Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

377 results found
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Inter-arterial course of the left coronary artery

The inter-arterial course of the left coronary artery, also known as the malignant course of the left coronary artery, is defined as the origin of the left main or left anterior descending coronary artery from the right coronary sinus of Valsalva with a course between the ascending aorta and the...
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Inter-arterial course of the right coronary artery

Inter-arterial course of the right coronary artery (RCA), also known as a malignant variant, may occur if the right coronary artery has an aberrant origin from the the left coronary sinus. It is an uncommon anomaly with potential risk of cardiac ischaemia. When the right coronary artery arises ...
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Interatrial septal aneurysm

Interatrial septal aneurysm or atrial septal aneurysm (ASA) is defined as an abnormal protrusion of the interatrial septum. The exact length of the protrusion that defines an interatrial septal aneurysm varies in the literature, ranging from >11 mm to >15 mm beyond normal excursion in adults 4-5...
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Interventricular septal aneurysm

Interventricular septal aneurysm is different from ventricular aneurysm which usually occurs in the cardiac apex. It is defined as a bowing of the interventricular septum of more than 15 mm on either side in adults and 5 mm in children during normal cardiac motion. It may involve either the memb...
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Intra-aortic balloon pump

Intra-aortic balloon pumps (IABP) are used in the intensive care setting to provide haemodynamic assistance to patients in cardiogenic shock. Function and physiology The device is comprised of a catheter introduced via the femoral artery, which extends retrogradely to the proximal descending t...
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Intra-atrial course of the right coronary artery

Intra-atrial course of the right coronary artery is an uncommon anatomic variation in the course of the right coronal artery, usually involving the mid and distal segments, where the vessel partially or completely courses through the right atrial chamber. It is usually asymptomatic and clinical...
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Intracardiac thrombi

Intracardiac thrombi are seen in a variety of clinical settings and can result in severe morbidity or even death from embolic events. They can occur following myocardial infarction with ventricular thrombus formation, or with atrial fibrillation and mitral stenosis where atrial thrombi predomina...
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Intraventricular

Intraventricular is a term used to denote lesions / processes that occur within either the ventricles of the brain or the ventricles of the heart.  In both cases, most lesions actually arise from the surrounding brain parenchyma / heart muscle and grow exophytically into the ventricles.  See a...
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Isomerism

Isomerism is a term which in general means 'mirror-image'. It is used in the context of heterotaxy and is of two types: left isomerism right isomerism Left isomerism Mirror image of the structures on the left side of the chest along the left-right axis of the body, i.e. patients with isomeri...
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Jaffe-Campanacci syndrome

Jaffe-Campanacci syndrome is characterised by: multiple non-ossifying fibromas of the long bones and jaw café au lait spots intellectual disability kyphoscoliosis hypogonadism or cryptorchidism ocular malformations cardiovascular malformations giant cell granuloma of the jaw History and...
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Kawasaki disease

Kawasaki disease (KD) is a small to medium vessel vasculitis predominantly affecting young children. It can affect any body organ but there is a predilection for the coronary vessels. Pathology An autoimmune aetiology has been postulated. It is generally self limiting but acute fatalities are ...
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Kawashima procedure

Kawashima procedure is a palliative surgical procedure performed in cases of: left isomerism and azygos continuation of the inferior vena cava single functional ventricle single atrium and common atrioventricular valve with or without regurgitation pulmonary stenosis It is performed by crea...
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Kommerell diverticulum

Kommerell diverticula occur in some anomalies of the aortic arch system. It usually refers to the bulbous configuration of the origin of an aberrant left subclavian artery in the setting of a right-sided aortic arch. However, it was originally described as a diverticular outpouching at the origi...
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LCx and LAD arising separately from the left coronary sinus

One of the anatomical variants of coronary artery origin comprises the left circumflex coronary artery (LCx) and left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) arising separately from the left coronary sinus. Hence there is no common left main coronary artery (LCA/LMCA). As there is no vascular...
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Left anterior descending artery

The left anterior descending (LAD) artery, also known as the anterior interventricular branch, is a branch of the left coronary artery.  Gross anatomy It can be divided into proximal, mid and distal segments and this helps to differentiate the names of its various small branches 1: origin: le...
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Left atrial appendage

The left atrial appendage (LAA) is a pouch-like projection from the main body of the left atrium lies in the atrioventricular sulcus in close proximity to the left circumflex artery, the left phrenic nerve, and the left pulmonary veins. Gross anatomy Morphological types Four main morphologica...
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Left atrial appendage closure devices

Left atrial appendage (LAA) closure devices refers to a device placed in the LAA in patients with atrial fibrillation who cannot be anticoagulated pharmaceutically to prevent thromboembolic events. It is placed percutaneously via the femoral vein to right atrium to left atrium by forming a punct...
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Left atrial diverticulum

A left atrial diverticulum (LAD) refers to a pouch-like structure with a saclike shape with a broad-based ostium and a smooth contour to its body. They are considered an anatomical variant.  Complications some suggest that there may be a possible latent relationship between LA diverticulum and...
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Left atrial enlargement

Left atrial enlargement may result from many conditions, either congenital or acquired. It has some characteristic findings on a frontal chest radiograph. CT or MRI may also be used for diagnosis. Pathology Broadly speaking, the causes of left atrial enlargement can be divided into congenital ...
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Left atrial line

The left atrial (LA) line monitors LA pressure and is indicative of left ventricular function, preload and afterload. The LA line enters from the left superior vein and exits the far side of the chest. The LA line is a single lumen catheter unlike the right atrial line, which is double lumen. N...
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Left atrium

The left atrium is one of the four chambers of the heart. It receives oxygenated blood from the pulmonary circulation that is then delivered to the left ventricle and then into the systemic circulation. Gross anatomy The left atrium is grossly cuboidal, and like the right atrium has an appenda...
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Left main coronary artery

The left main coronary artery (LMCA) or left coronary artery (LCA) is one of the two main arteries that supply the heart with oxygenated blood. Gross anatomy Origin It is a branch of the ascending aorta, with its normal origin in the left aortic sinus, just superior to the aortic valve 1-2. ...
Article

Left pulmonary venous recess

The left pulmonary venous recess is one of the pericardial recesses forming a small space within the pericardium. It arises from the pericardial cavity proper located between the right superior and inferior pulmonary veins, posterior to the left atrium. It invaginates towards the oblique pericar...
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Left pulmonic recess

The left pulmonic recess is one of the pericardial recesses forming a small space within the pericardium, which arises from the transverse pericardial sinus. It is located posterior to the pulmonary trunk and left pulmonary artery.  It may mimic mediastinal lymphadenopathy or a bronchogenic cyst.
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Left ventricle

The left ventricle is one of four heart chambers. It receives oxygenated blood from the left atrium and pumps it into the systemic circulation via the aorta. Gross anatomy The left ventricle is conical in shape with an anteroinferiorly projecting apex and is longer with thicker walls than the ...
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Left ventricular aneurysm

Left ventricular aneurysms are discrete, dyskinetic areas of the left ventricular (LV) wall with a broad neck (as opposed to left ventricular pseudoaneurysms), thus often termed true aneurysms. Epidemiology True LV aneurysms develop in less than 5% of all patients with ST-elevation myocardial ...
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Left ventricular assist device

Left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) are surgically implanted devices that aid pumping blood in patients with severe refractory cardiac failure. It may be used as a bridge to cardiac transplantation, or as destination therapy in patients who are not a transplant candidate. The LVAD acts as a ...
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Left ventricular diverticulum

A true diverticulum of the left ventricle refers to congenital anomaly affecting the left ventricle. Epidemiology The condition typically occurs in children and if thought to occur in around 0.4% of cases based on autopsy studies. Clinical presentation In isolated cases, they are often asymp...
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Left ventricular enlargement

Left ventricular enlargement can be the result of a number of condition, including: pressure overload hypertension aortic stenosis volume overload aortic regurgitation mitral regurgitation wall abnormalities left ventricular aneurysm hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Radiographic features P...
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Left ventricular outflow tract view (fetal echocardiogram)

The left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) view (or five chamber view) is one of the standard views in a fetal echocardiogram. It is a long axis view of the heart, highlighting the path from the left ventricle into the ascending aorta (left ventricle outflow tract). In this view the right ventr...
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Left ventricular pseudoaneurysm

Left ventricular pseudoaneurysms are false aneurysms that result from contained myocardial rupture, and are a rare complication of a myocardial infarction (MI). They should not be confused with left ventricular aneurysms, which are true aneurysms containing all the layers (endocardium, myocardiu...
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Left-sided superior vena cava

A left-sided superior vena cava (SVC) is the most common congenital venous anomaly in the chest, and in a minority of cases can result in a right-to-left shunt 3-4. Epidemiology A left-sided SVC is seen in 0.3-0.5% of the normal population and in ~5% of those with congenital heart disease 3. I...
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Lipomatous hypertrophy of the inter-atrial septum

Lipomatous hypertrophy of the interatrial septum (LHIS) is a relatively uncommon disorder of the heart characterised by benign fatty infiltration of the interatrial septum. It is commonly found in elderly and obese patients as an asymptomatic incidentally discovered finding.  Epidemiology The ...
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Lipomatous metaplasia of the myocardium

Lipomatous metaplasia of the myocardium is a phenomenon where there is fat deposition within the myocardium. It is often seen following a myocardial infarction but can also rarely been seen in conditions such as arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia. Pathology The exact aetiology of lipom...
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Lutembacher syndrome

Lutembacher syndrome refers to the association of an atrial septal defect (ASD) with mitral stenosis.  Both the defects can be either congenital or acquired. History and etymology It is named after Rene Lutembacher 4.
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Lyme disease

Lyme disease, also known as borreliosis, is a condition caused by the bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi, with infection being via the ixodid tick.  Terminology Controversy around Lyme disease centres on chronic infection with some author doubting its existence 3. There are some terms that help dif...
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Major aortopulmonary collateral arteries

Major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (MAPCAs) are persistent tortuous fetal arteries that arise from the descending aorta and supply blood to pulmonary arteries in the lungs usually at the posterior aspect of hilum. Pathology Embryologically, the intersegmental arteries regress with the no...
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Marfan syndrome

Marfan syndrome is a multisystem connective tissue disease with autosomal dominant inheritance of defect in fibrillin 1 gene. The affected patients are tall with long disproportionate extremities and have pectus excavatum, arachnodactyly, and may also experience upward and lateral optic lens dis...
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Medical devices in the thorax

Medical devices in the thorax are regularly observed by radiologists when reviewing radiographs and CTs. Extrathoracic devices tubing, clamps, syringes lying on or under the patient rubber sheets, foam mattresses, clothing, hair braids, nipple piercings etc may also be visible These devices ...
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Middle cardiac vein

The middle cardiac vein or posterior interventricular vein is a vein of the heart which accompanies the posterior interventricular artery. It courses in the posterior interventricular groove and drains directly into the coronary sinus close to it’s termination. It drains the posterior wall of bo...
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Milking effect

Milking effect phenomenon is a pathognomonic angiographic finding in myocardial bridging of coronary arteries. Systolic compression of coronary vessels with partial or complete decompression during diastole is described as milking effect. Its significance lies in:  increased risk of thrombus fo...
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Miminally invasive direct coronary artery bypass

Minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass (MIDCAB) is a novel method for bypassing diseased coronary arteries that can replace open coronary artery bypass grafts (CABG) in certain situations, most commonly when bypassing the left anterior descending artery (LAD) with a left internal thora...
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Mitraclip device

A MitraClip™ is a device for percutaneous mitral valve repair. It is a percutaneous edge-to-edge attachment system that mimics the surgical procedure. This technique creates a tissue bridge between the anterior and posterior leaflets employing one clip deployed through trans-septal catheterisati...
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Mitral annular calcification

Mitral annular calcification (MAC) refers to deposition of calcium (along with lipid) in the annular fibrosa of the mitral valve. Epidemiology Annular calcification is seen in up to 35% of elderly patients. It is common in females over 65 years, in those with myxtomatous degeneration of the mi...
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Mitral stenosis

Mitral stenosis refers to stenosis of the mitral valve in the heart. Pathology It is characterised by restriction of blood flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle as a result of a narrowed mitral passage. Mitral stenosis is usually an acquired valvular defect and historically, the comm...
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Mitral valve

The mitral valve (or bicuspid valve) is one of the four cardiac valves. It is the atrioventricular valve that allows blood to flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle. It opens during diastole and closes during systole. The valve has anterior and posterior leaflets (cusps), the bases of w...
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Mitral valve calcification

Mitral valve calcification can refer to 1 mitral annular calcification (MAC) or mitral valve leaflet calcification (MVL)
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Mitral valve disease

Mitral valve disease (MVD) principally comprise of a two main functional abnormalities, which can occur in isolation or in combination: mitral regurgitation mitral stenosis In addition other pathologies that affect the mitral valve include mitral valve prolapse mitral annular calcification ...
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Mitral valve prolapse

Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is often defined as systolic bowing of the mitral leaflet more than 2 mm beyond the annular plane into the atrium 1. It is a common cause of mitral regurgitation (considered most frequent cause of severe non-ischaemic mitral regurgitation 2). Epidemiology It may aff...
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Mitral valve regurgitation

Mitral valve regurgitation is due to functional or anatomical dysfunction of the mitral valve and can lead to striking chest x-ray abnormalities. Epidemiology The causes of mitral regurgitation are protean and, as such, there is no single group of patients who are affected. Mitral regurgitatio...
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Moderator band

The moderator band, also called the septomarginal trabecula, is a consistent structure in the morphologic right ventricle and can be helpful as a landmark in situations where the ventricles may be ambiguous (i.e. in some forms of congenital heart disease). The term "septomarginal" is descriptiv...
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Moguls of the heart

The 'moguls of the heart' refer to the bulges of the cardiomediastinal contour on frontal chest radiographs. The cardiomediastinal bulges are likened to skiing moguls (bumps of packed snow on a mountainside sculptured by turning skis). Awareness of their usual locations and aetiologies is helpfu...
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Mustard repair

The Mustard repair is a technique to correct transposition of the great arteries (TGA), and involves: resection of atrial septum creation of an atrial baffle with pericardium (or rarely synthetic material) 1 Rationale Transposition of the great arteries involves a discordance between the ven...
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Myocardial bridging of the coronary arteries

Myocardial bridging is a common congenital anomaly of the coronary arteries where a coronary artery courses through the myocardium.  Epidemiology It is found approximately in 20-30% of the adult population in autopsy studies. Incidence in coronary angiograms is between 2-15%. Pathology Norma...
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Myocardial infarction

Myocardial infarction (MI), an acute coronary syndrome, results from interruption of myocardial blood flow and resultant ischaemia, and are a leading cause of death worldwide.  Epidemiology Risk factors male > females age > 45 for males > 55 for females cardiovascular risk factors: smokin...
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Myocardial perfusion and viability

Myocardial perfusion and viability assessment is important for many reasons: to diagnose, locate and grade the severity of coronary artery disease to identify candidates who would benefit from re-vascularization to evaluate response of re-vascularization Terminology Stunned myocardium It r...
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Myocarditis

Myocarditis is a general term referring to inflammation of the myocardium.  Clinical presentation Clinical presentation is variable in severity, ranging from asymptomatic to cardiogenic shock, but it typically is associated with other viral symptom, including fever and malaise. It typically oc...
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Napkin-ring sign (heart)

The napkin-ring sign (heart) is a recently described sign encountered on CT coronary angiogram (coronary CTA) performed on modern MDCT. It has been shown to possess a high predictive value in predicting future cardiac events and is considered one of the imaging correlates of an unstable plaque. ...
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Non-compaction of the left ventricle

Non-compaction of the left ventricle, also known as spongiform cardiomyopathy, is an arrest of myocardial compaction during embryogenesis, leading to hypertrophic ventricular trabeculations and deep inter-ventricular recesses. This abnormality has also been described in the right ventricular, b...
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Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis

Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE), also referred as marantic endocarditis, refers to fibrin and platelets aggregations on previously undamaged heart valves, in patients without bacteraemia. The condition is seen in patients with advanced stage malignancies, and is related to episodes o...
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Normal chest imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the chest and surrounding structures, divided by modality. Radiograph Adult examples chest radiograph PA adult male example 1 example 2: with inverted windows example 3 PA adult female example 1 example 2 example 3: with labels example...
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Normal contours of the cardiomediastinum on chest radiography

A detailed understanding of the structures that make up the normal contours of the heart and mediastinum (cardiomediastinal contour) on chest radiography is essential if abnormalities are to be detected.  Frontal view (PA/AP) Right cardiomediastinal contour From superior to inferior: right p...
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Norwood procedure

The Norwood procedure is a palliative surgical procedure performed in cases of hypoplastic left heart syndrome. The procedure consists of constructing a neo-aorta by side-to-side anastomosis of the main pulmonary artery and ascending aorta. A modified Blalock-Taussig shunt is placed to provide ...
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Oblique pericardial sinus

The oblique pericardial sinus is a blind-ending pericardial cul-de-sac behind the heart which opens into the pericardial space proper inferiorly. Gross anatomy It's boundaries are: right (in ascending order): inferior vena cava, right inferior pulmonary vein and right superior pulmonary vein ...
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Obtuse marginal artery

The obtuse marginal (OM) arteries sometimes referred to as lateral branches are branch coronary arteries that come off the circumflex artery. There can be one or more obtuse marginal arteries. It typically traverses along the left margin of heart towards the apex. The first obtuse marginal arter...
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Ortner syndrome

Ortner syndrome, also known as cardiovocal syndrome, is characterised by hoarse voice resulting from left recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy secondary to a cardiovascular disorder. Pathology Left recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy in this condition is due to traction or compression of the nerve betw...
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Paediatric cardiovascular procedures

A number of paediatric cardiovascular procedures are encountered when reporting paediatric imaging. They include: Blalock-Taussig (BT) shunt classic: end to side subclavian to ipsilateral pulmonary arterial anastomosis modified: graft anastomosis Waterston shunt Sano shunt: right ventricle ...
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Panzerherz (heart)

Panzerherz (or armoured heart) is a term used to describe the appearance of the heart in calcified constrictive pericarditis. The pericardium becomes circumferentially thickened with calcification, limiting the ability of the heart to contract. The rim of dense calcification describes how the h...
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Papillary fibroelastoma of the heart

Papillary fibroelastomas are rare benign primary cardiac tumours. However, of the primary cardiac tumours, they are one of the commonest to occur in relation to the cardiac valves (may account for 75% of valvular tumours 10).  Epidemiology Its estimated prevalence ranges between <0.01 to 0.33%...
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Papillary muscles

The papillary muscles are thick bands and ridges of endocardial-lined myocardium that project into the lumen of the cardiac ventricles. They essentially represent dominant ventricular trabeculae which attach to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves via the chordae tendineae. During systole, t...
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Parachute device

A parachute device improves the cardiac output by partitioning damaged heart muscle in the apical region from normal muscle, allowing improvement of cardiac output and functioning of the left ventricle in patients with ischaemic heart failure secondary to infarction. Implantation is accomplishe...
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Parachute mitral valve

A parachute mitral valve is a valvular congenital abnormality usually identified in infants or young children though is can present later in adulthood. Pathology Parachute mitral valves occur when all the chordae tendineae are attached to a single papillary muscle origin. Unlike the normal sit...
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Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return

Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR), also known as partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection (PAPVC), is a rare congenital cardiovascular condition in which some of the pulmonary veins, but not all, drain into the systemic circulation rather than in the left atrium. Clinical p...
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Passive hepatic congestion

Passive hepatic congestion or congested liver in cardiac disease is the stasis of blood in the hepatic parenchyma, due to impaired hepatic venous drainage which leads to widening and splaying of the central hepatic veins and hepatomegaly.  Passive hepatic congestion is a well-studied result of ...
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Patent ductus arteriosus

Patent ductus arteriosus or arteriosum (PDA) is a congenital cardiac anomaly where there is persistent patency of the ductus arteriosus, a normal connection of the fetal circulation between the aorta and the pulmonary arterial system that develops from the 6th aortic arch. Epidemiology PDAs oc...
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Patent foramen ovale

A patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a type of atrial septal defect in which there is channel-like communication between the atria through an unfused fossa ovale. Gross anatomy The foramen ovale in the interatrial septum normally develops into the fossa ovalis when the flaps of the atrial septa pri...
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Pectinate muscles

The pectinate muscles are "teeth of a comb" shaped parallel muscular columns that are present on the inner wall of the right and left atria. The right atrium has thick and coarse pectinate muscles while these are few smooth and thinner in the left atrium. History and etymology The term is der...
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Pentalogy of Fallot

The pentalogy of Fallot is a variant of the more common tetralogy of Fallot, comprising the classical four features with the addition of an atrial septal defect or patent ductus arteriosus The five features therefore are: ventricular septal defect (VSD)  right ventricular outlfow tract narro...
Article

Peri-partum/post-partum cardiomyopathy

Peri-partum/post-partum cardiomyopathy is a dilated cardiomyopathy that may occur in the last trimester of pregnancy through the first several months post-partum. Pathology The pathogenesis of post-partum cardiomyopathy is uncertain, with genetic factors, sympathetic tone, hormones, and malnut...
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Pericardial agenesis

Pericardial agenesis is a rare condition where there is the absence of the pericardium to varying degrees. If it is only a small portions of the pericardium that is absent it is known as a pericardial defect. Epidemiology According to a surgical and pathological series, the prevalence (inclusi...
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Pericardial cyst

Pericardial cysts are uncommon benign congenital anomalies of the anterior and middle mediastinum. Clinical presentation Usually asymptomatic and discovered incidentally although occasionally may present with chest pain and dyspnoea. Pathology They are thought to often result from aberration...
Article

Pericardial effusion

Pericardial effusions occur when excess fluid collects in the pericardial space (a normal pericardial sac contains approximately 30-50 mL of fluid). Epidemiology There is no single demographic affected, as there are many underlying causes of a pericardial effusion. Clinical presentation Clin...
Article

Pericardial haemangioma

Pericardial haemangioma is a location specific rare subtype of cardiac haemangioma which arises from either the parietal or visceral (commoner 3) pericardial layers.  Treatment and prognosis It is a benign tumour. Treatment option vary from monitoring to resection. See also pericardial tumou...
Article

Pericardial ligaments

The pericardial ligaments is a name given to a group of variable fibrous ligaments or adhesions that connect the pericardium to adjacent structures. These ‘ligaments’ tether the fibrous pericardium to it's surrounds, hence movements of the chest wall and diaphragm  influence the position of the ...
Article

Pericardial lipoblastoma

Pericardial lipoblastomas are rare benign tumours that usually occur in children less than 3 years of age. The originate from embryonic fat cells and are divided into two forms, based on location 1: superficial form: well circumscribed and well encapsulated deep form: not well circumscribed an...
Article

Pericardial lipoma

Pericardial lipomas are slowly growing benign tumours of the pericardium that are asymptomatic unless large in size, where they can cause pressure symptoms. Radiographic features Echocardiography Tends to be echogenic structure adjacent or inside the pericardium. CT Seen as a fatty attenuat...
Article

Pericardial mesothelioma

Pericardial mesothelioma refers to a mesothelioma arising primarily from the pericardium.  Epidemiology They are rare and are only thought to account for ~ 0.7% of all malignant mesotheliomas. There is male to female predominance of approximately 3:1. Clinical presentation The presentation o...
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Pericardial recesses

The pericardial recesses are small spaces in the pericardial cavity arising from the transverse pericardial sinus that are formed by the reflections of the pericardium. Pericardial fluid can pool in these recesses, mimicking mediastinal lymph nodes or pathology. There are several pericardial re...
Article

Pericardial space

The pericardial space or cavity is the fluid-filled space in between the parietal and visceral layers of the serous pericardium. In normal conditions it contains only a small amount of serous pericardial fluid, usually 15-20 mL. Related pathology A pericardial effusion is the pathological accu...
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Pericardial tumours

There are a number of tumours that can involve the pericardium. They include primary pericardial tumours primary pericardial mesothelioma pericardial sarcoma(s) pericardial liposarcoma pericardial fibrosarcoma pericardial fibroma primary pericardial lymphoma pericardial haemangioma peri...
Article

Pericardial window

Pericardial window is a procedure performed to create a fistula or "window" from the pericardial space to the pleural space. It is done to allow a pericardial effusion to drain the chest cavity in order to relieve situations with increased pressures such as with cardiac tamponade.
Article

Pericarditis

Pericarditis is defined as inflammation of the pericardium. It is normally found in association with cardiac, thoracic or wider systemic pathology and it is unusual to manifest on its own. Pathology In general, infection is the most common cause of pericarditis. Infection accounts for two-thir...
Article

Pericardium

The pericardium is a conical, flask-like, fibroserous sac which contains the heart and the roots of the great vessels and defines the middle mediastinum.  Gross anatomy The pericardium is made of two sacs in one. The outer sac is the fibrous pericardium and the inner sac is the double-layered ...

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