Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

398 results found
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Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome

Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (IHES) is a leukoproliferative disorder and refers to a situation when there is an unexplained prolonged eosinophilia with associated organ system dysfunction. The condition can affect several organ systems which includes: heart: cardiac involvement in idio...
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Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension is uncommon, representing only a tiny fraction of all cases of pulmonary arterial hypertension, which has a very long list of secondary causes (see causes of pulmonary arterial hypertension). Terminology Older terms for this entity include primary pul...
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Implantable loop recorder

Implantable loop recorders, also known as insertable cardiac monitors, are small insertable devices that continuously monitor and record cardiac rhythms. They are placed subcutaneously and used for the evaluation of patients with recurrent unexplained episodes of palpitations or syncope. They sh...
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Increased cardiothoracic ratio (summary)

Increased cardiothoracic ratio describes widening of the cardiac silhouette on a chest radiograph. This is only of use when making an assessment of a PA chest x-ray since the AP chest x-ray causes the artefactual magnification of the heart and the cardiothoracic ratio is altered. Reference arti...
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Infective endocarditis

Infective endocarditis is defined as infection of the endocardium. It commonly affects the valve leaflets and chordae tendineae, as well as prosthetic valves and implanted devices. Epidemiology Infective endocarditis has an estimated general prevalence of 3 to 9 cases per 100,000. Intravenous ...
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Inferior aortic recess

The inferior aortic recess is one of the pericardial recesses forming a small space within the pericardium, which arises from the transverse pericardial sinus between the ascending aorta and the left atrium. It extends inferiorly to the level of the aortic valve. It may mimic mediastinal lympha...
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Inferior interventricular artery

The inferior interventricular artery (also known as the posterior interventricular artery or posterior descending artery, PDA) is an artery that extends along the inferior interventricular sulcus. The artery supplies the posterior third of the interventricular septum through posterior septal per...
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Inferior mediastinum

The inferior mediastinum is the box-shaped space in the mediastinum below the transthoracic plane of Ludwig between the wedge-shaped superior mediastinum above and the diaphragm and inferior thoracic aperture below. There are no physical structures that divide the superior and inferior mediastin...
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Innervation of the heart

The heart has extrinsic and intrinsic innervation, which allows the heart to continue beating if the nerve supply to the heart is disrupted (e.g. in cardiac transplant). The heart receives innervation from both the superficial and deep cardiac plexuses, which have both parasympathetic (from vag...
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Inter-arterial course of the left coronary artery

The inter-arterial course of the left coronary artery, also known as the malignant course of the left coronary artery, is defined as the origin of the left main or left anterior descending coronary artery from the right coronary sinus of Valsalva with a course between the ascending aorta and the...
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Inter-arterial course of the right coronary artery

Inter-arterial course of the right coronary artery (RCA), also known as a malignant variant, may occur if the right coronary artery has an aberrant origin from the the left coronary sinus. It is an uncommon anomaly with potential risk of cardiac ischaemia. When the right coronary artery arises ...
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Interatrial septal aneurysm

Interatrial septal aneurysm or atrial septal aneurysm (ASA) is defined as an abnormal protrusion of the interatrial septum. The exact length of the protrusion that defines an interatrial septal aneurysm varies in the literature, ranging from >11 mm to >15 mm beyond normal excursion in adults 4-5...
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Interventricular septal aneurysm

Interventricular septal aneurysm is different from ventricular aneurysm which usually occurs in the cardiac apex. It is defined as a bowing of the interventricular septum of more than 15 mm on either side in adults and 5 mm in children during normal cardiac motion. It may involve either the memb...
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Intra-aortic balloon pump

Intra-aortic balloon pumps (IABP) are used in the intensive care setting to provide haemodynamic assistance to patients in cardiogenic shock. Function and physiology The device is comprised of a catheter introduced via the femoral artery, which extends retrogradely to the proximal descending t...
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Intra-atrial course of the right coronary artery

Intra-atrial course of the right coronary artery is an uncommon anatomic variation in the course of the right coronal artery, usually involving the mid and distal segments, where the vessel partially or completely courses through the right atrial chamber. It is usually asymptomatic and clinical...
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Intracardiac thrombi

Intracardiac thrombi are seen in a variety of clinical settings and can result in severe morbidity or even death from embolic events. They can occur following myocardial infarction with ventricular thrombus formation, or with atrial fibrillation and mitral stenosis where atrial thrombi predomina...
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Intraventricular

Intraventricular is a term used to denote lesions / processes that occur within either the ventricles of the brain or the ventricles of the heart.  In both cases, most lesions actually arise from the surrounding brain parenchyma / heart muscle and grow exophytically into the ventricles.  See a...
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Isomerism

Isomerism is a term which in general means 'mirror-image'. It is used in the context of heterotaxy and is of two types: left isomerism right isomerism Left isomerism Mirror image of the structures on the left side of the chest along the left-right axis of the body, i.e. patients with isomeri...
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Jaffe-Campanacci syndrome

Jaffe-Campanacci syndrome is characterised by: multiple non-ossifying fibromas of the long bones and jaw café au lait spots intellectual disability kyphoscoliosis hypogonadism or cryptorchidism ocular malformations cardiovascular malformations giant cell granuloma of the jaw History and...
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Kawasaki disease

Kawasaki disease (KD) is a small to medium vessel vasculitis predominantly affecting young children. It can affect any body organ but there is a predilection for the coronary vessels. Pathology An autoimmune aetiology has been postulated. It is generally self limiting but acute fatalities are ...
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Kawashima procedure

Kawashima procedure is a palliative surgical procedure performed in cases of: left isomerism and azygos continuation of the inferior vena cava single functional ventricle single atrium and common atrioventricular valve with or without regurgitation pulmonary stenosis It is performed by crea...
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Kommerell diverticulum

Kommerell diverticula occur in some anomalies of the aortic arch system. It usually refers to the bulbous configuration of the origin of an aberrant left subclavian artery in the setting of a right-sided aortic arch. However, it was originally described as a diverticular outpouching at the origi...
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Lambl’s excrescence

Lambl’s excrescences, also known as valvular strands, are small, filiform, fibrous strands located on cardiac valves. Epidemiology Thought to be present in 70-80% of adults according to pathological studies, but only ~40% on echocardiograph studies 1. When present, multiple Lambl’s excrescence...
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LCx and LAD arising separately from the left coronary sinus

One of the anatomical variants of coronary artery origin comprises the left circumflex coronary artery (LCx) and left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) arising separately from the left coronary sinus. Hence there is no common left main coronary artery (LCA/LMCA). As there is no vascular...
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Leadless cardiac pacemaker

Leadless cardiac pacemakers are a recently introduced type of cardiac conduction device. These pacemakers are self-contained right ventricular single-chamber pacemakers that are implanted percutaneously via a femoral approach 1-3. Radiographic features A leadless cardiac pacemaker can be appre...
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Left anterior descending artery

The left anterior descending (LAD) artery, also known as the anterior interventricular branch, is a branch of the left coronary artery.  Gross anatomy It can be divided into proximal, mid and distal segments and this helps to differentiate the names of its various small branches 1: origin: le...
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Left atrial appendage

The left atrial appendage (LAA) is a pouch-like projection from the main body of the left atrium lies in the atrioventricular sulcus in close proximity to the left circumflex artery, the left phrenic nerve, and the left pulmonary veins. Gross anatomy Morphological types Four main morphologica...
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Left atrial appendage closure devices

Left atrial appendage (LAA) closure devices refers to a device placed in the LAA in patients with atrial fibrillation who cannot be anticoagulated pharmaceutically to prevent thromboembolic events. It is placed percutaneously via the femoral vein to right atrium to left atrium by forming a punct...
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Left atrial diverticulum

A left atrial diverticulum (LAD) refers to a pouch-like structure with a saclike shape with a broad-based ostium and a smooth contour to its body. They are considered an anatomical variant.  Complications some suggest that there may be a possible latent relationship between LA diverticulum and...
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Left atrial enlargement

Left atrial enlargement may result from many conditions, either congenital or acquired. It has some characteristic findings on a frontal chest radiograph. CT or MRI may also be used for diagnosis. Clinical presentation An enlarged left atrium can have many clinical implications, such as: Ortn...
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Left atrial line

The left atrial (LA) line monitors LA pressure and is indicative of left ventricular function, preload and afterload. The LA line enters from the left superior vein and exits the far side of the chest. The LA line is a single lumen catheter unlike the right atrial line, which is double lumen. N...
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Left atrium

The left atrium is one of the four chambers of the heart. It receives oxygenated blood from the pulmonary circulation that is then delivered to the left ventricle and then into the systemic circulation. Gross anatomy The left atrium is grossly cuboidal, and like the right atrium has an appenda...
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Left main coronary artery

The left main coronary artery (LMCA) or left coronary artery (LCA) is one of the two main arteries that supply the heart with oxygenated blood. Gross anatomy Origin It is a branch of the ascending aorta, with its normal origin in the left aortic sinus, just superior to the aortic valve 1-2. ...
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Left pulmonary venous recess

The left pulmonary venous recess is one of the pericardial recesses forming a small space within the pericardium. It arises from the pericardial cavity proper located between the left superior and inferior pulmonary veins, posterior to the left atrium. It invaginates towards the oblique pericard...
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Left pulmonic recess

The left pulmonic recess is one of the pericardial recesses forming a small space within the pericardium, which arises from the transverse pericardial sinus. It is located posterior to the pulmonary trunk and left pulmonary artery.  It may mimic mediastinal lymphadenopathy or a bronchogenic cyst.
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Left-sided superior vena cava

A left-sided superior vena cava (SVC) is the most common congenital venous anomaly in the chest, and in a minority of cases can result in a right-to-left shunt 3-4. Epidemiology A left-sided SVC is seen in 0.3-0.5% of the normal population and in ~5% of those with congenital heart disease 3. I...
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Left ventricle

The left ventricle is one of four heart chambers. It receives oxygenated blood from the left atrium and pumps it into the systemic circulation via the aorta. Gross anatomy The left ventricle is conical in shape with an anteroinferiorly projecting apex and is longer with thicker walls than the ...
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Left ventricular aneurysm

Left ventricular aneurysms are discrete, dyskinetic areas of the left ventricular (LV) wall with a broad neck (as opposed to left ventricular pseudoaneurysms), thus often termed true aneurysms. Epidemiology True LV aneurysms develop in less than 5% of all patients with ST-elevation myocardial ...
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Left ventricular assist device

Left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) are surgically implanted devices that aid pumping blood in patients with severe refractory cardiac failure. It may be used as a bridge to cardiac transplantation, or as destination therapy in patients who are not a transplant candidate. The LVAD acts as a ...
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Left ventricular diverticulum

A true diverticulum of the left ventricle refers to congenital anomaly affecting the left ventricle. Epidemiology The condition typically occurs in children and if thought to occur in around 0.4% of cases based on autopsy studies. Clinical presentation In isolated cases, they are often asymp...
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Left ventricular enlargement

Left ventricular enlargement can be the result of a number of condition, including: pressure overload hypertension aortic stenosis volume overload aortic regurgitation mitral regurgitation wall abnormalities left ventricular aneurysm hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Radiographic features P...
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Left ventricular outflow tract

The left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) is considered represent the region of the left ventricle that lies between the anterior cusp of the mitral valve and the ventricular septum. Its dimensions are often recorded in the TAVI work up studies.  Related pathology left ventricular outflow trac...
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Left ventricular outflow tract view (fetal echocardiogram)

The left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) view (or five chamber view) is one of the standard views in a fetal echocardiogram. It is a long axis view of the heart, highlighting the path from the left ventricle into the ascending aorta (left ventricle outflow tract). In this view the right ventr...
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Left ventricular pseudoaneurysm

Left ventricular pseudoaneurysms are false aneurysms that result from contained myocardial rupture, and are a rare complication of a myocardial infarction (MI). They should not be confused with left ventricular aneurysms, which are true aneurysms containing all the layers (endocardium, myocardiu...
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Lipomatous hypertrophy of the inter-atrial septum

Lipomatous hypertrophy of the interatrial septum (LHIS) is a relatively uncommon disorder of the heart characterised by benign fatty infiltration of the interatrial septum. It is commonly found in elderly and obese patients as an asymptomatic incidentally discovered finding.  Epidemiology The ...
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Lipomatous metaplasia of the myocardium

Lipomatous metaplasia of the myocardium is a phenomenon where there is fat deposition within the myocardium. It is often seen following a myocardial infarction but can also rarely been seen in conditions such as arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia. Pathology The exact aetiology of lipom...
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Lutembacher syndrome

Lutembacher syndrome refers to the association of an atrial septal defect (ASD) with mitral stenosis.  Both the defects can be either congenital or acquired. History and etymology It is named after Rene Lutembacher 4.
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Lyme disease

Lyme disease, also known as borreliosis, is a condition caused by the bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi, with infection being via the ixodid tick.  Terminology Controversy around Lyme disease centres on chronic infection with some author doubting its existence 3. There are some terms that help dif...
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Major aortopulmonary collateral arteries

Major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (MAPCAs) are persistent tortuous fetal arteries that arise from the descending aorta and supply blood to pulmonary arteries in the lungs usually at the posterior aspect of hilum. Pathology Embryologically, the intersegmental arteries regress with the no...
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Marfan syndrome

Marfan syndrome is a multisystem connective tissue disease with autosomal dominant inheritance of defect in fibrillin 1 gene. The affected patients are tall with long disproportionate extremities and have pectus excavatum, arachnodactyly, and may also experience upward and lateral optic lens dis...
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Mediastinum (ITMIG classification)

The International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group (ITMIG) classification of mediastinal compartments was developed to reflect a division of the mediastinum based on cross-sectional imaging. It was in part an effort to consolidate prior discrepant classification systems in use by different medic...
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Medical devices in the thorax

Medical devices in the thorax are regularly observed by radiologists when reviewing radiographs and CTs. Extrathoracic devices tubing, clamps, syringes lying on or under the patient rubber sheets, foam mattresses, clothing, hair braids, nipple piercings etc. may also be visible These devices...
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Middle cardiac vein

The middle cardiac vein or posterior interventricular vein is a vein of the heart which accompanies the posterior interventricular artery. It courses in the posterior interventricular groove and drains directly into the coronary sinus close to it’s termination. It drains the posterior wall of bo...
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Milking effect

Milking effect phenomenon is a pathognomonic angiographic finding in myocardial bridging of coronary arteries. Systolic compression of coronary vessels with partial or complete decompression during diastole is described as milking effect. Its significance lies in:  increased risk of thrombus fo...
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Miminally invasive direct coronary artery bypass

Minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass (MIDCAB) is a novel method for bypassing diseased coronary arteries that can replace open coronary artery bypass grafts (CABG) in certain situations, most commonly when bypassing the left anterior descending artery (LAD) with a left internal thora...
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Mitraclip device

A MitraClip™ is a device for percutaneous mitral valve repair. It is a percutaneous edge-to-edge attachment system that mimics the surgical procedure. This technique creates a tissue bridge between the anterior and posterior leaflets employing one clip deployed through trans-septal catheterisati...
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Mitral annular calcification

Mitral annular calcification (MAC) refers to deposition of calcium (along with lipid) in the annular fibrosa of the mitral valve. Epidemiology Annular calcification is seen in up to 35% of elderly patients. It is common in females over 65 years, in those with myxtomatous degeneration of the mi...
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Mitral valve

The mitral valve (or bicuspid valve) is one of the four cardiac valves. It is the atrioventricular valve that allows blood to flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle. It opens during diastole and closes during systole. The valve has anterior and posterior leaflets (cusps), the bases of w...
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Mitral valve calcification

Mitral valve calcification can refer to 1 mitral annular calcification (MAC) or mitral valve leaflet calcification (MVL)
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Mitral valve disease

Mitral valve disease (MVD) principally comprise of a two main functional abnormalities, which can occur in isolation or in combination: mitral regurgitation mitral stenosis In addition other pathologies that affect the mitral valve include: mitral valve prolapse mitral annular calcification...
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Mitral valve prolapse

Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is often defined as systolic bowing of the mitral leaflet more than 2 mm beyond the annular plane into the atrium 1. It is a common cause of mitral regurgitation (considered most frequent cause of severe non-ischaemic mitral regurgitation 2). Epidemiology It may aff...
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Mitral valve regurgitation

Mitral valve regurgitation, also known as mitral valve insufficiency or mitral valve incompetence, is a valvulopathy that describes leaking of the mitral valve during systole that causes blood to flow in the reverse direction from the left ventricle into the left atrium. Epidemiology According...
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Mitral valve stenosis

Mitral valve stenosis is a valvulopathy that describes narrowing of the opening of the mitral valve between the left ventricle and the left atrium. Epidemiology Mitral stenosis is seen more commonly in women and in countries, generally developing nations, where rheumatic fever is common 1. Cl...
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Moderator band

The moderator band, also called the septomarginal trabecula, is a consistent structure in the morphologic right ventricle and can be helpful as a landmark in situations where the ventricles may be ambiguous (i.e. in some forms of congenital heart disease). The term "septomarginal" is descriptiv...
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Moguls of the heart

The 'moguls of the heart' refer to the bulges of the cardiomediastinal contour on frontal chest radiographs. The cardiomediastinal bulges are likened to skiing moguls (bumps of packed snow on a mountainside sculptured by turning skis). Awareness of their usual locations and aetiologies is helpfu...
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Mustard repair

The Mustard repair is a technique to correct transposition of the great arteries (TGA), and involves: resection of atrial septum creation of an atrial baffle with pericardium (or rarely synthetic material) 1 Rationale Transposition of the great arteries involves a discordance between the ven...
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Myocardial bridging of the coronary arteries

Myocardial bridging is a common congenital anomaly of the coronary arteries where a coronary artery courses through the myocardium.  Epidemiology It is found approximately in 20-30% of the adult population in autopsy studies. Incidence in coronary angiograms is between 2-15%. Pathology Norma...
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Myocardial crypts

Myocardial crypts (or myocardial clefts or fissures) refer to discrete clefts or fissures in otherwise compacted myocardium of the left ventricle. They are thought to represent a distinctive morphological expression of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, occurring with different frequency in these pati...
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Myocardial infarction

Myocardial infarction (MI), an acute coronary syndrome, results from interruption of myocardial blood flow and resultant ischaemia, and are a leading cause of death worldwide.  Epidemiology Risk factors male > females age > 45 for males > 55 for females cardiovascular risk factors: smokin...
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Myocardial perfusion and viability

Myocardial perfusion and viability assessment is important for many reasons: to diagnose, locate and grade the severity of coronary artery disease to identify candidates who would benefit from re-vascularization to evaluate response of re-vascularization Terminology Stunned myocardium It r...
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Myocarditis

Myocarditis is a general term referring to inflammation of the myocardium.  Clinical presentation Clinical presentation is variable in severity, ranging from asymptomatic to cardiogenic shock, but it typically is associated with other viral symptom, including fever and malaise. It typically oc...
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Napkin-ring sign (heart)

The napkin-ring sign (heart) is a recently described sign encountered on CT coronary angiogram (coronary CTA) performed on modern MDCT. It has been shown to possess a high predictive value in predicting future cardiac events and is considered one of the imaging correlates of an unstable plaque. ...
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Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis

Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE), also referred as marantic endocarditis, refers to fibrin and platelets aggregations on previously undamaged heart valves, in patients without bacteraemia. The condition is seen in patients with advanced stage malignancies, and is related to episodes o...
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Non-compaction of the left ventricle

Non-compaction of the left ventricle, also known as spongiform cardiomyopathy, is an arrest of myocardial compaction during embryogenesis, leading to hypertrophic ventricular trabeculations and deep inter-ventricular recesses. This abnormality has also been described in the right ventricular, b...
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Normal chest imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the chest and surrounding structures, divided by modality. Radiograph Adult examples chest radiograph PA adult male example 1 example 2: with inverted windows example 3 PA adult female example 1 example 2 example 3: with labels example...
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Normal contours of the cardiomediastinum on chest radiography

A detailed understanding of the structures that make up the normal contours of the heart and mediastinum (cardiomediastinal contour) on chest radiography is essential if abnormalities are to be detected.  Frontal view (PA/AP) Right cardiomediastinal contour From superior to inferior: right p...
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Norwood procedure

The Norwood procedure is a palliative surgical procedure performed in cases of hypoplastic left heart syndrome. The procedure consists of constructing a neo-aorta by side-to-side anastomosis of the main pulmonary artery and ascending aorta. A modified Blalock-Taussig shunt is placed to provide ...
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Oblique pericardial sinus

The oblique pericardial sinus is a blind-ending pericardial cul-de-sac behind the heart which opens into the pericardial space proper inferiorly. Gross anatomy It's boundaries are: right (in ascending order): inferior vena cava, right inferior pulmonary vein and right superior pulmonary vein ...
Article

Obtuse marginal artery

The obtuse marginal (OM) arteries sometimes referred to as lateral branches are branch coronary arteries that come off the circumflex artery. There can be one or more obtuse marginal arteries. It typically traverses along the left margin of heart towards the apex. The first obtuse marginal arter...
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Ortner syndrome

Ortner syndrome, also known as cardiovocal syndrome, is characterised by hoarse voice resulting from left recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy secondary to a cardiovascular disorder. Pathology Left recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy in this condition is due to traction or compression of the nerve betw...
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Paediatric cardiovascular procedures

A number of paediatric cardiovascular procedures are encountered when reporting paediatric imaging. They include: Blalock-Taussig (BT) shunt classic: end to side subclavian to ipsilateral pulmonary arterial anastomosis modified: graft anastomosis Waterston shunt Sano shunt: right ventricle ...
Article

Panzerherz (heart)

Panzerherz (or armoured heart) is a term used to describe the appearance of the heart in calcified constrictive pericarditis. The pericardium becomes circumferentially thickened with calcification, limiting the ability of the heart to contract. The rim of dense calcification describes how the h...
Article

Papillary fibroelastoma of the heart

Papillary fibroelastomas are rare benign primary cardiac tumours. However, of the primary cardiac tumours, they are one of the commonest to occur in relation to the cardiac valves (may account for 75% of valvular tumours 10).  Epidemiology Its estimated prevalence ranges between <0.01 to 0.33%...
Article

Papillary muscles

The papillary muscles are thick bands and ridges of endocardial-lined myocardium that project into the lumen of the cardiac ventricles. They essentially represent dominant ventricular trabeculae which attach to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves via the chordae tendineae. During systole, t...
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Parachute device

A parachute device improves the cardiac output by partitioning damaged heart muscle in the apical region from normal muscle, allowing improvement of cardiac output and functioning of the left ventricle in patients with ischaemic heart failure secondary to infarction. Implantation is accomplishe...
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Parachute mitral valve

A parachute mitral valve is a valvular congenital abnormality usually identified in infants or young children though is can present later in adulthood. Pathology Parachute mitral valves occur when all the chordae tendineae are attached to a single papillary muscle origin. Unlike the normal sit...
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Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return

Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR), also known as partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection (PAPVC), is a rare congenital cardiovascular condition in which some of the pulmonary veins, but not all, drain into the systemic circulation rather than in the left atrium. Clinical p...
Article

Passive hepatic congestion

Passive hepatic congestion or congested liver in cardiac disease is the stasis of blood in the hepatic parenchyma, due to impaired hepatic venous drainage which leads to widening and splaying of the central hepatic veins and hepatomegaly.  Passive hepatic congestion is a well-studied result of ...
Article

Patent ductus arteriosus

Patent ductus arteriosus or arteriosum (PDA) is a congenital cardiac anomaly where there is persistent patency of the ductus arteriosus, a normal connection of the fetal circulation between the aorta and the pulmonary arterial system that develops from the 6th aortic arch. Epidemiology PDAs oc...
Article

Patent foramen ovale

A patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a type of atrial septal defect in which there is channel-like communication between the atria through an unfused fossa ovale. Gross anatomy The foramen ovale in the interatrial septum normally develops into the fossa ovalis when the flaps of the atrial septa pri...
Article

Pectinate muscles

The pectinate muscles are "teeth of a comb" shaped parallel muscular columns that are present on the inner wall of the right and left atria. The right atrium has thick and coarse pectinate muscles while these are few smooth and thinner in the left atrium. History and etymology The term is der...
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Pentalogy of Fallot

The pentalogy of Fallot is a variant of the more common tetralogy of Fallot, comprising the classical four features with the addition of an atrial septal defect or patent ductus arteriosus The five features therefore are: ventricular septal defect (VSD)  right ventricular outlfow tract narro...
Article

Pericardial agenesis

Pericardial agenesis is a rare condition where there is the absence of the pericardium to varying degrees. If it is only a small portions of the pericardium that is absent it is known as a pericardial defect. Epidemiology According to a surgical and pathological series, the prevalence (inclusi...

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