Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

693 results found
Article

Right atrium

The right atrium (RA) (plural: atria) is one of the four chambers of the human heart, and is the first chamber to receive deoxygenated blood returning from the body, via the two venae cavae. It plays an important role in originating and regulating the conduction of the heart. Gross anatomy The...
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Right coronary artery

The right coronary artery (RCA) is one of the two main coronary arteries that supply the heart with oxygenated blood. Gross anatomy Origin The right coronary artery arises from its ostium in the right sinus of Valsalva, found between the aortic valve annulus and the sinotubular junction.  C...
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Right heart strain

Right heart strain (or more precisely right ventricular strain) is a term given to denote the presence of right ventricular dysfunction usually in the absence of an underlying cardiomyopathy. It can manifest as an acute right heart syndrome. Pathology Right heart strain can often occur as a re...
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Right marginal artery

The right marginal artery, also known as the acute marginal artery or right intermediate atrial branch, supplies the surrounding right atrial tissues 1,2 and, in 10-15% of cases, provides the main arterial supply to the sinus node 3,4. Gross anatomy Origin It arises from the inferior border o...
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Right pulmonary venous recess

The right pulmonary venous recess is one of the pericardial recesses forming a small space within the pericardium. It arises from the pericardial cavity proper located between the right superior and inferior pulmonary veins, posterior to the left atrium. It invaginates towards the oblique perica...
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Right pulmonic recess

The right pulmonic recess is one of the pericardial recesses forming a small space within the pericardium, which arises from the transverse pericardial sinus. It is located posterior to the right pulmonary artery and anterior to the esophagus. It may mimic mediastinal lymphadenopathy or a bronc...
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Right-to-left shunt (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the differential diagnoses associated with right-to-left cardiovascular shunts is: 1-5 Mnemonic 1: a combination vessel; truncus arteriosus 2: number of arteries involved; transposition of the great arteries 3: "tri-" means 3, the number of leaflets involved; t...
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Right ventricle

The right ventricle (RV) is the most anterior of the four heart chambers. It receives deoxygenated blood from the right atrium (RA) and pumps it into the pulmonary circulation. During diastole, blood enters the right ventricle through the atrioventricular orifice through an open tricuspid valve ...
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Right ventricular dysfunction

Right ventricular dysfunction usually results from either pressure overload, volume overload, or a combination.  It occurs in a number of clinical scenarios, including: pressure overload   cardiomyopathies: ischemic, congenital valvular heart disease arrhythmias sepsis It can manifest as ...
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Right ventricular enlargement

Right ventricular enlargement (also known as right ventricular dilatation (RVD)) can be the result of a number of conditions, including: pulmonary valve stenosis pulmonary arterial hypertension atrial septal defect (ASD)  ventricular septal defect (VSD) tricuspid regurgitation dilated card...
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Right ventricular false tendons

Right ventricular false tendons (RFTs), also known as right ventricular muscular bands, are a much less well-known entity than left ventricular false tendons (LFTs). They are fibromuscular structures that arise from the inner trabeculated myocardial layer of the right ventricle, with a range of ...
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Right ventricular function (point of care ultrasound)

Right ventricular function is often measured in point-of-care ultrasonography as a composite of the right ventricular size, wall measurements, and contractile efforts.  Terminology The right ventricle (RV) can be anatomically divided into an inflow portion, an outflow portion, and an apex. Con...
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Right ventricular outflow tract

The right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) refers to the region of blood outlfow from the right ventricle between the supraventricular crest and the pulmonary valve. It is comprised of the conus arteriosus (infundibulum), ventricular septum and right ventricular free wall. It is commonly assesse...
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Right ventricular outflow tract view (fetal echocardiogram)

The right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) view (or three vessel view/3VV) is one of the standard views in a fetal echocardiogram. It principally assesses the right ventricular outflow tract. It is a long axis view of the heart, highlighting the path from the right ventricle into the pulmonary t...
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Ritscher-Schinzel syndrome

Ritscher-Schinzel syndrome (RTSC), also known as 3C (cranio-cerebello-cardiac) syndrome, is a rare entity with a variable spectrum of CNS (primarily cerebellar), craniofacial, and congenital heart defects. Clinical presentation craniofacial cleft palate ocular coloboma prominent occiput lo...
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Roesler sign

Roesler sign is the name given to the inferior rib notching seen in coarctation of the aorta. Although by no means pathognomonic, the sign is fairly specific. Although many other causes of inferior rib notching have been recorded most of them are very rare 1. Strictly-speaking it is only called...
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Ross procedure

Ross procedure involves the use of a pulmonary homograft for surgical aortic valve replacement. Indications It can be used to treat a broad array of aortic valve pathologies, often aortic stenosis. Contraindications multivessel coronary artery disease multiple valvular pathologies in which...
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Saddle pulmonary embolism

Saddle pulmonary embolism commonly refers to a large pulmonary embolism that straddles the bifurcation of the pulmonary trunk, extending into the left and right pulmonary arteries. If large enough, it can completely obstruct both left and right pulmonary arteries resulting in right heart failur...
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Sano shunt

The Sano shunt is a palliative surgical technique sometimes used as a step in Norwood procedure for hypoplastic left heart syndrome. The procedure involves placement of an extracardiac conduit between the right ventricle and main pulmonary artery stump. This technique prevents the reduced diast...
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Sarcoidosis (cardiac manifestations)

Cardiac involvement of sarcoidosis is a manifestation of sarcoidosis which is often asymptomatic, although can be associated with high mortality 8. Autopsy studies show prevalence of ~25% cardiac involvement, yet only 5-10% are found symptomatic 1,2.  Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disorder chara...
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Scleroderma

Scleroderma, also known as systemic sclerosis, is an autoimmune connective tissue disorder characterized by multisystem fibrosis and soft tissue calcification. As such, it affects many separate organ systems, which are discussed separately: musculoskeletal manifestations of scleroderma pulmona...
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Scleroderma (cardiac manifestations)

Cardiac manifestations of scleroderma are highly variable, seen in approximately 15% of patients and are associated with a poor prognosis 2. For a discussion of scleroderma in general, refer to parent article: scleroderma. Clinical presentation Patients may present with: myocardial infarctio...
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Secondary malignant cardiac tumor

Secondary malignant cardiac tumors or cardiac metastases refer to a secondary malignant tumor involving any structural component of the heart. It represents spread of a primary neoplasm via lymphatic, hematogenous, or endovascular pathways, or potentially by direct extension from an adjacent tis...
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Segmental anatomy of the coronary arteries

The segmental anatomy of the coronary arteries has been originally developed and published by the Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and the American Heart Association (AHA). It is widely used for the description of coronary findings in particular within the scope of coronary artery disease. Cor...
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Selenium deficiency

Selenium deficiency (or hyposelenemia) when severe may present with arthritic and cardiac-related symptoms.  Epidemiology Up to one billion people globally are thought to have some degree of selenium deficiency. Phenylketonuria patients are more likely to experience selenium deficiency as man...
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Senning repair

The Senning repair is one of two "atrial switch" procedures used to functionally correct transposition of the great arteries (the other being the Mustard repair).  The two repairs share a similar fundamental principle. Systemic blood flow is redirected away from the right ventricle and toward t...
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Septal bounce

Septal bounce is a sign of ventricular interdependence on echocardiography, cardiac CT, and cardiac MRI, manifested by paradoxical interventricular septal movement during early diastole (i.e. initial septal movement towards and then away from the left ventricle) seen mainly in constrictive peric...
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Septal branches of the left anterior descending artery

The septal branches of the left anterior descending artery supply blood flow to the interventricular septum of the heart. Origin These are right-sided branches (on axial CTCA) from the left anterior descending artery. Supply They provide the main blood supply to the anterior interventricular...
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Septal flash

Septal flash, also known as septal beaking, is a sign of interventricular dyssynchrony seen on echocardiography or cinematographic cardiac CT/MRI. It represents an abnormal rapid movement pattern of the interventricular septum during pre-ejection systole (i.e. isovolumic contraction): septal mo...
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Shepherd's crook right coronary artery

A shepherd’s crook right coronary artery is variant in the terms of the course of the right coronary artery. While the RCA origin is normal it is characterized by a tortuous and high course, usually just after its origin from the aorta. Its prevalence is estimated at approximately 5%. While ofte...
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Shmoo sign

Shmoo sign refers to the appearance of a prominent, rounded left ventricle and dilated aorta on a plain PA chest radiograph giving the appearance of Shmoo, a fictional cartoon character in the comic strip Li'l Abner, which first appeared in 1948 5. This sign is indicative of left ventricular enl...
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Sigmoid shaped interventricular septum

A sigmoid-shaped interventricular septum is considered an anatomical variant which gives the interventricular septum a sigmoid or S like contour. It may be more common in elderly patients. It has been occasionally be associated with syncope 1 and mild ventricular obstruction 2.
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Single chamber cardiac pacers

Single chamber cardiac pacemakers are cardiac conduction devices with one lead terminating in (most commonly) the right ventricular apex or the right atrium.  Components Includes one of the following:  lead in the right atrium  lead in the right ventricle Function Single chamber atrial pac...
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Single coronary artery

Single coronary arteries are rare (incidence 0.03-0.07%), with a higher incidence in patients with congenital heart disease (in particular truncus arteriosus and pulmonary atresia). They occur when there is a single ostia arising from the aorta with no ectopic ostia. There is a wide variety of c...
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Sinoatrial nodal artery

The sinoatrial (SA) nodal artery is the small artery that supplies the sinoatrial (SA) node of the heart (the pacemaker).  Gross anatomy Origin Right coronary artery in 60% of cases and the left coronary artery in 40% of cases. Course The artery turns posteriorly below the superior vena cav...
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Sinus of Valsalva

The sinuses of Valsalva, also known as aortic sinuses, are the anatomic spaces at the aortic root bounded internally by the aortic valve leaflets and externally by outward bulges of the aortic wall. The normal sinus diameter upper limit is usually taken as 40 mm (with some publications suggesti...
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Sinus of Valsalva aneurysm

A sinus of Valsalva aneurysm refers to abnormal dilatation of the sinus of valsalva and is a cause of thoracic aortic dilatation. Sinus of Valsalva aneurysms arise from one of the aortic sinuses. They are either congenital or acquired. Epidemiology There is a male predilection (M:F ratio being...
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Situs inversus

Situs inversus, (rare plural: sitūs inversi) short form of the Latin “situs inversus viscerum”, is a term used to describe the inverted position of chest and abdominal organs. It is called situs inversus totalis when there is a total transposition of abdominal and thoracic viscera (mirror image ...
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Small cardiac vein

The small cardiac vein is a vein of the heart which accompanies the acute marginal artery from the RCA. It courses in the right posterior atrioventricular groove and drains into the coronary sinus close to its termination but may drain directly into the right atrium. It drains the right ventricl...
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Snoopy sign

The Snoopy sign is a chest radiographic appearance in pericardial agenesis. It is due to combination of cardiac levoposition (heart shifted to the left), lengthening and flattening of the border of the left ventricle, radiolucency separating the left ventricle and left hemidiaphragm, radiolucenc...
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Snowman sign (total anomalous pulmonary venous return)

Snowman sign refers to the configuration of the heart and the superior mediastinal borders resembling a snowman. This is seen in total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR) type I (supracardiac type). It is also referred to as the figure of 8 sign. It is an abnormality of the fetal circulat...
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Sonographic approach to dyspnea (mnemonic)

This mnemonic will help with the sonographic approach to the critically ill patient with dyspnea: CHEST Mnemonic C: collapsed lung (pneumothorax)  absence of anterior lung sliding, lung pulse, B-lines, or z-lines these artifacts arise from the pleural interface; their presence would rule ou...
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Speckle tracking echocardiography

Speckle tracking echocardiography describes the semi-automated analysis of grey scale (B-mode) echocardiographic studies in which the spatial translocation of derived functional units (speckles) allows quantitative analysis of myocardial function. Speckle tracking constitutes a subset of deform...
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Spectral Doppler (ultrasound)

Utilizing automated Fourier analysis to convert returning sound waves into a series of individual frequencies, spectral Doppler refers to ultrasound modalities which yield graphical representations of flow velocity over time.  Terminology The frequency of the sound waves returned to an ultraso...
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Stanford classification of aortic dissection

The Stanford classification, along with the DeBakey classification, is used to separate aortic dissections into those that need surgical repair, and those that usually require only medical management 7. Both the Stanford and DeBakey systems can be used to describe all forms of acute aortic synd...
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Starling forces

Starling forces describe the movement of fluids between the vasculature and interstitial spaces. Fluid movement is determined by the balance of hydrostatic and osmotic pressure gradients 1. Starling forces Net pressure = [ (Pc - Pi) - (pc - pi) ] where: Pc = hydrostatic pressure of the capil...
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Straight left heart border sign

Straight left heart border sign is a recently described finding on chest radiograph. It is a fairly specific (84%) sign of hemopericardium after a penetrating chest trauma, although sensitivity at 40% is relatively poor. Positive predictive value (PPV) was found to be 89% 1. It is different to ...
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Stroke volume

The stroke volume (SV) is referred to as the volume of blood ejected into the aorta or main pulmonary artery during each cardiac cycle.   Terminology The stroke volume index (SVI) is referred to as the stroke volume corrected for the body surface area (BSA). Usage The stroke volume is anothe...
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Structural heart disease

Structural heart disease refers to any non-coronary congenital or acquired cardiac defect in a broad sense. In a narrower sense, it refers to any type of non-coronary heart disease for which there are therapeutic percutaneous interventional or catheter-based options available. Typical examples ...
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Stunned myocardium

Stunned myocardium refers to a situation in which an acute transient myocardial ischemic event results in a prolonged wall motion abnormality which eventually resolves. The term is usually distinguished from "hibernating" myocardium, in which a chronic ischemic process leads to chronic left ven...
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Subendocardial fat infiltration

Subendocardial fat infiltration is a finding that can be seen with thoracic and cardiac imaging. It forms a part of myocardial fat infiltration and can sometimes be seen in the setting of a long-gone myocardial infarction 1 especially if seen in the distribution territory of a coronary artery an...
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Sudden cardiac death

Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a term used for an unexpected, non-traumatic fatal event in an otherwise healthy subject that applies under the following circumstances 1: death occurs within one hour of symptom onset (if witnessed) or the person was in good health 24 hours earlier (if not witness...
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Superior aortic recess

The superior aortic recess is one of the pericardial recesses forming a small space within the pericardium, which arises from the superior margin of the transverse pericardial sinus and surrounds the root of the ascending aorta. Its components are variable and may be further subdivided into: a...
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Superior cavoatrial junction

The superior cavoatrial junction (SCAJ), generally referred to as simply the cavoatrial junction (CAJ), is the junction of the right lateral border of the superior vena cava (SVC) and the superior border of the right atrium. It is an important landmark to recognize because it marks an optimum s...
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Surgical hemostatic material

Surgical hemostatic material is used to control bleeding intraoperatively and is hence frequently intentionally left in the operative bed, not to be confused with a gossypiboma which is caused by foreign material left behind in error. Its use has increased with the advent of minimally invasive s...
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Surgically-created cardiac shunts (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for surgically-created cardiac shunts for congenital heart disease is: Great Flow Really Would Be Perfect​ The mnemonic is ordered by the position of the shunt antegrade to normal blood flow through the heart, proceeding from the systemic venous system into the right heart, and then...
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Syphilis

Syphilis is the result of infection with the gram-negative spirochete Treponema pallidum, subspecies pallidum. It results in a heterogeneous spectrum of disease with many systems that can potentially be involved, which are discussed separately.  Epidemiology Despite the discovery of penicillin...
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Systemic hypotension

Systemic hypotension - or often just - hypotension - is the presence of an abnormally low blood pressure. This may be relative, so that a poorly-controlled hypertensive patient who runs a normal blood pressure at 160/100, may be severely hypotensive at 80/60. Hypotension is usually defined with...
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Systemic lupus erythematosus

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease with multisystem involvement. Although abnormalities in almost every aspect of the immune system have been found, the key defect is thought to result from a loss of self-tolerance to autoantigens. Epidemiology There is a strong...
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Systemic lupus erythematosus (thoracic manifestations)

Thoracic manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus can be variable.  For a general discussion, and for links to other system specific manifestations, please refer to the article on systemic lupus erythematosus.  Pathology Pleuropulmonary manifestations pleuritis: considered one of the c...
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Systolic anterior motion (SAM) of the mitral valve

Systolic anterior motion (SAM) of the mitral valve is defined as displacement of the distal portion of the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve toward the left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. It can occur in patients with and without hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
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T1 mapping - myocardium

T1 mapping is a magnetic resonance imaging technique used to calculate the T1 time of a certain tissue and display them voxel-vice on a parametric map. It has been used for myocardial tissue characterization 1-6 and has been investigated for other tissues 5. T1 is the spin-lattice or longitudin...
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T2 mapping - myocardium

T2 mapping is a magnetic resonance imaging technique used to calculate the T2 times of a certain tissue and display them voxel-vice on a parametric map. It has been used for tissue characterization of the myocardium 1-5 and has been investigated for cartilage 6,7 and other tissues 4. The T2 tim...
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T2* mapping - myocardium

T2* mapping is a magnetic resonance imaging technique used to calculate the T2* time of tissue and display them voxel-vice on a parametric map. It is used for myocardial tissue characterization 1-4 and has been investigated for other tissues 5,6. Methodology T2* mapping is usually based on gra...
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Tachycardia induced cardiomyopathy

Tachycardia induced cardiomyopathy (TIC) (or tachycardiomyopathy) is considered a reversible form of acquired cardiomyopathy where there is impaired left ventricular systolic dysfunction precipitated by a tachycardia or a tachyarrhythmia. Typically there is an impairment left ventricular systol...
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Taenia sagittalis

The taenia sagittalis or sagittal bundle is a prominent pectinate muscle and a band-like structure in the right atrium and constitutes a mimic for right atrial thrombi or masses. Gross anatomy The taenia sagittalis originates from the crista terminalis and extends upwards and anteriorly dividi...
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Takeuchi procedure

The Takeuchi procedure refers to a direct anastomosis of the anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery directly to the aorta was described in the 1970s and currently remains the procedure of choice. An intrapulmonary aortocoronary tunnel or baffle was performed by Takeuchi prior ...
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Takotsubo cardiomyopathy

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) (a.k.a. apical ballooning syndrome) is a condition characterized by transient regional abnormal cardiac wall motion, not confined to a single coronary arterial territory. It has been described predominantly in postmenopausal women, often following exposure to sudden...
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Taussig-Bing anomaly

Taussig-Bing anomaly is a rare congenital heart malformation and is one of the variants of double outlet right ventricle. It consists of transposition of the aorta to the right ventricle and malposition of the pulmonary artery with subpulmonary ventricular septal defect. History and etymology ...
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Tc-99m sestamibi

Tc-99m sestamibi (sestamibi is a shortening of sesta-methoxyisobutylisonitrile) is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals. Characteristics photon energy: 140 KeV physical half-life: 6 hours lipophilic cation normal distribution: thyroid, parathyroid, heart (myocardium) excretion: hepat...
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Technetium agents

Technetium agents based on the technetium-99m (Tc-99m) radioisotope are frequently used agents in medical imaging. A radiopharmaceutical labeled with Tc-99m constitutes a co-ordination complex in which ligands bond to a central atom of Tc-99m by co-ordinate covalent bonds 4 . The radioactive te...
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Temporary ventricular assist devices

Temporary ventricular assist devices (or temporary VADs) are temporary percutaneous devices used in supporting a failing heart in cardiogenic shock or perioperatively. Principle Temporary VADs consist of an inlet, outlet and impeller pump all housed within a catheter. Temporary VADs are insert...
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Tetralogy of Fallot

Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is the most common cyanotic congenital heart condition with many cases presenting after the newborn period. It has been classically characterized by the combination of ventricular septal defect (VSD), right ventricular outflow tract obstruction (RVOTO), overriding aorta...
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Tetralogy of fallot (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the underlying anatomic defects in tetralogy of Fallot is: PROVe Mnemonic P: pulmonary stenosis R: right ventricular hypertrophy O: overriding aorta V: ventricular septal defect
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Thallium-201 scintigraphy

Thallium-201 (Th-201) is a radiopharmaceutical used for scintigraphy, primarily of the myocardium. The element thallium is treated by the body as an analog of potassium; it is produced in a cyclotron by bombarding thallium-203 with protons. Characteristics thallium is a monovalent cation usua...
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Thebesian valve

The Thebesian valve, also known as the valve of the coronary sinus, is a fold in the right atrium at the opening of the coronary sinus 1. The valve can create difficulties and interfere with the cannulation of the coronary sinus during cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) 1. Gross anatomy ...
Article

Thiamine deficiency

Thiamine deficiency is caused by a low level of thiamine (vitamin B1) in the body, and when severe, a deficiency may manifest in adults as beriberi.There are two main forms: wet beriberi: high-output cardiac failure predominates Shoshin beriberi 3: severe acute wet form with high mortality dr...
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Third mogul sign

The third mogul sign can be seen on frontal chest radiograph in the presence of left atrial enlargement. It refers to an extra mogul or bump along the upper left cardiac silhouette just below the left main bronchus. The third mogul sign commonly represents the enlarged left atrial appendage, pa...
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Thoracic aorta

The thoracic aorta is the most superior division of the aorta and is divided into three sections: ascending aorta aortic arch descending aorta The thoracic aorta begins at the aortic valve, located obliquely just to the left of the midline at the level of the third intercostal space. It term...
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Thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) risk score

The thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) risk score is a prognostic risk stratification system that categorizes the risk of death and ischemic events in patients with unstable angina / non-ST elevation myocardial infarction and provides a basis for therapeutic decision making. It is thou...
Article

Tissue Doppler imaging (echocardiography)

A variant of pulsed wave Doppler, tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) is a modality in echocardiography that allows measurement of the velocity of myocardial movement throughout the cardiac cycle. Physics Color flow, pulsed wave, and continuous wave Doppler are designed to analyze the Doppler shifts ...
Article

Total anomalous pulmonary venous return

Total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR) is a cyanotic congenital heart anomaly with abnormal drainage anatomy of the entire pulmonary venous system. This contrasts with partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR) where only part of the pulmonary venous anatomy is abnormal. In TAPV...
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Total repair of tetralogy of Fallot

Total repair of tetralogy of Fallot is a corrective surgical procedure that involves closure of the ventricular septal defect (VSD) and relief of right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) obstruction. Procedure Most patients with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) undergo elective surgical repair between ...
Article

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI)

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation or replacement (TAVI/TAVR) is a technique to replace the aortic valve through a transvascular or transapical approach. Compared to traditional open aortic valve replacement with sternotomy and a heart-lung bypass machine, the TAVI technique is less invasiv...
Article

Transesophageal echocardiography

A standard transesophageal echocardiography (TOE, or TEE in US English) is a type of ultrasound using an endoscopic transducer, which is advanced into the esophagus, offering generally superior visualization of the great vessels and posterior cardiac structures than the standard transthoracic ap...
Article

Transient ischemic dilatation

Transient ischemic dilatation (TID) is a paradoxical phenomenon seen in myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging.   With severe balanced coronary artery disease, myocardial ischemia may result in apparent enlargement of the left ventricular cavity during stress. The cause of this is not entirely clea...
Article

Transposition of the great arteries

Transposition of the great arteries (TGA) (also known as transposition of the great vessels (TGV)) is the most common cyanotic congenital cardiac anomaly presenting during the newborn period, with cyanosis in the first 24 hours of life. It accounts for up to 7% of all congenital cardiac anomalie...
Article

Transseptal coronary course

A transseptal, intraseptal or subpulmonic course refers to a coronary artery passing anteriorly and inferiorly to the aortic valve in a subpulmonic route through the interventricular septal myocardium and is mostly described as a ‘benign anomalous course’ without hemodynamic significance. Epide...
Article

Transthoracic echocardiography views

A standard transthoracic echocardiogram consists of five standardized windows which are obtained in a standardized sequence 1. Obtaining views from the left parasternal, apical, subcostal, and suprasternal notch windows is mandatory for a complete echocardiography protocol. The right parasternal...
Article

Transverse pericardial sinus

The transverse pericardial sinus is the transverse communication between the left and right parts of the pericardial space proper behind the two outflow arteries of the heart.   Gross anatomy It is superior to the left atrium and posterior to the intrapericardial parts of the pulmonary trunk a...
Article

Traumatic aortic injury in the exam

Getting a film with traumatic aortic injury in the exam is one of the many exam set-pieces that can be prepared for.  This is one of the cases you should look and not speak for 10 seconds as there tends to be a lot of findings on the film of patients with a traumatic aortic injury. Description...
Article

Triangle of Koch

The triangle of Koch or Koch’s triangle is an important landmark for atrioventricular catheter ablation procedures for the localization of the atrioventricular node. Gross anatomy From a right atrial viewpoint, the triangle of Koch is delineated by the hinge of the septal tricuspid valve leafl...
Article

Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion

Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) also known as tricuspid annular motion refers to the displacement of the tricuspid valvular plane in the z-direction, reflects right ventricular longitudinal contraction or shortening. Usage Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) c...

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