Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

385 results found
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Papillary fibroelastoma of the heart

Papillary fibroelastomas are rare benign primary cardiac tumours. However, of the primary cardiac tumours, they are one of the commonest to occur in relation to the cardiac valves (may account for 75% of valvular tumours 10).  Epidemiology Its estimated prevalence ranges between <0.01 to 0.33%...
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Coronary arteries

The coronary arteries arise from the coronary sinuses immediately distal (superior) to the aortic valve and supply the myocardium with oxygenated blood. They branch and encircle the heart to cover its surface with a lacy network resembling perhaps a slightly crooked crown. Gross anatomy The ty...
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Left pulmonary venous recess

The left pulmonary venous recess is one of the pericardial recesses forming a small space within the pericardium. It arises from the pericardial cavity proper located between the left superior and inferior pulmonary veins, posterior to the left atrium. It invaginates towards the oblique pericard...
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Right atrium

The right atrium (RA) is one of the four chambers of the human heart, and is the first chamber to receive deoxygenated blood returning from the body. It plays an important role in originating and regulating the conduction of the heart. Gross anatomy The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood...
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Left-sided superior vena cava

A left-sided superior vena cava (SVC) is the most common congenital venous anomaly in the chest, and in a minority of cases can result in a right-to-left shunt 3-4. Epidemiology A left-sided SVC is seen in 0.3-0.5% of the normal population and in ~5% of those with congenital heart disease 3. I...
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Left ventricular outflow tract

The left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) is considered represent the region of the left ventricle that lies between the anterior cusp of the mitral valve and the ventricular septum. Its dimensions are often recorded in the TAVI work up studies.  Related pathology left ventricular outflow trac...
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Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI)

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation or replacement (TAVI/TAVR) is a technique to replace the aortic valve through a transvascular or transapical approach. Compared to traditional open aortic valve replacement with sternotomy and a heart-lung bypass machine, the TAVI technique is less invasiv...
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Non-compaction of the left ventricle

Non-compaction of the left ventricle, also known as spongiform cardiomyopathy, is an arrest of myocardial compaction during embryogenesis, leading to hypertrophic ventricular trabeculations and deep inter-ventricular recesses. This abnormality has also been described in the right ventricular, b...
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Left ventricular outflow tract view (fetal echocardiogram)

The left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) view (or five chamber view) is one of the standard views in a fetal echocardiogram. It is a long axis view of the heart, highlighting the path from the left ventricle into the ascending aorta (left ventricle outflow tract). In this view the right ventr...
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Medical devices in the thorax

Medical devices in the thorax are regularly observed by radiologists when reviewing radiographs and CTs. Extrathoracic devices tubing, clamps, syringes lying on or under the patient rubber sheets, foam mattresses, clothing, hair braids, nipple piercings etc may also be visible These devices ...
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Ectopia cordis

Ectopia cordis is an extremely rare congenital malformation where the heart is located partially or totally outside the thoracic cavity. The four main ectopic positions are:: adjacent to the thorax: ~60 % abdominal: 15-30% thoraco-abdominal: 7-18%  cervical: ~3% Epidemiology The estimated ...
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Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), also referred to as arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) or simply arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy, is classified as a type of cardiomyopathy. It is seen particularly in young males and is one of the more common causes of sudden ...
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Coronary arterial ectasia

Coronary arterial ectasia (CAE) refers to diffuse dilatation of the coronary arteries. Under some classification systems there is some overlap with the term coronary arterial aneurysms (which is a more focal dilatation). Terminology It is often defined as dilatation of an arterial segment to a...
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Fetal pericardial effusion

Fetal pericardial effusions (FPE) occur when there is an accumulation of pericardial fluid in utero. In order to be considered as abnormal, it is generally accepted that the pericardial fluid thickness should be greater than 2 mm. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~ 2% of pregnancies ...
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Left atrial appendage closure devices

Left atrial appendage (LAA) closure devices refers to a device placed in the LAA in patients with atrial fibrillation who cannot be anticoagulated pharmaceutically to prevent thromboembolic events. It is placed percutaneously via the femoral vein to right atrium to left atrium by forming a punct...
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Coronary arterial dominance

Coronary arterial dominance is defined by the vessel which gives rise to the posterior descending artery (PDA), which supplies the myocardium of the inferior 1/3rd of the interventricular septum. Most hearts (80-85%) are right dominant where the PDA is supplied by the RCA. The remaining 15-20% ...
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Coronary ostial dimple

A coronary ostial dimple is a type of congenital coronary artery anomaly where there is a rudiment of the coronary ostium usually followed more distally by proximal coronary stem atresia.
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Sarcoidosis (cardiac manifestations)

Cardiac manifestations of sarcoidosis are present in up to 25% of patients with sarcoidosis, but only 5-10% of patients are symptomatic 1-2. Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disorder characterised by the presence of non-caseating granulomas. For a general discussion of this condition please refer t...
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Congenital coronary artery anomalies

Congenital coronary artery anomalies (CCAAs) are not common, found only in ~1% (range 0.1-2%) of patients 1,3.The most important finding to look for is the "malignant" course of anomalous coronary artery, namely, does the artery run between big pulsating objects - RVOT and pulmonary artery on on...
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Blalock-Taussig shunt

Blalock-Taussig shunt, also known as Blalock-Thomas-Taussig shunt, is a palliative procedure designed to increase pulmonary arterial blood flow in patients with right ventricular outflow tract obstruction (e.g. tetralogy of Fallot) or during initial staged repair of hypoplastic left heart syndro...
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Isomerism

Isomerism is a term which in general means 'mirror-image'. It is used in the context of heterotaxy and is of two types: left isomerism right isomerism Left isomerism Mirror image of the structures on the left side of the chest along the left-right axis of the body, i.e. patients with isomeri...
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Cardiomyopathy (WHO/ISFC 1995 classification)

Cardiomyopathy classification separates the various cardiomyopathies into several subtypes. A cardiomyopathy is defined as a "disease of the myocardium with associated cardiac dysfunction". It was initially classified according to the 1995 World Health Organisation / International Society and F...
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Endomyocardial fibrosis

Endomyocardial fibrosis (EMF) is an idiopathic disorder characterised by the development of restrictive cardiomyopathy. Epidemiology It usually occurs in tropical and subtropical regions of the world.There may be a greater predilection in children and adolescents.  Associations It can occur ...
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Coronary Artery Disease - Reporting and Data System

Coronary Artery Disease - Reporting and Data System (CAD-RADSTM) classification is proposed by the Society for Cardiovascular Computed Tomography (SCCT), the American College of Radiology (ACR), and the North American Society for Cardiovascular Imaging (NASCI), last updated in 2016. This recomm...
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Cardiac MRI

Cardiac MRI consists of using MRI to study heart anatomy, physiology and pathology. Advantages The main advantages of cardiac MRI in comparison with other techniques are: better definition of soft tissues use of different types of sequences improves diagnostic accuracy no ionising radiation...
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Bicuspid aortic valve

Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) refers to a spectrum of deformed aortic valves with two functional leaflets or cusps which are often unequal in size. They are most often congenital while an acquired bicuspid valve occurs when there is fibrous fusion between the right and left cusps of a pre-existin...
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Tachycardia induced cardiomyopathy

Tachycardia induced cardiomyopathy (TIC) (or tachycardiomyopathy) is considered a reversible form of acquired cardiomyopathy where there is impaired left ventricular systolic dysfunction precipitated by a tachycardia or a tachyarrhythmia. Typically there is an impairment left ventricular systol...
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Coronary microvascular obstruction

Microvascular obstruction (MVO), also known as no reflow phenomenon, is an established complication encountered in coronary angioplasty for prolonged acute myocardial infarction.  Pathology The phenomenon results from obstruction of the myocardial microcirculation, which is composed of vessel...
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Cervical aortic arch

Cervical aortic arch is a rare aortic arch anomaly characterised by an elongated, high-lying aortic arch extending at or above the level of the medial ends of the clavicles. Clinical presentation Patients with cervical aortic arch are usually asymptomatic. Symptomatic patients may present with...
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Miminally invasive direct coronary artery bypass

Minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass (MIDCAB) is a novel method for bypassing diseased coronary arteries that can replace open coronary artery bypass grafts (CABG) in certain situations, most commonly when bypassing the left anterior descending artery (LAD) with a left internal thora...
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Right coronary artery

The right coronary artery (RCA) is one of the two main coronary arteries that supply the heart with oxygenated blood. Gross anatomy Origin It is a branch of the ascending aorta, with its normal origin in the right aortic sinus, just superior to the aortic valve Course The RCA courses to th...
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Conus artery

The conus artery is a small early branch off the right coronary artery (RCA) circulation. Gross anatomy Supply The artery has a variable distribution, but usually supplies a region of the anterior interventricular septum and the conus of the main pulmonary artery (hence its name). Variant an...
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Lambl’s excrescence

Lambl’s excrescences, also known as valvular strands, are small, filiform, fibrous strands located on cardiac valves. Epidemiology Thought to be present in 70-80% of adults according to pathological studies, but only ~40% on echocardiograph studies 1. When present, multiple Lambl’s excrescence...
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Dextrocardia

Dextrocardia is a congenital cardiac malrotation in which the heart is situated on the right side of the body (dextroversion) with the apex pointing to the right. Epidemiology Dextrocardia is believed to occur in approximately 1 in 12,000 people 2. Pathology There are two main types of dextr...
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Fetal cardiothoracic circumference ratio

Fetal cardiothoracic (C/T) circumference ratio is a parameter than can be used in assessment of fetal cardiac and thoracic/chest wall anomalies. It is the ratio of the cardiac circumference to the thoracic circumference and may be easily measured on fetal ultrasound/echocardiography.  Radiograp...
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Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a type of cardiomyopathy and is the leading cause of sudden death (from arrhythmias) in infants, teenagers and young adults.  Epidemiology There is no gender predilection and has a prevalence of around 0.3-0.5% in the general population 4. Pathology Hyper...
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Infective endocarditis

Infective endocarditis is defined as infection of the endocardium. It commonly affects the valve leaflets and chordae tendineae, as well as prosthetic valves and implanted devices. Epidemiology Infective endocarditis has an estimated general prevalence of 3 to 9 cases per 100,000. Intravenous ...
Article

Egg-on-a-string sign (heart)

Egg-on-a-string sign, also referred to as egg on its side, refers to the cardiomediastinal silhouette seen in transposition of the great arteries (TGA). The heart appears globular due to an abnormal convexity of the right atrial border and left atrial enlargement and therefore appears like an ...
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Myocardial crypts

Myocardial crypts (or myocardial clefts or fissures) refer to discrete clefts or fissures in otherwise compacted myocardium of the left ventricle. They are thought to represent a distinctive morphological expression of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, occurring with different frequency in these pati...
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Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (AHCM) (also known as Yamaguchi syndrome) is a rare form of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy which usually involves the apex of the left ventricle and rarely involves the right ventricular apex or both apices. Epidemiology Historically, this condition was thought ...
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Cardiac amyloidosis

Cardiac amyloidosis is a significant source of morbidity among patients with systemic amyloidosis, and is the most common cause of restrictive cardiomyopathy outside the tropics. Amyloidosis represents the extra-cellular deposition of insoluble fibrillar proteinaceous material in various organs...
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Pericardial effusion

Pericardial effusions occur when excess fluid collects in the pericardial space (a normal pericardial sac contains approximately 30-50 mL of fluid). Epidemiology There is no single demographic affected, as there are many underlying causes of a pericardial effusion. Clinical presentation Clin...
Article

Earth-heart sign

The earth-heart sign is a newly recognised sign of cardiac compromise that may be seen on chest radiographs of patients with tension pneumomediastinum. The substantial pressure exerted on the heart by the gas trapped in the mediastinum with subsequent impairment of central venous return and obs...
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Double density sign (left atrium)

The double-density sign is seen on frontal chest radiographs in the presence of left atrial enlargement, and occurs when the right side of the left atrium pushes behind the right cardiac shadow, indenting the adjacent lung and forming its own distinct silhouette 1-3.  If large enough, the left ...
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Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH)

Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a distinct subgroup of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Five groups of PH can be differentiated 1. PH is defined as an increase of mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) ≥25 mmHg at rest.CTEPH is characterised by organised tissue and the pres...
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Fetal cardiac tumours

Fetal cardiac tumours refer to primary cardiac tumours that can present in the in utero population.  Epidemiology Fetal cardiac tumours are rare; the prevalence, reported from autopsy studies of patients of all ages, varies from 0.0017-0.28 % 2. Pathology Known cardiac tumour types that pres...
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Right heart strain

Right heart strain (or more precisely right ventricular strain) is a term given to denote the presence of right ventricular dysfunction usually in the absence of an underlying cardiomyopathy. It can manifest as an acute right heart syndrome. Pathology Right heart strain can often occur as a re...
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Traumatic aortic injury in the exam

Getting a film with traumatic aortic injury in the exam is one of the many exam set-pieces that can be prepared for.  This is one of the cases you should look and not speak for 10 seconds as there tends to be a lot of findings on the film of patients with traumatic aortic injury. Description ...
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Transient ischaemic dilatation

Transient ischaemic dilatation is a paradoxical phenomenon seen in myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging.   With severe balanced coronary artery disease, myocardial ischaemia may result in apparent enlargement of the left ventricular cavity during stress. The cause of this is not entirely clear, b...
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Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy

Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy is a subtype of dilated cardiomyopathy. It is a type of non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy where no underlying cause can be found. Epidemiology This form of cardiomyopathy may account for up to 50% of all dilated cardiomyopathies 4. Patients usually ranging around 2...
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Atrial septal defect

Atrial septal defects (ASDs) are the second most common congenital heart defect after ventricular septal defects and the most common to become symptomatic in adulthood. They are characterised by an abnormal opening in the atrial septum allowing communication between the right and left atria. Du...
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Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return

Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR), also known as partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection (PAPVC), is a rare congenital cardiovascular condition in which some of the pulmonary veins, but not all, drain into the systemic circulation rather than in the left atrium. Clinical p...
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Coronary artery bypass graft

A coronary artery bypass graft (CABG or CAG) is placed during a surgical procedure to increase blood flow to the myocardium due to coronary stenoses, usually caused by coronary artery disease. Arteries or veins can be grafted during this procedure. Long term outcome of coronary artery bypass gr...
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Delayed myocardial enhancement on MRI (differential)

Delayed myocardial enhancement can occur in cardiac MR assessment due to a number of causes. They include: myocardial ischaemia: typically subendocardial and follows a vascular territory 1 non-ischaemic cardiomyopathies hypertrophic cardiomyopathy non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy arrhy...
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Mitral valve disease

Mitral valve disease (MVD) principally comprise of a two main functional abnormalities, which can occur in isolation or in combination: mitral regurgitation mitral stenosis In addition other pathologies that affect the mitral valve include: mitral valve prolapse mitral annular calcification...
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Myocardial infarction

Myocardial infarction (MI), an acute coronary syndrome, results from interruption of myocardial blood flow and resultant ischaemia, and are a leading cause of death worldwide.  Epidemiology Risk factors male > females age > 45 for males > 55 for females cardiovascular risk factors: smokin...
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Carotid pacemaker

Carotid pacemaker, also known as implantable carotid sinus stimulators, is a device that delivers activation energy through the carotid leads and the leads conduct activation energy to the carotid baroreceptors. This is sometimes offered for drug-resistant hypertension. The baroreceptors send si...
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Cardiac curriculum

The cardiac curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core cardiac knowledge. Definition Topics pertaining to the heart and pericardium, but excluding the mediastinum (see: chest curriculum) and great vessels (see: vascular curricul...
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Pulmonary hypertension (2008 classification)

The classification system for pulmonary hypertension was revised at the 4th World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension held in Dana Point, California, in 2008 1. This system is as follows: group 1: pulmonary arterial hypertension 1.1: idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension 1.2: heritable ...
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Coronary arteriovenous fistula

Coronary arteriovenous fistulas (CAVFs) are rare coronary artery anomalies whereby there is a fistula between a coronary artery and, most commonly, the right side of the cardiac circulation.  Terminology Although a CAVF, in the strictest sense of the term, implies a communication between the c...
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Innervation of the heart

The heart has extrinsic and intrinsic innervation, which allows the heart to continue beating if the nerve supply to the heart is disrupted (e.g. in cardiac transplant). The heart receives innervation from both the superficial and deep cardiac plexuses, which have both parasympathetic (from vag...
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Cardiac myxoma

Cardiac myxomas, although uncommon are one of the commonest primary cardiac tumours and account for ~50% primary benign cardiac tumours.  Epidemiology Cardiac myxomas are the most common primary cardiac tumour in adults but are relatively infrequent in childhood, where cardiac rhabdomyomas are...
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Cardiac tuberculosis

Cardiac tuberculosis refers to the rare infection of the cardiac musculature with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Pathology Generally associated with and occurring as a complication of mediastinal and pulmonary tuberculosis. Pericardial and myocardial involvement is known. Endocardial spread may ...
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Fractional flow reserve

Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is a technique to evaluate the haemodynamic relevance of coronary artery stenoses. Due to recent technical advances, besides conventional invasive coronary angiography, FFR can also be computed based on noninvasive coronary computed tomography angiography (CTCA). I...
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Pseudocoarctation of the aorta

Pseudocoarctation of the aorta is a very rare anomaly characterised by kinking or buckling of the descending aorta at the level of the ligamentum arteriosum without a pressure gradient across the lesion. Pathology It is thought to be of congenital origin, and characterised by elongation and ki...
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Mitral valve regurgitation

Mitral valve regurgitation is due to functional or anatomical dysfunction of the mitral valve and can lead to striking chest x-ray abnormalities. Epidemiology The causes of mitral regurgitation are protean and, as such, there is no single group of patients who are affected. Mitral regurgitatio...
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Box-shaped heart

A box-shaped heart is a radiographic description given to the cardiac silhouette in some cases of Ebstein anomaly. The classic appearance of this finding is caused by the combination of the following features: huge right atrium that may fill the entire right hemithorax shelved appearance of th...
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Beck triad

Beck triad is a collection of three clinical signs associated with pericardial tamponade which is due to an excessive accumulation of fluid within the pericardial sac. The three signs are: low blood pressure (weak pulse or narrow pulse pressure) muffled heart sounds  raised jugular venous pre...
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Cardiac conduction devices

Implantable cardiac conduction devices are a very common medical device of the thorax, with over one million implanted in the United States of America alone. There are two major types of cardiac conduction devices: pacemakers and automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (AICD/ICD), and...
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Walking man sign (chest x-ray)

The walking man sign is seen on a lateral chest radiograph and is a sign of left atrial enlargement. It results from posterior displacement of the left main bronchus such that it no longer overlaps the right bronchus. The left and right bronchus thus appear as an inverted 'V', mimicking the legs...
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Causes of pulseless electrical activity (mnemonic)

Pulseless electrical activity is a very disconcerting medical scenario with a very high mortality unless its aetiology can be quickly ascertained and corrected. A mnemonic to remember the different causes of pulseless electrical activity is: MAD (triple H) CAT Mnemonic M: massive pulmonary em...
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Constrictive pericarditis

Constrictive pericarditis (or perhaps better termed pericardial constriction) is a type of pericarditis which leads to diastolic dysfunction and potentially symptoms of right heart failure.  Epidemiology No single demographic is affected as there are numerous causes of constrictive pericarditi...
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Obtuse marginal artery

The obtuse marginal (OM) arteries sometimes referred to as lateral branches are branch coronary arteries that come off the circumflex artery. There can be one or more obtuse marginal arteries. It typically traverses along the left margin of heart towards the apex. The first obtuse marginal arter...
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Circumflex artery

The circumflex artery (Cx) is a major coronary artery that divides off the left main coronary artery (the other branch being the left anterior descending (LAD) artery). Terminology The circumflex artery is referred to by multiple terms: circumflex artery (Cx) ramus circumflex artery (RCx) l...
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Intra-aortic balloon pump

Intra-aortic balloon pumps (IABP) are used in the intensive care setting to provide haemodynamic assistance to patients in cardiogenic shock. Function and physiology The device is comprised of a catheter introduced via the femoral artery, which extends retrogradely to the proximal descending t...
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Aortic isthmus

The aortic isthmus is the part of the aorta just distal to the origin of the left subclavian artery at the site of the ductus arteriosus. This portion of the aorta is partly constricted in the fetus because of the lack of flow within the aortic sac and ascending aorta. It marks the partial sepa...
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Thoracic aorta

The thoracic aorta is the most superior division of the aorta and is divided into three sections: ascending aorta aortic arch descending aorta The thoracic aorta begins at the aortic valve, located obliquely just to the left of the midline at the level of the the third intercostal space. It ...
Article

COL4A1-related disorders

COL4A1-related disorders are a group of autosomal dominant disorders caused by a mutation in the COL4A1 gene. Epidemiology The exact prevalence is unknown, but the group of disorders is considered to be under-recognised, especially asymptomatic variants 1. Clinical presentation The clinical ...
Article

High-output cardiac failure

High output cardiac failure refers to a state of cardiac failure that is associated with a higher than normal cardiac output which is still not sufficient for body tissue demands. Clinical presentation Patients can present with a number of symptoms of varying degrees which include tachycardia,...
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Congestive cardiac failure

Congestive cardiac failure (CCF) is a form of cardiac failure which is primarily manifested by the heart's inability to pump the volume of blood. It can affect the left (common) or right cardiac chambers or both. Pathology It may be precipitated by intrinsic cardiac or extrinsic factors (which...
Article

Dressler syndrome

Dressler syndrome (DS) is a delayed immune-mediated or secondary pericarditis developing weeks to months after a myocardial infarction (MI). Terminology Dressler syndrome is not to be confused with pericarditis epistenocardica (which is seen earlier in the post-MI period) and is considered a r...
Article

Eustachian valve

The Eustachian valve (also known as the "valve of the inferior vena cava") is a ridge of variable thickness in the inferior right atrium. It is a remnant of a fetal structure that directed incoming oxygenated blood to the foramen ovale and away from the right atrium.   Incomplete regression of ...
Article

Sonographic approach to dyspnoea (mnemonic)

This mnemonic will help with the sonographic approach to the critically ill patient with dyspnoea: CHEST Mnemonic C: collapsed lung (pneumothorax)  ​absent anterior lung sliding / anterior B lines lung point present 1 H: heart failure (acute pulmonary oedema) diffuse bilateral anterior B ...
Article

RASopathies

RASopathies are a class of developmental disorders caused by germline mutations in genes that encode for components or regulators of the Ras/mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Epidemiology As a group, RASopathies represent one of the most common malformation syndromes, with an in...
Article

Mitral annular calcification

Mitral annular calcification (MAC) refers to deposition of calcium (along with lipid) in the annular fibrosa of the mitral valve. Epidemiology Annular calcification is seen in up to 35% of elderly patients. It is common in females over 65 years, in those with myxtomatous degeneration of the mi...
Article

Pericardial recesses

The pericardial recesses are small spaces in the pericardial cavity arising from the transverse pericardial sinus that are formed by the reflections of the pericardium. Pericardial fluid can pool in these recesses, mimicking mediastinal lymph nodes or pathology. There are several pericardial re...
Article

Coronary artery aneurysm

Coronary artery aneurysms (CAA's) are an uncommon, predominantly incidental finding. Epidemiology CAA is most common in men 3, likely reflecting the increased rates of atherosclerosis in men compared to women. Prevalence varies in the literature between 0.1-5% 4. Clinical presentation Most c...
Article

Right ventricular dysfunction

Right ventricular dysfunction usually results from either pressure overload, volume overload, or a combination.  It occur in a number of clinical scenarios, including: pressure overload   cardiomyopathies: ischemic, congenital valvular heart disease arrhythmias sepsis It can manifest as r...
Article

Tetralogy of Fallot

Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is the second most common cyanotic congenital heart condition and has been classically characterised by the combination of ventricular septal defect (VSD), right ventricular outflow tract obstruction (RVOTO), overriding aorta, and a late right ventricular hypertrophy. ...
Article

Passive hepatic congestion

Passive hepatic congestion or congested liver in cardiac disease is the stasis of blood in the hepatic parenchyma, due to impaired hepatic venous drainage which leads to widening and splaying of the central hepatic veins and hepatomegaly.  Passive hepatic congestion is a well-studied result of ...
Article

Aortopulmonary septal defect

Aortopulmonary septal defect (APSD), also known as aortopulmonary window (APW), is a congenital anomaly where there is an abnormal communication between the proximal aorta and the pulmonary trunk in the presence of separate aortic and pulmonary valves. Terminology APSD should not be confused w...
Article

Pericardial agenesis

Pericardial agenesis is a rare condition where there is the absence of the pericardium to varying degrees. If it is only a small portions of the pericardium that is absent it is known as a pericardial defect. Epidemiology According to a surgical and pathological series, the prevalence (inclusi...
Article

Lyme disease

Lyme disease, also known as borreliosis, is a condition caused by the bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi, with infection being via the ixodid tick.  Terminology Controversy around Lyme disease centres on chronic infection with some author doubting its existence 3. There are some terms that help dif...

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