Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

387 results found
Article

Coronary artery disease

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of mortality globally.  Clinical presentation CAD is asymptomatic in most of the population. When severe enough it can cause angina, or an acute coronary syndrome including myocardial infarction. CAD may also present with heart failure or sudd...
Article

Coronary Artery Disease - Reporting and Data System

Coronary Artery Disease - Reporting and Data System (CAD-RADSTM) classification is proposed by the Society for Cardiovascular Computed Tomography (SCCT), the American College of Radiology (ACR), and the North American Society for Cardiovascular Imaging (NASCI), last updated in 2016. This recomm...
Article

Coronary microvascular obstruction

Microvascular obstruction (MVO), also known as no reflow phenomenon, is an established complication encountered in coronary angioplasty for prolonged acute myocardial infarction.  Pathology The phenomenon results from obstruction of the myocardial microcirculation, which is composed of vessel...
Article

Coronary MR angiography

Coronary MR angiography (coronary MRA) is a developing approach to imaging the coronary arteries. Advantages of coronary MRA include avoidance of the intravenous iodinated contrast and ionizing radiation used in coronary CT angiography and conventional angiography. A disadvantage of coronary M...
Article

Coronary ostial dimple

A coronary ostial dimple is a type of congenital coronary artery anomaly where there is a rudiment of the coronary ostium usually followed more distally by proximal coronary stem atresia.
Article

Coronary sinus

The coronary sinus is the major coronary vein. It returns the majority of the left ventricular blood flow to the right atrium. Gross anatomy The coronary sinus courses along the posterior wall of the left atrium into the left atrioventricular groove. It normally drains into the right atrium. T...
Article

Coronary veins

The coronary veins return deoxygenated blood from the myocardium back to the right atrium. Most venous blood returns via the coronary sinus. Coronary venous anatomy is highly variable, but is generally comprised of 3 groups of veins: cardiac veins which drain into the coronary sinus: great car...
Article

Cor pulmonale

Cor pulmonale is defined as an failure of the structure and function of the right ventricle in the absence of left ventricular dysfunction. It is caused by an underlying primary disorder of the respiratory system. It has a generally chronic and slowly progressive course, although acute onset or ...
Article

Cor triatriatum

Cor triatriatum is an extremely rare and serious congenital cardiac anomaly.  Epidemiology It is thought to account for ~0.1% of all congenital cardiac anomalies 3,4.  Clinical presentation Clinical presentation depends on: degree of stenosis in the fibromuscular membrane integrity of the ...
Article

Coumadin ridge

A coumadin ridge, also called warfarin ridge or left lateral ridge, is a band-like embryological remnant in the left atrium between the left superior pulmonary vein and the left atrial appendage. It is considered an anatomical variant.  The ridge is formed by the coalition of the left superior ...
Article

Crista terminalis

The crista terminalis is a smooth muscular ridge in the superior aspect of right atrium. It represents the junction between the sinus venosus and the heart. It divides the pectinate muscle origin and the right atrial appendages in the right atrium. Its identification is significant in the deter...
Article

CT chest (summary)

Chest CT is a computed tomography examination of the thoracic cavity performed for a variety of reasons, from suspected cancer to penetrating chest trauma. A CT chest can be performed with or without IV contrast and when IV contrast is given, the timing of the contrast delivery can make a massi...
Article

Cyanotic congenital heart disease

A number of entities can present as cyanotic congenital heart disease. These can be divided into those with increased or decreased pulmonary vascularity (pulmonary plethora): increased pulmonary vascularity total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR) (types I and II) transposition of the ...
Article

Deductive echocardiography

Deductive echocardiography is a step-by-step approach in diagnosing and differentiating congenital heart disease. Parameters assessed position of heart  levocardia dextrocardia viscero-atrial situs solitus inversus ambiguus ventricular loop D-loop L-loop conotruncus normal transpos...
Article

Delayed myocardial enhancement

Delayed myocardial enhancement, as seen on cardiac MRI, occurs when gadolinium contrast material seeps into fibrotic or necrotic myocardial tissue. It is due to a number of aetiologies, and has variable appearances. subendocardial enhancement indicates an ischaemic aetiology transmural enhance...
Article

Delayed myocardial enhancement on MRI (differential)

Delayed myocardial enhancement can occur in cardiac MR assessment due to a number of causes. They include: myocardial ischaemia: typically subendocardial and follows a vascular territory 1 non-ischaemic cardiomyopathies hypertrophic cardiomyopathy non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy arrhy...
Article

Determination of atrial situs

Atrial situs refers to the relative position of cardiac atria in relation to abdominal viscera and the midline. Pathology Identification of atrial situs is an important initial step in the antenatal and postnatal diagnosis of cardiac structural and situs anomalies. Radiographic features Basi...
Article

Dextrocardia

Dextrocardia is a congenital cardiac malrotation in which the heart is situated on the right side of the body (dextroversion) with the apex pointing to the right. Epidemiology Dextrocardia is believed to occur in approximately 1 in 12,000 people 2. Pathology There are two main types of dextr...
Article

Diagonal branches of the left anterior descending artery

Diagonal branches of the left anterior descending coronary artery supply blood flow to the anterior and anterolateral walls of the left ventricle.
Article

Diastolic pseudogating

Diastolic pseudogating appears as periodic bright and dark signal in arteries such as the aorta as one progresses through a series of images. Synchronization of the cardiac cycle and the pulse sequence results in high signal in the artery during diastole when blood is relatively stationary and l...
Article

Differential diagnosis for a small cardiothoracic ratio

A small cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) as defined as <42%/0.42 when assessed on a PA chest radiograph, and can be due to number of entities: adrenal insufficiency, e.g. Addison disease heart transplant cachexic state  senility malnutrition bulimia nervosa anorexia nervosa asthmatic paroxysm ...
Article

Dilated cardiomyopathy

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is defined as left ventricular chamber dilation with decreased systolic function (FEVG <40%). There may also be right ventricular dysfunction. Causes are related to intrinsic myocardial damage. Pathology There are dilated, thin-walled, poorly contracting ventricles...
Article

Double density sign (left atrium)

The double-density sign is seen on frontal chest radiographs in the presence of left atrial enlargement, and occurs when the right side of the left atrium pushes behind the right cardiac shadow, indenting the adjacent lung and forming its own distinct silhouette 1-3.  If large enough, the left ...
Article

Double density sign (osteoid osteoma)

The double density sign, also sometimes clumsily referred to as the hotter spot within hot area sign, is a bone scan sign of an osteoid osteoma. It refers to a central focus of intense uptake (the nidus) within a surrounding lower, but nonetheless increased uptake, rim. See also double densit...
Article

Double oblique multiplanar reconstruction

Double oblique is a type of multiplanar reconstruction used in cardiac cross-sectional imaging. It is useful for an accurate assessment of the ascending aorta and aortic annulus, and is particularly useful for pre- and post-procedure evaluation of a transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR)....
Article

Double outlet left ventricle

Double outlet left ventricle (DOLV) is an extremely rare congenital cardiac anomaly where both the aorta and pulmonary trunk arise from the anatomical left ventricle. It is usually classified as a conotruncal anomaly and is often associated with a ventricular septal defect with normal continuity...
Article

Double outlet right ventricle

Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a congenital cardiac anomaly where both the aorta and pulmonary trunk arise from the morphologically right ventricle. It is reported to account for ~2% of congenital cardiac defects 1. It is usually classed as a conotruncal anomaly. There is almost always ...
Article

Double switch procedure

The double switch procedure is a surgical technique used to repair congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries (L-TGA), which is a cardiovascular anomaly with atrioventricular and ventriculoarterial discordance. The procedure consists of any of the following surgical combinations...
Article

Down syndrome

Down syndrome (or trisomy 21) is the most common trisomy and also the commonest chromosomal disorder. It is a major cause of intellectual disability, and also has numerous multi-system manifestations. Epidemiology According to the world health organisation (WHO), the approximate worldwide inci...
Article

Dressler syndrome

Dressler syndrome (DS) is a delayed immune-mediated or secondary pericarditis developing weeks to months after a myocardial infarction (MI). Terminology Dressler syndrome is not to be confused with pericarditis epistenocardica (which is seen earlier in the post-MI period) and is considered a r...
Article

Drug and toxin induced pulmonary hypertension

Drug and toxin induced pulmonary hypertension is one of the causes of pulmonary arterial hypertension. It falls under group 1.3 under the Dana point classification system of pulmonary hypertension.  Pathology A wide range of difference drugs have been associated with developing pulmonary hyper...
Article

D-SPECT

D-SPECT represents the next step in the evolution of SPECT technology and is based on a unique acquisition geometry. It has nine arrays of cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors, each of which rotates around its central axis with programmable angular rotation 1. The detectors are very compact al...
Article

Ductus arteriosus

The ductus arteriosum (or arteriosus) is the thick short conduit for blood to bypass the non-ventilated lungs in the fetus. It is located between and connects the proximal left pulmonary artery and the undersurface of the aortic arch distal to the origin of the last branch of the arch, at the ao...
Article

Duke criteria for infective endocarditis

The Duke criteria are a set of clinical criteria set forward for the diagnosis of infective endocarditis For diagnosis the requirement is:  2 major and 1 minor criteria or 1 major and 3 minor criteria or 5 minor criteria Major criteria positive blood cultures for infective endocarditis ty...
Article

Dysphagia megalatriensis

Dysphagia megalatriensis, also known as cardiovascular dysphagia or cardiac dysphagia, is an impairment of swallowing due to oesophageal compression from a dilated left atrium.  Clinical presentation Presentation is generally with mild dysphagia, although a minority of patients will have dysph...
Article

Earth-heart sign

The earth-heart sign is a newly recognised sign of cardiac compromise that may be seen on chest radiographs of patients with tension pneumomediastinum. The substantial pressure exerted on the heart by the gas trapped in the mediastinum with subsequent impairment of central venous return and obs...
Article

Ebstein anomaly

Ebstein anomaly is an uncommon congenital cardiac anomaly, characterised by a variable developmental anomaly of the tricuspid valve. Epidemiology The anomaly accounts for only ~0.5% of congenital cardiac defects 6-7, although it is the most common cause of congenital tricuspid regurgitation. T...
Article

Echogenic intracardiac focus

Echogenic intracardiac focus (EIF) is a relatively common sonographic observation that may be present on an antenatal ultrasound scan. Epidemiology They are thought to be present in ~4-5% of karyotypically normal fetuses. They may be more common in the Asian population 5.  Pathology  They ar...
Article

Ectopia cordis

Ectopia cordis is an extremely rare congenital malformation where the heart is located partially or totally outside the thoracic cavity. The four main ectopic positions are:: adjacent to the thorax: ~60 % abdominal: 15-30% thoraco-abdominal: 7-18%  cervical: ~3% Epidemiology The estimated ...
Article

Egg-on-a-string sign (heart)

Egg-on-a-string sign, also referred to as egg on its side, refers to the cardiomediastinal silhouette seen in transposition of the great arteries (TGA). The heart appears globular due to an abnormal convexity of the right atrial border and left atrial enlargement and therefore appears like an ...
Article

Eisenmenger complex

Eisenmenger complex is a specific subset of Eisenmenger syndrome, and consists of: ventricular septal defect (VSD) severe pulmonary arterial hypertension resulting in shunt reversal and cyanosis
Article

Elliott et al classification of cardiomyopathies

The Elliott et al classification system of cardiomyopathies is one of the cardiomyopathy classification systems. This was published by the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases. This places emphasis on phenotypic classification 1-2. See also cardio...
Article

Endocardial fibroelastosis

Endocardial fibroelastosis (EFE) is a rare cardiac condition which is classically described in the paediatric population (typically first two years). It is one of the causes for infants to present with unexplained heart failure.  Pathology The condition results from increasing amounts of fibro...
Article

Endomyocardial fibrosis

Endomyocardial fibrosis (EMF) is an idiopathic disorder characterised by the development of restrictive cardiomyopathy. Epidemiology It usually occurs in tropical and subtropical regions of the world.There may be a greater predilection in children and adolescents.  Associations It can occur ...
Article

Enlarged azygos vein

An enlarged/dilated azygos vein may result from a number of physiological as well as pathological causes. The enlarged azygos vein may be seen as a widened right paratracheal/paraspinal stripe on a frontal chest radiograph. Causes for dilatation There are a number of physiological causes for e...
Article

Enlarged pulmonary trunk on chest radiography (differential)

The differential of an enlarged pulmonary trunk/main pulmonary artery on chest radiography includes:  normal may appear prominent in young patients especially women projectional rotation lordotic view rotation of the heart pectus excavatum left lower lobe collapse pulmonary arterial hyp...
Article

Eosinophilic endocarditis

Eosinophilic endocarditis (or Loeffler endocarditis) is one of the cardiac manifestations of idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome. It also considered a form of cardiomyopathy. Prognosis It has a variable prognosis but can sometimes be fatal 4. History and etymology It is named after Wilhelm...
Article

Epicardial fat pads

Epicardial (pericardial) fat pads are normal structures that lie in the cardiophrenic, more so on the right. Unsurprisingly, they are more prominent in obese patients. Pathology They can be affected by fat necrosis (see: epipericardial fat necrosis).  Radiographic features Plain radiograph ...
Article

Epicardial lipomatosis

Epicardial lipomatosis or epicaridal lipomatous hypertrophy is a form of cardiac lipomatosis and is characterised by accumulation of non-encapsulated mature adipose tissue in the epicardial space due to hyperplasia of lipocytes. Its exact aetiology is not well known, but it may be associated wit...
Article

Epicardial pacing wires

Epicardial pacing wires allow rapid commencement of atrial and/or ventricular pacing in the event of a perioperative cardiac arrhythmia that has the potential to cause significant haemodynamic compromise. They are usually inserted during open heart surgery, and especially in those with congenit...
Article

Eustachian valve

The Eustachian valve (also known as the "valve of the inferior vena cava") is a ridge of variable thickness in the inferior right atrium. It is a remnant of a fetal structure that directed incoming oxygenated blood to the foramen ovale and away from the right atrium.   Incomplete regression of ...
Article

Fetal atrial fibrillation

Fetal atrial fibrillation is a type of fetal tachyarrhythmia and usually has atrial rate of 400 beat per minute and a completely irregular ventricular rhythm.  Radiographic features Antanatal ultrasound - echocardiography The artial contractions are usually too faint to be detected by M Mode ...
Article

Fetal atrial flutter

Fetal atrial flutter is the second most common fetal tachyarrhythmia and can account for up to 30% of such cases 1-2.  Clinical presentation As with other tachyarrthymias it is often detected in the 3rd trimester. Pathophysiology It has a typical atrial rate of 300-600 beats per minute (bpm)...
Article

Fetal bradyarrhythmia

Fetal bradyarrhythmia refers to an abnormally low fetal heart rate (less than 100-110 beats per minute 3,7) as well as being irregular, i.e. irregular fetal bradycardia. Pathology A fetal bradyarrhythmia can fall in to several types which include fetal partial atrioventricular block (PAVB) f...
Article

Fetal bradycardia

Fetal bradycardia refers to an abnormally low fetal heart rate, a potentially ominous finding. A sustained first trimester heart rate below 100 beats per minute (bpm) is generally considered bradycardic. The average fetal heart rate changes during pregnancy, however, and some consider the lower ...
Article

Fetal cardiac tumours

Fetal cardiac tumours refer to primary cardiac tumours that can present in the in utero population.  Epidemiology Fetal cardiac tumours are rare; the prevalence, reported from autopsy studies of patients of all ages, varies from 0.0017-0.28 % 2. Pathology Known cardiac tumour types that pres...
Article

Fetal cardiomegaly

Fetal cardiomegaly (FC) essentially refers to an enlarged fetal heart. It is variably defined with some sources stating the cut off as a fetal cardio-thoracic circumference above two standard deviations 7.  Pathology It can arise from a number of situations which include congenital cardiac an...
Article

Fetal cardiomyopathy

Fetal cardiomyopathy refers to a very rare situation where a cardiomyopathy occurs in utero. It is often a diagnosis of exclusion where by definition there is an absence of an underlying congenital cardiac morphological anomaly. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is variable with the high en...
Article

Fetal cardiothoracic circumference ratio

Fetal cardiothoracic (C/T) circumference ratio is a parameter than can be used in assessment of fetal cardiac and thoracic/chest wall anomalies. It is the ratio of the cardiac circumference to the thoracic circumference and may be easily measured on fetal ultrasound/echocardiography.  Radiograp...
Article

Fetal complete atrioventricular block

Fetal congenital complete heart block (CAVB) is a rare cardiac conduction abnormality which is associated with high morbidity and mortality. It is considered the commonest of fetal bradyarrhymias. Epidemiology The estimated prevalence of complete heart block in newborns is at ~1 in 20,000. Pa...
Article

Fetal echocardiography views

A standard fetal echocardiogram consists of several specific views which can be obtained to optimise visualisation of different structures and anomalies. They include: Basic views abdominal situs view four chamber view left ventricular outflow tract view (or a five-chamber view) right ventr...
Article

Fetal pericardial effusion

Fetal pericardial effusions (FPE) occur when there is an accumulation of pericardial fluid in utero. In order to be considered as abnormal, it is generally accepted that the pericardial fluid thickness should be greater than 2 mm. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~ 2% of pregnancies ...
Article

Fetal pericardial teratoma

Fetal pericardial teratomas are rare pericardial teratomas that present in utero. They are an uncommon primary cardiac tumour occurring in a fetus. Pathology It is a type of germ cell tumour and arises from multipotential cells derived from all three germinal layers. In contrast to ovarian ter...
Article

Fetal premature atrial contractions

Fetal premature atrial contractions (FPAC's) are a type of extrasystoles that can be occasionally detected in fetal heart monitoring. They along with fetal premature ventricular contractions (PVC's) account for the majority of in utero rhythm disturbances 3. Pathophysiology They may arise from...
Article

Fetal premature ventricular contractions

Fetal premature ventricular contractions (FPVC) are a type ectopic ventricular contractions detected in utero. They are a type of extrasystoles. Premature ventricular contractions are often followed by a compensatory pause due to the refractory state of the conduction system; the next conducted...
Article

Fetal right ventricular enlargement

Fetal right ventricular (RV) enlargement is an infrequently encountered situation in antenatal imaging. Pathology The right ventricle is a dominant ventricle in in utero life. RV enlargement can occur with a number cardiac as well as non cardiac anomalies cardiac hypoplastic left heart syndr...
Article

Fetal sinus bradycardia

A fetal sinus bradycardia is a sub type of fetal bradycardia where the fetal heart rate is abnormally slow ( less than 100 beat per minute) but runs at the regular rate with sinus rhythm. Pathology Associations congenital long QT syndrome 1 maternal anti Ro antibodies 2-3
Article

Fetal supraventricular tachycardia

Fetal supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is considered the most common type of fetal tachyarrhythmia and can accounts for 60-90% of such cases. Pathophysiology It has a typical ventricular rate of ~230-280 beats per minute (bpm) 1 and isoften associated with an accessory AV conduction pathway....
Article

Fetal tachyarrhythmia

Fetal tachyarrhythmia refers to an irregular increase in fetal heart rate.  Epidemiology Depending on its exact definition, the prevalance rate is thought to be around 0.5-1% of pregnancies.  Clinical presentation Many cases tend to be discovered in the 3rd trimester.  Pathology Sub types ...
Article

Fetal tachycardia

Fetal tachycardia is an abnormal increase in the fetal heart rate. It is variably defined as a heart rate above 160-180 beats per minute (bpm) and typically ranges between 170-220 bpm (higher rates can occur with tachyarrhythmias). Epidemiology The estimated prevalence is ~0.4-1% of pregnancie...
Article

Figure of eight appearance

The following lesions may resemble a figure of eight (sometimes referred to as snowman shaped): supracardiac variety of total anomalous pulmonary venous return 1 pituitary macroadenoma with suprasellar extension 2 intraspinal neurofibroma with extraspinal extension through neural foramina di...
Article

Fontan procedure

The Fontan procedure is a repair surgical strategy for congenital cardiac anomalies. It is not usually used in isolation, but in combination with other repair procedures in a staged manner in an attempt to correct the underlying cardiac pathology. Rationale The procedure attempts to bypass the...
Article

Foramen ovale (cardiac)

The foramen ovale (or ovalis) is the opening in the interatrial septum in the fetal heart that allows blood to bypass the right ventricle and non-ventilated lungs, shunted from the right atrium to the left atrium. Specifically it represents the opening between the upper and lower portions of the...
Article

Fossa ovale

The fossa ovale (or ovalis) is the small oval depression in the interatrial septum at the site of the closed foramen ovale, which closes once fetal circulation ceases in the first few minutes of postnatal life. It represents the overlapping primary and secondary septa of the interatrial septum. ...
Article

Four chamber cardiac view (fetal)

The four chamber cardiac view is an important and routinely performed view in both fetal echocardiography as well as on a standard second trimester anatomy scan. Detectable pathology The four chamber view can only detect some of the congenital cardiac anomalies (~64% according to one study 2) ...
Article

Fractional flow reserve

Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is a technique to evaluate the haemodynamic relevance of coronary artery stenoses. Due to recent technical advances, besides conventional invasive coronary angiography, FFR can also be computed based on noninvasive coronary computed tomography angiography (CTCA). I...
Article

Gerbode defect

The Gerbode defect describes a rare abnormal left-to-right shunt between the left ventricle and right atrium through a defect in the atrioventricular septum, usually congenital in aetiology. Epidemiology Gerbode defects are rare congenital cardiac anomalies, and are thought to account for less...
Article

Glenn shunt

The Glenn shunt, also known as Glenn procedure, is a palliative surgical procedure for a variety of cyanotic congenital heart diseases. Rationale In this procedure, the systemic venous return is re-directed to the pulmonary circulation, bypassing the right heart 1-3. It can be used in a varie...
Article

Great cardiac vein

The great cardiac vein (GCV) runs in the anterior interventricular groove and drains the anterior aspect of the heart where it is the venous complement of the left anterior descending artery. It is the main tributary of the coronary sinus.  Gross anatomy It begins on the anterior surface of th...
Article

Haemochromatosis (cardiac manifestations)

Cardiac involvement in haemochromatosis typically occurs with primary haemochromatosis, as the organ is usually spared in the secondary form of the disease. Epidemiology Cardiac involvement occurs in approximately 15-20% of the patients with haemochromatosis.  Clinical presentation Manifesta...
Article

Haemopericardium

Haemopericardium refers to the presence of blood within the pericardial cavity, i.e. a sanguineous pericardial effusion. If enough blood enters the pericardial cavity, then a potentially fatal cardiac tamponade can occur.  Pathology Aetiology There is a very long list of causes 1,4 but some o...
Article

Heart

The heart is a hollow, muscular organ of the middle mediastinum, designed to pump oxygenated blood around the systemic circulation and de-oxygenated blood around the pulmonary circulation Gross anatomy The heart has a somewhat conical form and is enclosed by pericardium. It is positioned poste...
Article

Heart chambers

There are four heart chambers, the right atrium, left atrium, right ventricle and left ventricle. These receive blood from the body and lungs, and contract to transmit blood to the lungs for oxygenation and to the body for use in metabolism. It is best to list the four chambers in order of the ...
Article

Heart failure (basic)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Heart failure is a syndrome of cardiac ventricular dysfunction, where the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to meet the body's blood flow requirements. Clinical presentation Although it is useful to divide the signs an...
Article

Heyde syndrome

Heyde syndrome is an association between aortic valve stenosis and gastrointestinal haemorrhage. The aetiology of the gastrointestinal bleeding in this setting is uncertain, but it is thought to be related to intestinal angiodysplasia. The strength of this association independent of age-related...
Article

Hibernating myocardium

Hibernating myocardium is myocardial tissue that has reduced contractility due to poor perfusion, but remains viable. It is important as hibernating myocardium can recover normal contractility with revascularisation.  Pathology Hibernating myocardium is most commonly seen in the setting of chr...
Article

High-output cardiac failure

High output cardiac failure refers to a state of cardiac failure that is associated with a higher than normal cardiac output which is still not sufficient for body tissue demands. Clinical presentation Patients can present with a number of symptoms of varying degrees which include tachycardia,...
Article

HIV/AIDS (cardiovascular manifestations)

Cardiovascular manifestations are seen with increased frequency in the HIV/AIDS adult population, and include: pericardial effusions dilated cardiomyopathy (prevalence 8-30%) endocarditis: either infective or non-bacterial thrombotic (marantic) which is associated with malignancy or HIV wasti...
Article

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a type of cardiomyopathy and is the leading cause of sudden death (from arrhythmias) in infants, teenagers and young adults.  Epidemiology There is no gender predilection and has a prevalence of around 0.3-0.5% in the general population 4. Pathology Hyper...
Article

Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a cyanotic congenital cardiac anomaly where affected individuals can have profound cyanosis and cardiac failure. It is one of the commonest causes for a neonate to present with congestive cardiac failure and the 4th most frequent cardiac anomaly to mani...
Article

Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy

Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy is a subtype of dilated cardiomyopathy. It is a type of non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy where no underlying cause can be found. Epidemiology This form of cardiomyopathy may account for up to 50% of all dilated cardiomyopathies 4. Patients usually ranging around 2...
Article

Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome

Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (IHES) is a leukoproliferative disorder and refers to a situation when there is an unexplained prolonged eosinophilia with associated organ system dysfunction. The condition can affect several organ systems which includes: heart: cardiac involvement in idio...
Article

Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension is uncommon, representing only a tiny fraction of all cases of pulmonary arterial hypertension, which has a very long list of secondary causes (see causes of pulmonary arterial hypertension). Terminology Older terms for this entity include primary pul...

Updating… Please wait.
Loadinganimation

Alert accept

Error Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

Alert accept Thank you for updating your details.