer to 1 mitral annular calcification (MAC) or mitral valve leaflet calcification (MVL)
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Mitral valve disease

Mitral valve disease (MVD) mostly comprises two main functional abnormalities, which can occur in isolation or in combination: mitral regurgitation mitral stenosis In addition, other pathologies that affect the mitral valve include: mitral valve prolapse mitral annular calcification mitral...
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Mitral valve prolapse

Mitral valve prolapse (MVP), also known as Barlow syndrome, is often defined as systolic bowing of the mitral leaflet more than 2 mm beyond the annular plane into the atrium 1. It is a common cause of mitral regurgitation (considered most frequent cause of severe non-ischemic mitral regurgitatio...
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Mitral valve regurgitation

Mitral valve regurgitation, also known as mitral valve insufficiency or mitral valve incompetence, is a valvulopathy that describes leaking of the mitral valve during systole that causes blood to flow in the reverse direction from the left ventricle into the left atrium. Epidemiology According...
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Mitral valve stenosis

Mitral valve stenosis is a valvulopathy that describes narrowing of the opening of the mitral valve between the left ventricle and the left atrium. Epidemiology Mitral stenosis is seen more commonly in women and in countries, generally developing nations, where rheumatic fever is common 1. Cl...
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Moderator band

The moderator band, also called the septomarginal trabecula, is a consistent structure in the morphologic right ventricle and can be helpful as a landmark in situations where the ventricles may be ambiguous (i.e. in some forms of congenital heart disease). The term "septomarginal" is descriptiv...
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Moguls of the heart

The 'moguls of the heart' refer to the bulges of the cardiomediastinal contour on frontal chest radiographs. The cardiomediastinal bulges are likened to skiing moguls (bumps of packed snow on a mountainside sculptured by turning skis). Awareness of their usual locations and etiologies is helpful...
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Mustard repair

The Mustard repair is a technique to correct transposition of the great arteries (TGA), and involves: resection of atrial septum creation of an atrial baffle with pericardium (or rarely synthetic material) 1 Rationale Transposition of the great arteries involves a discordance between the ven...
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Myocardial bridging of the coronary arteries

Myocardial bridging is a common congenital anomaly of the coronary arteries where a coronary artery courses through the myocardium.  Epidemiology It is found approximately in 20-30% of the adult population in autopsy studies. The incidence in coronary angiograms is between 2-15% and can be eas...
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Myocardial crypts

Myocardial crypts (or myocardial clefts or fissures) refer to discrete clefts or fissures in otherwise compacted myocardium of the left ventricle. They are thought to represent a distinctive morphological expression of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, occurring with different frequency in these pati...
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Myocardial infarction

Myocardial infarction (MI), an acute coronary syndrome, results from interruption of myocardial blood flow and resultant ischemia, and is a leading cause of death worldwide.  Epidemiology Risk factors male > females age >45 years for males >55 years for females cardiovascular risk factors...
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Myocardial mapping

Myocardial mapping or parametric mapping of the heart is one of various magnetic resonance imaging techniques, which has evolved and been increasingly used in the last decade for non-invasive tissue characterization of the myocardium 1-5. Unlike normal T1-, T2- or T2*- images, parametric mapping...
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Myocardial perfusion and viability

Myocardial perfusion and viability assessment is important for many reasons: to diagnose, locate and grade the severity of coronary artery disease to identify candidates who would benefit from revascularization to evaluate response to revascularization Terminology Stunned myocardium Stunne...
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Myocarditis

Myocarditis (rare plural: myocarditides) is a general term referring to inflammation of the myocardium.  Clinical presentation Clinical presentation is variable in severity, ranging from asymptomatic to cardiogenic shock, but it typically is associated with other viral symptoms, including feve...
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Napkin-ring sign (heart)

The napkin-ring sign (heart) is a recently described sign encountered on CT coronary angiogram (coronary CTA) performed on modern MDCT. It has been shown to possess a high predictive value in predicting future cardiac events and is considered one of the imaging correlates of an unstable plaque. ...
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Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis

Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE), also referred as marantic endocarditis, refers to fibrin and platelets aggregations on previously undamaged heart valves, in patients without bacteremia. The condition is seen in patients with advanced stage malignancies and is related to episodes of ...
Article

Non cardiogenic pulmonary edema

Non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema is a classification of pulmonary edema where the underlying etiology is not due to left ventricular dysfunction. Causes include: fluid overload pulmonary edema with acute asthma post-obstructive pulmonary edema/postintubation pulmonary edema/negative pressure ...
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Non-compaction of the left ventricle

Non-compaction of the left ventricle, also known as spongiform cardiomyopathy or left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC) is a phenotype of hypertrophic ventricular trabeculations and deep interventricular recesses. It has been hypothesized to result from arrest of normal myocardial compaction dur...
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Normal chest imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the chest and surrounding structures, divided by modality. Plain radiographs Adult examples chest radiograph PA adult male example 1 example 2: with inverted windows example 3 PA adult female example 1 example 2 example 3: with labels ...
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Normal contours of the cardiomediastinum on chest radiography

A detailed understanding of the structures that make up the normal contours of the heart and mediastinum (cardiomediastinal contour) on chest radiography is essential if abnormalities are to be detected.  Frontal view (PA/AP) Right cardiomediastinal contour From superior to inferior: right p...
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Normal pulmonary venous Doppler

Normal pulmonary venous blood flow in the pulmonary veins may be investigated during echocardiography with spectral Doppler analysis. Perturbations in the normal pulmonary venous waveform may indicate the presence of diastolic dysfunction and elevated filling pressures in the left atrium and ven...
Article

Norwood procedure

The Norwood procedure is a palliative procedure that is the first of three stages in the surgical treatment of hypoplastic left heart syndrome. The procedure consists of three components: constructing a neo-aorta by side-to-side anastomosis of the main pulmonary artery and ascending aorta, suc...
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Oblique pericardial sinus

The oblique pericardial sinus is a blind-ending pericardial cul-de-sac behind the heart which opens into the pericardial space proper inferiorly. Gross anatomy Its boundaries are: right (in ascending order): inferior vena cava, right inferior pulmonary vein and right superior pulmonary vein ...
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Obtuse marginal artery

The obtuse marginal (OM) arteries sometimes referred to as lateral branches are branch coronary arteries that come off the circumflex artery. There can be one or more obtuse marginal arteries. It typically traverses along the left margin of heart towards the apex. The first obtuse marginal arter...
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Ortner syndrome

Ortner syndrome, also known as cardiovocal syndrome, is characterized by hoarse voice resulting from left recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy secondary to a cardiovascular disorder. Pathology Left recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy in this condition is due to traction or compression of the nerve betw...
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Overall visual assessment of coronary artery calcification

Overall visual assessment of coronary artery calcification is a simple scoring system for risk assessment of coronary heart disease mortality by an overall "gestalt" of none, mild, moderate or heavy coronary artery calcification. It is comparable to the Agatston score but has the advantage of be...
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Pediatric cardiovascular procedures

A number of pediatric cardiovascular procedures are encountered when reporting pediatric imaging. They include: Blalock-Taussig (BT) shunt classic: end to side subclavian to ipsilateral pulmonary arterial anastomosis modified: graft anastomosis Waterston shunt Sano shunt: right ventricle to...
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Page kidney

Page kidney, or Page phenomenon, refers to systemic hypertension secondary to extrinsic compression of the kidney by a subcapsular collection, e.g. hematoma, seroma, or urinoma. Clinical presentation Patients present with hypertension, which may be recognized acutely after an inciting event or...
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Panzerherz (heart)

Panzerherz (or armoured heart) is a term used to describe the appearance of the heart in calcified constrictive pericarditis. The pericardium becomes circumferentially thickened with calcification, limiting the ability of the heart to contract. The rim of dense calcification describes how the h...
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Papillary fibroelastoma of the heart

Papillary fibroelastomas are rare benign primary cardiac tumors. However, of the primary cardiac tumors, they are one of the commonest to occur in relation to the cardiac valves (may account for 75% of valvular tumors 10).  Epidemiology Its estimated prevalence ranges between <0.01 to 0.33% 5....
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Papillary muscle calcification

Papillary muscle calcification in the heart small amounts can be a common finding in elderly patients and are often located at the apex. Large calcifications involving the papillary muscles are however rare. They have been associated with conditions such as coronary artery disease dilated card...
Article

Papillary muscles

The papillary muscles are thick bands and ridges of endocardial-lined myocardium that project into the lumen of the cardiac ventricles. They essentially represent dominant ventricular trabeculae which attach to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves via the chordae tendineae. During systole, t...
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Parachute device

A parachute device or ventricular partitioning device is a percutaneously inserted cardiac device aimed at improving cardiac output and reducing cardiac remodelling in patients following myocardial infarction. Principle The device consists of an umbrella shaped frame with a overlying membrane,...
Article

Parachute mitral valve

A parachute mitral valve is a valvular congenital abnormality usually identified in infants or young children, though it can present later, in adulthood. Pathology Parachute mitral valves occur when all the chordae tendineae are attached to a single papillary muscle origin. Unlike the normal s...
Article

Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return

Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR), also known as partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection (PAPVC), is a rare congenital cardiovascular condition in which some of the pulmonary veins, but not all, drain into the systemic circulation rather than in the left atrium. Clinical p...
Article

Passive hepatic congestion

Passive hepatic congestion, also known as congested liver in cardiac disease, describes the stasis of blood in the hepatic parenchyma, due to impaired hepatic venous drainage, which leads to the dilation of central hepatic veins and hepatomegaly.  Passive hepatic congestion is a well-studied re...
Article

Patent ductus arteriosus

Patent ductus arteriosus or arteriosum (PDA) is a congenital cardiac anomaly where there is persistent patency of the ductus arteriosus, a normal connection of the fetal circulation between the aorta and the pulmonary arterial system that develops from the 6th aortic arch. Epidemiology PDAs oc...
Article

Patent foramen ovale

A patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a type of atrial septal defect in which there is channel-like communication between the atria through an unfused fossa ovale. Gross anatomy The foramen ovale in the interatrial septum normally develops into the fossa ovalis when the flaps of the atrial septa pri...
Article

Pectinate muscles

The pectinate muscles are "teeth of a comb" shaped parallel muscular columns that are present on the inner wall of the right and left atria. The right atrium has thick and coarse pectinate muscles while these are few smooth and thinner in the left atrium. History and etymology The term is der...
Article

Pentalogy of Fallot

The pentalogy of Fallot is a variant of the more common tetralogy of Fallot, comprising the classic four features with the addition of an atrial septal defect or patent ductus arteriosus: ventricular septal defect (VSD)  right ventricular outlfow tract narrowing or complete obstruction right ...
Article

Pericardial agenesis

Pericardial agenesis is a rare condition where there is the absence of the pericardium to varying degrees. If it is only a small portion of the pericardium that is absent it is known as a pericardial defect. Epidemiology According to a surgical and pathological series, the prevalence (inclusiv...
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Pericardial cyst

Pericardial cysts are uncommon benign congenital anomalies of the anterior and middle mediastinum. Clinical presentation Usually asymptomatic and discovered incidentally although occasionally may present with chest pain and dyspnea. Pathology They are thought to often result from aberrations...
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Pericardial diverticulum

Pericardial diverticula are focal outpouching arising from the pericardium. They are differentiated from congenital pericardial cysts by the presence of direct communication with the pericardial cavity. They can change in size related to body position, with symptoms related to the change in posi...
Article

Pericardial effusion

Pericardial effusions occur when excess fluid collects in the pericardial space (a normal pericardial sac contains approximately 30-50 mL of fluid). Epidemiology There is no single demographic affected, as there are many underlying causes of a pericardial effusion. Clinical presentation Clin...
Article

Pericardial fat pads

Pericardial fat pads are normal structures that lie in the cardiophrenic angle. They are adipose tissues surrounding the heart composed of the epicardial fat, which lies between the myocardium and visceral pericardium, and paracardial fat, which is adherent and external to the parietal pericardi...
Article

Pericardial hemangioma

Pericardial hemangioma is a location specific rare subtype of cardiac hemangioma which arises from either the parietal or visceral (commoner 3) pericardial layers.  Treatment and prognosis It is a benign tumor. Treatment option vary from monitoring to resection. See also pericardial tumors ...
Article

Pericardial ligaments

The pericardial ligaments is a name given to a group of variable fibrous ligaments or adhesions that connect the pericardium to adjacent structures. These ‘ligaments’ tether the fibrous pericardium to it's surrounds, hence movements of the chest wall and diaphragm  influence the position of the ...
Article

Pericardial lipoblastoma

Pericardial lipoblastomas are rare benign tumors that usually occur in children less than 3 years of age. They originate from embryonic fat cells and are divided into two forms, based on location 1: superficial form: well-circumscribed and well-encapsulated deep form: not well-circumscribed an...

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