Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

421 results found
Article

Coronary arterial dominance

Coronary arterial dominance is defined by the vessel which gives rise to the posterior descending artery (PDA), which supplies the myocardium of the inferior 1/3rd of the interventricular septum. Most hearts (80-85%) are right dominant where the PDA is supplied by the RCA. The remaining 15-20% ...
Article

Postmortem changes - cardiovascular

Cardiovascular postmortem changes refer to the normal appearances of the cardiovascular system on postmortem imaging.  Radiographic features CT hyperdensity of the aortic wall 1,2 hypostasis of blood intravascularly 3 dilatation of the right atrium of the heart 1 dilatation of the superior...
Article

Wells criteria for pulmonary embolism

The Wells criteria for pulmonary embolism is a risk stratification score and clinical decision rule to estimate the probability for acute pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients in which history and examination suggests acute PE is a diagnostic possibility. It provides a pre-test probability which, ...
Article

Boot shaped heart

A 'boot-shaped' heart ("cœur en sabot" in French) is the description given to the appearance of the heart on plain film in some cases of Tetralogy of Fallot. It describes the appearances of an upturned cardiac apex due to right ventricular hypertrophy and a concave pulmonary arterial segment. 
Article

Anomalous course of coronary arteries

Anomalous course of a coronary artery is a type of congenital coronary artery anomaly. It may represent a benign and incidental finding, but can also be a malignant course predisposing patients to life-threatening myocardial ischaemia or arrhythmias, depending on where the artery runs.  Clinica...
Article

Left circumflex arising from right coronary sinus

Left circumflex (LCx) arising from right coronary sinus (RCA) is a coronary arterial variant. Epidemiology It is considered the most common coronary anomaly with prevalence range of around 0.37-0.7% of all patients. Course It commonly arises from a separate ostium within the right sinus, or ...
Article

Left ventriclular false tendon

Left ventricular false tendons, also known as left ventricular muscular bands, left ventricular aberrant bands or left ventricular myocardial bands, are fibromuscular structures that arise from the inner trabeculated myocardial layer of the left ventricle and have different lengths and thickness...
Article

Congestive cardiac failure

Congestive cardiac failure (CCF), also known as congestive heart failure (CHF), refers to the clinical syndrome caused by inherited or acquired abnormalities of heart structure and function, causing a constellation of symptoms and signs that lead to decreased quality and quantity of life. Epide...
Article

Pericardial cyst

Pericardial cysts are uncommon benign congenital anomalies of the anterior and middle mediastinum. Clinical presentation Usually asymptomatic and discovered incidentally although occasionally may present with chest pain and dyspnoea. Pathology They are thought to often result from aberration...
Article

Coronary artery disease

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of mortality globally.  Clinical presentation CAD is asymptomatic in most of the population. When severe enough it can cause angina, or an acute coronary syndrome including myocardial infarction. CAD may also present with heart failure or sudd...
Article

Right heart strain

Right heart strain (or more precisely right ventricular strain) is a term given to denote the presence of right ventricular dysfunction usually in the absence of an underlying cardiomyopathy. It can manifest as an acute right heart syndrome. Pathology Right heart strain can often occur as a re...
Article

Pericardial mesothelioma

Pericardial mesothelioma refers to a mesothelioma arising primarily from the pericardium.  Epidemiology They are rare and are only thought to account for ~0.7% of all malignant mesotheliomas. There is male to female predominance of approximately 3:1. Clinical presentation The presentation of...
Article

RASopathy

RASopathies are a class of developmental disorders caused by germline mutations in genes that encode for components or regulators of the Ras/mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Epidemiology As a group, RASopathies represent one of the most common malformation syndromes, with an in...
Article

Increased cardiothoracic ratio (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Increased cardiothoracic ratio describes widening of the cardiac silhouette on a chest radiograph. This is only of use when making an assessment of a PA chest x-ray since the AP chest x-ray causes the artefactual magnificat...
Article

Ectopia cordis

Ectopia cordis is an extremely rare congenital malformation where the heart is located partially or totally outside the thoracic cavity. The four main ectopic positions are: adjacent to the thorax: ~60% abdominal: 15-30% thoracoabdominal: 7-18%  cervical: ~3% Epidemiology The estimated pre...
Article

Echogenic intracardiac focus

Echogenic intracardiac focus (EIF) is a relatively common sonographic observation that may be present on an antenatal ultrasound scan. Epidemiology They are thought to be present in ~4-5% of karyotypically normal fetuses. They may be more common in the Asian population 5.  Pathology They are...
Article

Stanford classification of aortic dissection

Along with the DeBakey classification, the Stanford classification is used to separate aortic dissections into those that need surgical repair, and those that usually require only medical management. The Stanford classification divides dissections by the most proximal involvement: type A: A aff...
Article

Aortic root abscess

An aortic root abscess is a serious complication of infective endocarditis. Radiographic features General Abscesses tend to be saccular in shape, range from 1 to 3 cm in diameter. Depending on sinus of origin, extended beneath the main and right pulmonary arteries or into the interventricular...
Article

Aortic root

The aortic root is the first part of the aorta and connects the heart to the systemic circulation.  Gross anatomy The aortic root lies between the junction of the aortic valve and ascending aorta. It has several subparts 1: three aortic valve leaflets and leaflet attachments three aortic sin...
Article

Infective endocarditis

Infective endocarditis is defined as infection of the endocardium. It commonly affects the valve leaflets and chordae tendineae, as well as prosthetic valves and implanted devices. Epidemiology Infective endocarditis has an estimated general prevalence of 3 to 9 cases per 100,000. Intravenous ...
Article

Duke criteria for infective endocarditis

The Duke criteria are a set of clinical criteria set forward for the diagnosis of infective endocarditis For diagnosis the requirement is:  2 major and 1 minor criteria or 1 major and 3 minor criteria or 5 minor criteria Major criteria positive blood cultures for infective endocarditis ty...
Article

Rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune multisystemic inflammatory disease which affects many organs but predominantly attacks the synovial tissues and joints. Epidemiology The overall prevalence is 0.5-1% and the disease is 2-3 times more common in women 1. Onset is generally in ad...
Article

Rheumatic fever

Rheumatic fever is an illness caused by an immunological reaction following group A streptococcal infection.  Epidemiology Rheumatic fever is most common in children aged 5 to 15 years. It is most common in developing nations where antibiotic prescription is low 1. Clinical presentation join...
Article

Danon disease

Danon disease is an X-linked dominant cause of debilitating cardioskeletal myopathy. Epidemiology Although considered rare, the exact incidence is unknown 1. Clinical presentation Danon disease is characterised by the triad of 1-4: cardiomyopathy the most prominent clinical feature, and ma...
Article

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a type of cardiomyopathy and is the leading cause of sudden death (from arrhythmias) in infants, teenagers and young adults. Terminology Although hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can generally describe a hypertrophied and non-dilated left ventricle due to any ca...
Article

Cardiomyopathy (WHO/ISFC 1995 classification)

Cardiomyopathy classification separates the various cardiomyopathies into several subtypes. A cardiomyopathy is defined as a "disease of the myocardium with associated cardiac dysfunction". It was initially classified according to the 1995 World Health Organisation / International Society and F...
Article

Left-sided superior vena cava

A left-sided superior vena cava (SVC) is the most common congenital venous anomaly in the chest, and in a minority of cases can result in a right-to-left shunt 3-4. Epidemiology A left-sided SVC is seen in 0.3-0.5% of the normal population and in ~5% of those with congenital heart disease 3. I...
Article

Chest x-ray (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-rays are performed frequently in the assessment of a vast number of sick (and potentially very sick) patients.  A chest x-ray can be performed in the radiology department (usually with the patient standing up) or b...
Article

Shepherd's crook right coronary artery

A shepherd’s crook right coronary artery is variant in the terms of the course of the right coronary artery. While the RCA origin is normal it is characterised by a tortuous and high course, usually just after its origin from the aorta. Its prevalence is estimated at approximately 5%. While ofte...
Article

Right coronary artery

The right coronary artery (RCA) is one of the two main coronary arteries that supply the heart with oxygenated blood. Gross anatomy Origin It is a branch of the ascending aorta, with its normal origin in the right aortic sinus, just superior to the aortic valve Course The RCA courses to th...
Article

Sinoatrial nodal artery

The sinoatrial (SA) nodal artery is the small artery that supplies the sinoatrial (SA) node of the heart (the pacemaker).  Gross anatomy Origin Right coronary artery in 60% of cases and the left coronary artery in 40% of cases. Course The artery turns posteriorly below the superior vena cav...
Article

Left anterior descending artery

The left anterior descending (LAD) artery, also known as the anterior interventricular branch, is a branch of the left coronary artery.  Gross anatomy It descends along the inteventricular groove. It can be divided into proximal, mid and distal segments and this helps to differentiate the nam...
Article

Pulmonary hypertension (2013 classification)

In 2013, the 5th World Symposium on pulmonary hypertension took place in Nice, France and modified the classification system for pulmonary hypertension.  The modified system divides pulmonary hypertension into five groups: group 1: pulmonary arterial hypertension (disorders of the pulmonary ar...
Article

Aorto-ventricular tunnel

Aorto-ventricular tunnel (AVT) is an extremely rare form of congenital heart disease, representing an anomalous extracardiac communication between the ascending aorta and the left or right ventricles. Terminology In most cases the anomalous communication is between the aorta and the left ventr...
Article

Cockade sign (disambiguation)

There are several described cockade signs in radiology: cockade sign (intraosseous lipoma) cockade sign (aorto-left ventricular tunnel) 1 cockade sign (appendicitis) 2 cockade sign (hypertrophic pyloric stenosis) 3 cockade sign (GI tumours) 4
Article

Congenital cardiovascular anomalies

Congenital cardiovascular anomalies are relatively common, with an incidence of up to 1% if small muscular VSDs are included. As a group, there is a much greater frequency in syndromic infants and in those that are stillborn.  Clinical presentation Broadly, congenital cardiovascular anomalies ...
Article

Intra-atrial course of the right coronary artery

Intra-atrial course of the right coronary artery is an uncommon anatomic variation in the course of the right coronal artery, usually involving the mid and distal segments, where the vessel partially or completely courses through the right atrial chamber. It is usually asymptomatic and clinical...
Article

Congenital coronary artery anomalies

Congenital coronary artery anomalies (CCAAs) are not common, found only in ~1% (range 0.1-2%) of patients 1,3.The most important finding to look for is the "malignant" course of anomalous coronary artery, i.e. does the artery run between big pulsating objects - right ventricular outflow tract / ...
Article

Coronary Artery Disease - Reporting and Data System

Coronary Artery Disease - Reporting and Data System (CAD-RADSTM) classification is proposed by the Society for Cardiovascular Computed Tomography (SCCT), the American College of Radiology (ACR), and the North American Society for Cardiovascular Imaging (NASCI), last updated in 2016. This recomm...
Article

Cardiac conduction devices

Implantable cardiac conduction devices (also known as cardiac implantable electronic devices or CIEDs) are a very common medical device of the thorax, with over one million implanted in the United States of America alone. There are two major types of cardiac conduction devices: pacemakers and a...
Article

Tuberous sclerosis

Tuberous sclerosis (TS), also known as tuberous sclerosis complex or Bourneville disease, is a neurocutaneous disorder (phakomatosis) characterised by the development of multiple benign tumours of the embryonic ectoderm (e.g. skin, eyes, and nervous system). Epidemiology Tuberous sclerosis has...
Article

Transposition of the great arteries

Transposition of the great arteries (TGA) is the most common cyanotic congenital cardiac anomaly with cyanosis in the first 24 hours of life. It accounts for up to 7% of all congenital cardiac anomalies 1  and can be assessed with echocardiography, gated cardiac CT, or cardiac MRI. Epidemiology...
Article

Ventricular septal defect

Ventricular septal defects (VSD) represent defects in the interventricular septum that allow a haemodynamic communication between the right and left ventricles. It typically results in a left-to-right shunt. Epidemiology They represent one of the most common congenital cardiac anomalies and ma...
Article

Double outlet left ventricle

Double outlet left ventricle (DOLV) is an extremely rare congenital cardiac anomaly where both the aorta and pulmonary trunk arise from the anatomical left ventricle. It is usually classified as a conotruncal anomaly and is often associated with a ventricular septal defect with normal continuity...
Article

Tetralogy of Fallot

Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is the second most common cyanotic congenital heart condition and has been classically characterised by the combination of ventricular septal defect (VSD), right ventricular outflow tract obstruction (RVOTO), overriding aorta, and a late right ventricular hypertrophy. ...
Article

Saddle pulmonary embolism

Saddle pulmonary embolism commonly refers to a large pulmonary embolism that straddles the bifurcation of the pulmonary trunk, extending into the left and right pulmonary arteries. If large enough, it can completely obstruct both left and right pulmonary arteries resulting in right heart failur...
Article

Cardiac segmentation model

The American Heart Association (AHA) has published the nomenclature and segmentation of the left ventricular myocardium (the cardiac segmentation model), now widely used for the description of disease-affected myocardial territories and wall function. There are 17 segments that have a reasonabl...
Article

Differential diagnosis for a small cardiothoracic ratio

A small cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) as defined as <42%/0.42 when assessed on a PA chest radiograph, and can be due to number of entities: adrenal insufficiency, e.g. Addison disease heart transplant cachexic state  senility malnutrition bulimia nervosa anorexia nervosa asthmatic paroxysm ...
Article

Myocarditis

Myocarditis is a general term referring to inflammation of the myocardium.  Clinical presentation Clinical presentation is variable in severity, ranging from asymptomatic to cardiogenic shock, but it typically is associated with other viral symptoms, including fever and malaise. It typically o...
Article

Pulmonary hypertension (differential)

Pulmonary hypertension has many causes, and these can be divided in many ways. A simple and systematic approach is to proceed along the cardiopulmonary pulmonary circulation, as causes are found at each site (for a more official classification system see 2003 third world symposium on pulmonary a...
Article

Cardiac CT

Computed tomography of the heart (or cardiac CT) is routinely performed to gain knowledge about cardiac or coronary anatomy, to detect or diagnose coronary artery disease, to evaluate patency of coronary artery bypass grafts or implanted coronary stents or to evaluate volumetry and cardiac funct...
Article

Myocardial bridging of the coronary arteries

Myocardial bridging is a common congenital anomaly of the coronary arteries where a coronary artery courses through the myocardium.  Epidemiology It is found approximately in 20-30% of the adult population in autopsy studies. Incidence in coronary angiograms is between 2-15%. Pathology Norma...
Article

Right ventricle

The right ventricle is the most anterior of the four heart chambers. It receives deoxygenated blood from the right atrium and pumps it into the pulmonary circulation. During diastole, blood enters the right ventricle through the atrioventricular orifice through an open tricuspid valve. During sy...
Article

Secondary cardiac neoplasms

Secondary cardiac neoplasm or cardiac metastasis refers to a secondary malignant tumour involving any structural component of the heart. It represents spread of a primary neoplasm via lymphatic, haematogenous, or endovascular pathways, or potentially by direct extension from an adjacent tissue 5...
Article

Total anomalous pulmonary venous return

Total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR) is a cyanotic congenital heart anomaly with an abnormal drainage anatomy of the entire pulmonary venous system. This contrasts with partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR) where only part of the pulmonary venous anatomy is abnormal. In T...
Article

Coronary artery dissection

Coronary artery dissection (also known as spontaneous coronary artery dissection or SCAD) is a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome especially in young patients who are otherwise healthy. Epidemiology Coronary artery dissection occurs mainly in young, otherwise health patients especially in f...
Article

Medical devices in the thorax

Medical devices in the thorax are regularly observed by radiologists when reviewing radiographs and CTs. Extrathoracic devices tubing, clamps, syringes lying on or under the patient rubber sheets, foam mattresses, clothing, hair braids, nipple piercings etc. may also be visible These devices...
Article

Thallium-201 chloride

Thallium-201 chloride is a radiopharmaceutical used primarily in cardiac imaging. Characteristics photon energy: 80 keV physical half life: 73 hours biological half life rest: 3 minutes exercise: 30 seconds normal distribution: myocardium, skeletal muscle, GI tract, liver, kidneys excret...
Article

Chest x-ray: circulation (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. Using A, B, C, D, E is a helpful and systematic method for chest x-ray review where C refers to circulation ...
Article

Chest radiology: presentations (curriculum)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest radiology presentations are broad and varied, ranging from breathlessness to cough, and pain to collapse. There is crossover between chest and cardiac presentations.
Article

CT chest (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest CT is a computed tomography examination of the thoracic cavity performed for a variety of reasons, from suspected cancer to penetrating chest trauma. A CT chest can be performed with or without IV contrast and when I...
Article

Posterior left ventricular artery

The posterior left ventricular (PLV) artery, also known as the posterolateral artery (PLA), is a terminal branch of the coronary arterial system supplying the inferior portion of the heart. It usually arises from the right coronary artery (in a right dominant circulation) but can less commonly a...
Article

Biventricular cardiac pacemaker

Biventricular cardiac pacemakers, also known as cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT), refers to surgically implanted cardiac conduction devices with one lead in each ventricle. Used mainly in patients with severe cardiac failure not well controlled on maximal medication therapy.  Components ...
Article

Primary cardiac tumours

Primary cardiac tumours are uncommon, and comprise only a small minority of all tumour that involve the heart: most are mediastinal or lung tumours which extend through the pericardium and into the heart, or metastases 1. Epidemiology Primary cardiac tumours have an estimated autopsy prevalenc...
Article

Cor pulmonale

Cor pulmonale is defined as a failure of the structure and function of the right ventricle in the absence of left ventricular dysfunction. It is caused by an underlying primary disorder of the respiratory system. It has a generally chronic and slowly progressive course, although acute onset or w...
Article

Pulmonary valve

The pulmonary valve is one of the four cardiac valves. It is the semilunar valve that allows blood to exit the right ventricle. It opens during systole and closes during diastole. The valve has anterior, left and right cusps, the bases of which attach around the valve orifice to a fibrous ring o...
Article

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI)

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation or replacement (TAVI/TAVR) is a technique to replace the aortic valve through a transvascular or transapical approach. Compared to traditional open aortic valve replacement with sternotomy and a heart-lung bypass machine, the TAVI technique is less invasiv...
Article

Epicardial fat pads

Epicardial (pericardial) fat pads are normal structures that lie in the cardiophrenic angle, more so on the right. Unsurprisingly, they are more prominent in obese patients. Pathology They can be affected by fat necrosis (see: epipericardial fat necrosis).  Radiographic features Plain radiog...
Article

Patent ductus arteriosus

Patent ductus arteriosus or arteriosum (PDA) is a congenital cardiac anomaly where there is persistent patency of the ductus arteriosus, a normal connection of the fetal circulation between the aorta and the pulmonary arterial system that develops from the 6th aortic arch. Epidemiology PDAs oc...
Article

Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a cyanotic congenital cardiac anomaly where affected individuals can have profound cyanosis and cardiac failure. It is one of the commonest causes for a neonate to present with congestive cardiac failure and the 4th most frequent cardiac anomaly to mani...
Article

Coronary sinus

The coronary sinus is the major coronary vein. It returns the majority of the left ventricular blood flow to the right atrium. Gross anatomy The coronary sinus courses along the posterior wall of the left atrium into the left atrioventricular groove. It normally drains into the right atrium. T...
Article

Vein of Marshall

The vein of Marshall, oblique vein of Marshall or the oblique vein of the left atrium is a small vein that descends on and drains the posterior wall of the left atrium. It drains directly into the coronary sinus at the same end as the great cardiac vein, marking the origin of the sinus. It repr...
Article

Coronary artery aneurysm

Coronary artery aneurysms are an uncommon, predominantly incidental finding. Epidemiology Coronary artery aneurysms are most common in men 3, likely reflecting the increased rates of atherosclerosis in men compared to women. Prevalence varies in the literature between 0.1-5% 4. Clinical prese...
Article

Cardiac rhabdomyoma

Cardiac rhabdomyomas are a type of benign myocardial tumour and are considered the most common fetal cardiac tumour. They have a strong association with tuberous sclerosis. Epidemiology Cardiac rhabdomyomas are often multiple and can represent up to 90% of cardiac tumours in the paediatric pop...
Article

PET-CT indications

PET-CT is a combination of cross-sectional anatomic information provided by CT and the metabolic information provided by positron emission tomography (PET). PET is most commonly performed with 2-[F-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG). Fluorine-18 (F-18) is an unstable radioisotope and has a half-...
Article

Upper lobe pulmonary venous diversion

Upper lobe pulmonary venous diversion (cephalisation) reflects elevation of left atrial pressure and can occur with pulmonary oedema. It produces stag-antler's sign on a frontal chest x-ray. The normal left atrial pressure is 5-10 mmHg. An elevation of left atrial pressure to 10-15 mmHg will re...
Article

Fractional flow reserve

Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is a technique to evaluate the haemodynamic relevance of coronary artery stenoses 1,2,. It is defined as "the ratio of maximal flow achievable in the stenotic coronary artery to the maximal flow achievable in the same coronary artery if it was normal" 1 . FFR has b...
Article

Coronary arteriovenous fistula

Coronary arteriovenous fistulas (CAVFs) are rare coronary artery anomalies whereby there is a fistula between a coronary artery and, most commonly, the right side of the cardiac circulation.  Terminology Although a CAVF, in the strictest sense of the term, implies a communication between the c...
Article

Technetium agents

Technetium agents based on the technetium-99m (Tc-99m) radioisotope are frequently used agents in medical imaging. The radioactive technetium radiotracer can be chelated to a number of different compounds to create specific radiopharmaceuticals and optimise the functional imaging of various stru...
Article

Coronary MR angiography

Coronary MR angiography (coronary MRA) is a developing approach to imaging the coronary arteries. Advantages of coronary MRA include avoidance of the intravenous iodinated contrast and ionizing radiation used in coronary CT angiography and conventional angiography. A disadvantage of coronary M...
Article

Anorexia nervosa

Anorexia nervosa is a psychiatric disorder characterised by distorted self-perception of body weight leading to starvation, obsession with remaining underweight, and an excessive fear of gaining weight. One in five patients with anorexia dies, due to complications of the disease. Epidemiology ...
Article

Sinus of Valsalva aneurysm

Sinus of Valsalva aneurysms are a cause of thoracic aortic dilatation. They can be either congenital or acquired (mycotic). Epidemiology There is a male predilection (M:F ratio being around 3-4:1). They are relatively more common in eastern and Asian populations and can occur in any age group ...
Article

Scleroderma

Scleroderma, also known as systemic sclerosis, is an autoimmune connective tissue disorder characterised by multisystem fibrosis and soft tissue calcification. As such, it affects many separate organ systems, which are discussed separately: musculoskeletal manifestations of scleroderma pulmona...
Article

Sarcoidosis (cardiac manifestations)

Cardiac manifestations of sarcoidosis are present in up to 25% of patients with sarcoidosis, but only 5-10% of patients are symptomatic 1-2. Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disorder characterised by the presence of non-caseating granulomas. For a general discussion of this condition please refer t...
Article

Stunned myocardium

Stunned myocardium refers to a situation in which an acute transient myocardial ischemic event results in a prolonged wall motion abnormality which eventually resolves. The term is usually distinguished from "hibernating" myocardium, in which a chronic ischaemic process leads to chronic left ve...
Article

Pulmonary hypertension (2003 classification)

There are numerous causes of pulmonary hypertension, and thus not surprisingly there have been many classification systems. In 2003, the 3rd World Symposium on PAH met in Venice and produced an updated classification system (this has been further revised in the Dana Point classification of pulm...
Article

Pulmonary hypertension (2008 classification)

The classification system for pulmonary hypertension was revised at the 4th World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension held in Dana Point, California, in 2008 1. This system is as follows: group 1: pulmonary arterial hypertension 1.1: idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension 1.2: heritable ...
Article

Pulmonary atresia with intact interventricular septum

Pulmonary atresia with intact interventricular septum (PA-IVS) is a subtype of pulmonary atresia that presents as cyanotic congenital heart disease.  Pathology PA-IVS is the combination of obstruction of the pulmonary outflow tract from pulmonary valve atresia without a ventricular septal defe...
Article

Pulmonary artery atresia

Pulmonary artery atresia (or sometimes known as pulmonary atresia) is one of congenital cardiovascular anomaly in which there is complete disruption between the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) and the pulmonary trunk. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is 1 in 10,000 births. Patholog...
Article

Circumflex artery

The circumflex artery (Cx) is a major coronary artery that divides off the left main coronary artery (the other branch being the left anterior descending (LAD) artery). Terminology The circumflex artery is referred to by multiple terms: circumflex artery (Cx) ramus circumflex artery (RCx) l...
Article

Polyarteritis nodosa

Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a systemic inflammatory necrotising vasculitis that involves small to medium sized arteries (larger than arterioles).  Epidemiology Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is commoner in males and typically presents around the 5th to 7th decades.  Twenty to thirty percent of p...
Article

PHACE syndrome

PHACE syndrome, also known as cutaneous haemangioma–vascular complex syndrome or Pascual-Castroviejo type II syndrome, is a phakomatosis that comprises of: P: posterior fossa malformations (e.g. Dandy-Walker malformation) H: haemangiomas A: arterial anomalies C: coarctation of the aorta and ...
Article

Dilated cardiomyopathy

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is defined as left ventricular chamber dilation with decreased systolic function (FEVG <40%). There may also be right ventricular dysfunction. Causes are related to intrinsic myocardial damage. Pathology There are dilated, thin-walled, poorly contracting ventricles...

Updating… Please wait.
Loadinganimation

Alert accept

Error Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

Alert accept Thank you for updating your details.