Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

377 results found
Article

Pink tetralogy of Fallot

Pink tetralogy of Fallot refers to a tetralogy of Fallot in which the degree of right ventricular outflow is minimal, resulting no significant right to left shunt, and therefore no cyanosis. Symptoms are mild and presentation may be delayed, even into adulthood. See also tetralogy of Fallot ...
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Pneumopericardium

Pneumopericardium represents air within the pericardium, thus surrounding the heart.  Aetiology Underlying causes include: positive pressure ventilation thoracic surgery/pericardial fluid drainage penetrating trauma blunt trauma (rare) infectious pericarditis with gas-producing organisms ...
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Porcelain left atrium

Porcelain left atrium, also known as coconut left atrium, is a term used when a large part of or the entire left atrial wall becomes calcified. It can occur as a rare consequence of endocarditis (with underlying rheumatic heart disease). It has also been described in the setting of end stage ren...
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Postcaval recess

The postcaval recess is one of the pericardial recesses forming a small space within the pericardium, which arises from the transverse pericardial sinus. It is located posterior to the superior vena cava and superior to the right superior pulmonary vein. It may mimic mediastinal lymphadenopathy...
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Posterior vein of the left ventricle

The posterior vein of the left ventricle is a vein of the heart which courses over the inferior wall of the left ventricle and drains into the coronary sinus to the left of where the middle cardiac vein drains into the sinus. It drains, not unsurprisingly, the inferior wall of the left ventricle.
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Pott shunt

A Pott shunt is a form of palliative surgery performed in patients with tetralogy of Fallot prior to the ability to repair the defect. It consists of a shunt formed between the descending thoracic aorta and the left pulmonary artery. This does not relieve the right ventricular outflow obstructi...
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Primary benign cardiac tumours

Primary benign cardiac tumours are much less common than secondary metastatic deposits. However they are more likely when a cardiac mass is seen outside of the setting of terminal metastatic disease. Tumours include 1-2: cardiac myxoma most common in adults accounts for ~50% of all primary be...
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Primary cardiac tumours

Primary cardiac tumours are uncommon, and comprise only a small minority of all tumour that involve the heart: most are mediastinal or lung tumours which extend through the pericardium and into the heart, or metastases 1. Epidemiology Primary cardiac tumours have an estimated autopsy prevalenc...
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Primary malignant cardiac tumours

Primary malignant cardiac tumours are rare, and account for only ~25% of primary cardiac tumours, and only a small proportion of all malignant tumours which involve the heart: direct extension of adjacent tumours or metastatic deposits are far more common. Histologcal types include 1:  cardiac ...
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Prosthetic cardiac valves on chest x-ray (an approach)

Prosthetic cardiac valves are a routine finding on chest X-ray. The frequency and degree of exposure is greatest in larger hospitals with cardiothoracic centres, however, prosthetic valves are commonplace universally. Recognition of which valve has been replaced, any other related cardiothoraci...
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Prosthetic heart valve

Prosthetic heart valves are common. The four valves of the heart may all be surgically replaced. However, aortic and mitral valves are the most commonly replaced. Replacements may be tissue or metallic valves, only the latter being visualised on imaging investigations. Sometimes the annulus alo...
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Pseudocoarctation of the aorta

Pseudocoarctation of the aorta is a very rare anomaly characterised by kinking or buckling of the descending aorta at the level of the ligamentum arteriosum without a pressure gradient across the lesion. Pathology It is thought to be of congenital origin, and characterised by elongation and ki...
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Pulmonary artery atresia

Pulmonary artery atresia (or sometimes known as pulmonary atresia) is one of congenital cardiovascular anomaly in which there is complete disruption between the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) and the pulmonary trunk. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is 1 in 10,000 births. Patholog...
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Pulmonary artery banding

Pulmonary artery banding is a palliative surgical procedure used to decrease excessive pulmonary blood flow. It is usually used for neonates and infants with left-to-right shunts unable to withstand complete surgical correction.   Some indications include: single ventricle multiple ventricula...
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Pulmonary atresia with intact interventricular septum

Pulmonary atresia with intact interventricular septum (PA-IVS) is a subtype of pulmonary atresia that presents as cyanotic congenital heart disease.  Pathology PA-IVS is the combination of obstruction of the pulmonary outflow tract from pulmonary valve atresia without a ventricular septal defe...
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Pulmonary hypertension (2008 classification)

The classification system for pulmonary hypertension was revised at the 4th World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension held in Dana Point, California, in 2008 1. This system is as: group 1: pulmonary arterial hypertension 1.1: idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension 1.2: heritable pulmonar...
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Pulmonary hypertension (differential)

Pulmonary hypertension has many causes, and these can be divided in many ways. A simple and systematic approach is to proceed along the cardiopulmonary pulmonary circulation, as causes are found at each site (for a more official classification system see 2003 third world symposium on pulmonary a...
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Pulmonary valve

The pulmonary valve is one of the four cardiac valves. It is the semilunar valve that allows blood to exit the right ventricle. It opens during systole and closes during diastole. The valve has anterior, left and right cusps, the bases of which attach around the valve orifice to a fibrous ring o...
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Pulmonary vein stenosis

Pulmonary vein stenosis refers to a spectrum of condition characterised by narrowing to the pulmonary veins. It can be congenital or acquired. primary pulmonary vein stenosis - occurs in children secondary pulmonary vein stenosis - occurs in adults and usually associated with some identifiable...
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Quadricuspid aortic valve

Quadricuspid aortic valve (QAV) is a rare cardiac valvular anomaly where the aortic valve has four cusps, instead of the usual three. Epidemiology The estimated incidence on necropsy at ~1 in 8,000. While the incidence of QAV on 2D echocardiography has been reported to range between 0.01-0.04%...
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Raghib syndrome

Raghib syndrome is a rare developmental complex, which consists of persistence of the left superior vena cava along with coronary sinus ostial atresia and atrial septal defect. It has also been associated with other congenital malformations including ventricular septal defects, enlargement o...
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Rapid ultrasound in shock

The Rapid ultrasound in shock (RUSH) protocol is a structured point-of-care ultrasound examination performed at the time of presentation of a shocked patient. It is a more detailed and longer exam than the FAST scan, with the aim to differentiate between hypovolemic, cardiogenic, obstructive and...
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RASopathies

RASopathies are a class of developmental disorders caused by germline mutations in genes that encode for components or regulators of the Ras/mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Epidemiology As a group, RASopathies represent one of the most common malformation syndromes, with an in...
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Rastelli procedure

The Rastelli procedure is a surgical procedure to correct certain combinations of cardiovascular defects in patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease. Rationale The operation is based on a redirection of ventricular outflows using an intracardiac baffle that tunnels the left ventricle to...
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Restrictive cardiomyopathy

Restrictive cardiomyopathy is the least common subtype of cardiomyopathy and is characterised by a marked decrease in ventricular compliance.  Clinical presentation Patients can present with symptoms and signs of left ventricular failure and/or right ventricular failure 9.  Pathology It is p...
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Rhabdomyosarcoma (cardiac)

Cardiac rhabdomyosarcoma is a muscular tumour that arises in the heart. Epidemiology They account for only 4-7% of cardiac sarcomas overall but are the most common cardiac malignancy in infants and children. There is a slight male predilection. Pathology Location Cardiac rhabdomyosarcoma ha...
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Rheumatic heart disease

Rheumatic heart disease (not to be confused with rheumatoid heart disease) may refer to either the acute cardiac involvement or chronic cardiac sequelae following rheumatic fever. Carditis is a major Jones criterion of rheumatic fever. Epidemiology An increased prevalence in females have been ...
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Rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune multisystemic inflammatory disease which affects many organs but predominantly attacks the synovial tissues and joints. Epidemiology RA has an overall prevalence of 0.5-1%. There is a female predominance, with the disease being 2-3 times more c...
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Right atrial enlargement

Right atrial enlargement is less common, and harder to delineate on chest radiograph, than left atrial enlargement. Pathology Causes Enlargement of the right atrium can result from a number of conditions, including: raised right ventricular pressures pulmonary arterial hypertension cor pul...
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Right atrial line

The right atrial (RA) line monitors RA pressure and is indicative of right ventricular function, preload and afterload. The RA line enters the right atrium through the right atrial appendage, and always exits the right side of the chest medial to the left atrial line. It is typically a double lu...
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Right atrium

The right atrium (RA) is one of the four chambers of the human heart, and is the first chamber to receive deoxygenated blood returning from the body. It plays an important role in originating and regulating the conduction of the heart. Gross anatomy The right atrium receives deoxygenated from ...
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Right coronary artery

The right coronary artery (RCA) is one of the two main coronary arteries that supply the heart with oxygenated blood. Gross anatomy Origin It is a branch of the ascending aorta, with its normal origin in the right aortic sinus, just superior to the aortic valve Course The RCA courses to th...
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Right heart strain

Right heart strain (or more precisely right ventricular strain) is a term given to denote the presence of right ventricular dysfunction usually in the absence of an underlying cardiomyopathy. It can manifest as an acute right heart syndrome. Pathology Right heart strain can often occur as a re...
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Right pulmonary venous recess

The right pulmonary venous recess is one of the pericardial recesses forming a small space within the pericardium. It arises from the pericardial cavity proper located between the right superior and inferior pulmonary veins, posterior to the left atrium. It invaginates towards the oblique perica...
Article

Right pulmonic recess

The right pulmonic recess is one of the pericardial recesses forming a small space within the pericardium, which arises from the transverse pericardial sinus. It is located posterior to the right pulmonary artery and anterior to the oesophagus. It may mimic mediastinal lymphadenopathy or a bron...
Article

Right ventricle

The right ventricle is the most anterior of the 4 heart chambers. It receives deoxygenated blood from the right atrium and pumps it into the pulmonary circulation. Blood enters the right ventricle through the atrioventricular orifice containing the tricuspid valve during diastole and in systole ...
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Right ventricular dysfunction

Right ventricular dysfunction usually results from either pressure overload, volume overload, or a combination.  It occur in a number of clinical scenarios, including: pressure overload   cardiomyopathies: ischemic, congenital valvular heart disease arrhythmias sepsis It can manifest as r...
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Right ventricular enlargement

Right ventricular enlargement can be the result of a number of conditions, including: pulmonary valve stenosis pulmonary arterial hypertension atrial septal defect (ASD)  ventricular septal defect (VSD) tricuspid regurgitation dilated cardiomyopathy anomalous pulmonary venous drainage te...
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Right ventricular outflow tract view (fetal echocardiogram)

The right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) view (or three vessel view/3VV) is one of the standard views in a fetal echocardiogram. It is a long axis view of the heart, highlighting the path from the right ventricle into the pulmonary trunk (right ventricular outflow tract). In this view, the r...
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Ritscher-Schinzel syndrome

Ritscher-Schinzel syndrome (RTSC), also known as 3C (cranio-cerebello-cardiac) syndrome, is a rare entity with a variable spectrum of CNS (primarily cerebellar), craniofacial, and congenital heart defects. craniofacial cleft palate ocular coloboma prominent occiput low-set ears hypertelori...
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Ross procedure

Ross procedure involves the use of a pulmonary homograft for surgical aortic valve replacement. Indications It can be used to treat a broad array of aortic valve pathologies, often aortic stenosis. Contraindications multivessel coronary artery disease multiple valvular pathologies in which...
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Sano shunt

The Sano shunt is a palliative surgical technique sometimes used as a step in Norwood procedure for hypoplastic left heart syndrome. The procedure involves placement of an extracardiac conduit between the right ventricle and main pulmonary artery stump. This technique prevents the reduced diast...
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Sarcoidosis (cardiac manifestations)

Cardiac manifestations of sarcoidosis are present in up to 25% of patients with sarcoidosis, but only 5-10% of patients are symptomatic 1-2. Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disorder characterised by the presence of non-caseating granulomas. For a general discussion of this condition please refer t...
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Secondary cardiac neoplasms

Secondary cardiac neoplasms or cardiac metastasis/es refer to a secondary malignant tumour of the heart, arising by lymphatic or haematogenous spread of a primary neoplasm 3,5. Epidemiology Overall cardiac malignancy is an infrequent finding. Metastatic spread is much more common than primary ...
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Senning repair

The Senning repair is one of two "atrial switch" procedures used to functionally correct transposition of the great arteries (the other being the Mustard repair).  The two repairs share a similar fundamental principle. Systemic blood flow is redirected away from the right ventricle and toward t...
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Septal bounce

Septal bounce is a sign of ventricular interdependence on echocardiography, cardiac CT, and cardiac MRI, manifested by reduced or paradoxical interventricular septal movement during diastole (i.e. initial septal movement towards and then away from the left ventricle) during early diastole second...
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Shmoo sign

Shmoo sign refers to the appearance of a prominent, rounded left ventricle and dilated aorta on a plain AP chest radiograph giving the appearance of Shmoo, a fictional cartoon character in the comic strip Li'l  Abner in the 1940s. This sign is indicative of left ventricular enlargement.
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Single coronary artery

Single coronary arteries are rare (incidence 0.03-0.07%), with a higher incidence in patients with congenital heart disease (in particular truncus arteriosus and pulmonary atresia). They occur when there is a single ostia arising from the aorta with no ectopic ostia. There is a wide variety of c...
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Sinoatrial nodal artery

The sinoatrial (SA) nodal artery is the small artery that supplies the sinoatrial (SA) node of the heart (the pacemaker).  Gross anatomy Origin Right coronary artery in 60% of cases and the left coronary artery in 40% of cases. Course The artery turns posteriorly below the superior vena cav...
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Sinus of Valsalva aneurysm

Sinus of Valsalva aneurysms are a cause of thoracic aortic dilatation. They can be either congenital or acquired (mycotic). Epidemiology There is a male predilection (M:F ratio being around 3-4:1). They are relatively more common in eastern and Asian populations and can occur in any age group ...
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Small cardiac vein

The small cardiac vein is a vein of the heart which accompanies the acute marginal artery from the RCA. It courses in the right posterior atrioventricular groove and drains into the coronary sinus close to it’s termination but may drain directly into the right atrium. It drains the right ventric...
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Snowman sign (total anomalous pulmonary venous return)

Snowman sign refers to the configuration of the heart and the superior mediastinal borders resembling a snowman. This is seen in total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR) type I (supracardiac type). It is an abnormality of the fetal circulation wherein the entire pulmonary venous flow is ...
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Sonographic approach to dyspnoea (mnemonic)

This mnemonic will help with the sonographic approach to the critically ill patient with dyspnoea: CHEST Mnemonic C: collapsed lung (pneumothorax)  ​absent anterior lung sliding / anterior B lines lung point present 1 H: heart failure (acute pulmonary oedema) diffuse bilateral anterior B ...
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Speckle tracking echocardiography

Speckle tracking echocardiography is a new player in the cardiac arena which is rapidly making its mark in cardiac and radiology circles alike. It is an objective, robust, semiautomatic and reproducible technique with a short post processing time. Traditionally, left ventricular function is mea...
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Stunned myocardium

Stunned myocardium refers to a situation in which an acute transient myocardial ischemic event results in a prolonged wall motion abnormality which eventually resolves. The term is usually distinguished from "hibernating" myocardium, in which a chronic ischaemic process leads to chronic left ve...
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Superior aortic recess

The superior aortic recess is one of the pericardial recesses forming a small space within the pericardium, which arises from the superior margin of the transverse pericardial sinus and surrounds the root of the ascending aorta. Its components are variable and may be further subdivided into: a...
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Surgically-created cardiac shunts (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for surgically-created cardiac shunts for congenital heart disease is: great flow really would be perfect​ The mnemonic is ordered by the position of the shunt antegrade to normal blood flow through the heart, proceeding from the systemic venous system into the right heart, and then...
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Syphilis

Syphilis is the result of infection with the gram negative spirochete Treponema pallidum, subspecies pallidum. It results in a heterogeneous spectrum of disease with many systems that can potentially be involved, which are discussed separately.  Epidemiology Despite the discovery of penicillin...
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Tachycardia induced cardiomyopathy

Tachycardia induced cardiomyopathy (TIC) (or tachycardiomyopathy) is considered a reversible form of acquired cardiomyopathy where there is impaired left ventricular systolic dysfunction precipitated by a tachycardia or a tachyarrhythmia. Typically there is an impairment left ventricular systol...
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Takeuchi procedure

The Takeuchi procedure refers to a direct anastomosis of the anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery directly to the aorta was described in the 1970s and currently remains the procedure of choice. An intrapulmonary aortocoronary tunnel or baffle was performed by Takeuchi prior ...
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Takotsubo cardiomyopathy

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) is a condition which has been described predominantly in postmenopausal women following exposure to sudden, unexpected emotional or physical stress.  Pathology There is a transient left ventricular dysfunction and there is no evidence of obstructive epicardial cor...
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Taussig-Bing anomaly

Taussig-Bing anomaly is a rare congenital heart malformation and is one of the variants of double outlet right ventricle. It consists of transposition of the aorta to the right ventricle and malposition of the pulmonary artery with subpulmonary ventricular septal defect. History and etymology ...
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Tetralogy of Fallot

Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is the second most common cyanotic congenital heart condition and has been classically characterised by the combination of ventricular septal defect (VSD), right ventricular outflow tract obstruction (RVOTO), overriding aorta, and a late right ventricular hypertrophy. ...
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Tetralogy of fallot (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the underlying anatomic defects in tetralogy of Fallot is: PROVe Mnemonic P: pulmonary stenosis R: right ventricular hypertrophy O: overriding aorta V: ventricular septal defect
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Thallium 201 chloride

Thallium 201 Chloride is a radiopharmaceutical used in cardiac imaging. Characteristics photon energy: 80 keV physical half life: 55 hours biological half life rest: 3 minutes exercise: 30 seconds normal distribution: myocardium, skeletal muscle, GI tract, liver, kidneys excretion: renal...
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Third mogul sign

The third mogul sign can be seen on frontal chest radiograph in the presence of left atrial enlargement. It refers to an extra mogul or bump along the upper left cardiac silhouette just below the left main bronchus. The third mogul sign commonly represents the enlarged left atrial appendage, pa...
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Thoracic aorta

The thoracic aorta is the most superior division of the aorta and is divided into three sections: ascending aorta aortic arch descending aorta The thoracic aorta begins at the aortic valve, located obliquely just to the left of the midline at the level of the the third intercostal space. It ...
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Thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) risk score

The thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) risk score is a prognostic risk stratification system that categorises the risk of death and ischemic events in patients with unstable angina / NSTEMI and provides a basis for therapeutic decision making. It is thought to have potential to improve...
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Total anomalous pulmonary venous return

Total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR) is a cyanotic congenital heart anomaly with an abnormal drainage anatomy of the entire pulmonary venous system. This contrasts with partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR) where only part of the pulmonary venous anatomy is abnormal. In T...
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Total repair of tetralogy of Fallot

Total repair of tetralogy of Fallot is a corrective surgical procedure that involves closure of the ventricular septal defect (VSD) and relief of right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) obstruction. Procedure Most patients with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) undergo elective surgical repair between ...
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Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI)

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation or replacement (TAVI/TAVR) is a technique to replace the aortic valve through a transvascular or transapical approach. Compared to traditional open aortic valve replacement with sternotomy and a heart-lung bypass machine, the TAVI technique is less invasiv...
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Transient ischaemic dilatation

Transient ischaemic dilatation is a paradoxical phenomenon seen in myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging.   With severe balanced coronary artery disease, myocardial ischaemia may result in apparent enlargement of the left ventricular cavity during stress. The cause of this is not entirely clear, b...
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Transposition of the great arteries

Transposition of the great arteries (TGA) is the most common cyanotic congenital cardiac anomaly with cyanosis in the first 24 hours of life. It accounts for up to 7% of all congenital cardiac anomalies 1  and can be assessed with echocardiography, gated cardiac CT, or cardiac MRI. Epidemiology...
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Transverse pericardial sinus

The transverse pericardial sinus is the transverse communication between the left and right parts of the pericardial space proper behind the two outflow arteries of the heart.   Gross anatomy It is superior to the left atrium and posterior to the intrapericardial parts of the pulmonary trunk a...
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Traumatic aortic injury in the exam

Getting a film with traumatic aortic injury in the exam is one of the many exam set-pieces that can be prepared for.  This is one of the cases you should look and not speak for 10 seconds as there tends to be a lot of findings on the film of patients with traumatic aortic injury. Description ...
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Tricuspid atresia

Tricuspid atresia is a cyanotic congenital cardiac anomaly which is characterised by agenesis of the tricuspid valve and right ventricular inlet. There is almost always an obligatory intra-atrial connection through either an ASD or patent foramen ovale (PFO) in order for circulation to be comple...
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Tricuspid regurgitation

Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is a valvular cardiac anomaly where there is regurgitation of flow from the right ventricle back into the right atrium through the tricuspid valve. It is considered an important predictor of both morbidity and mortality in heart failure 8. Clinical presentation Cli...
Article

Tricuspid stenosis

Tricuspid stenosis (TS) refers to narrowing of the tricuspid valve. It is an uncommon condition and is different to tricuspid hypoplasia where in the latter, the right ventricle also often tends to be hypoplastic. Pathology Tricuspid stenosis most commonly occurs in the setting of rheumatic he...
Article

Tricuspid valve

The tricuspid valve is one of the four cardiac valves. It is the atrioventricular valve that allows blood to flow from the right atrium to the right ventricle. It opens during diastole and closes during systole. The valve has anterior, posterior and septal leaflets (cusps), the bases of which at...
Article

Triple-rule-out CT

Triple-rule-out CT (TRO CT) angiography may be ordered in the setting of acute chest pain to examine the thoracic aorta and the coronary and pulmonary arteries. The protocol helps exclude life-threatening causes of acute chest pain, especially if atypical, or if alternative causes to acute coron...
Article

Troponin elevation

Troponin elevation can occur from a number causes although there is no imaging involved, it is useful for the radiologist to have a basic understanding of their causes (especially when interpreting imaging findings associated with troponin elevation). The cardiac troponin complex consists of thr...
Article

Truncus arteriosus

Truncus arteriosus is a cyanotic congenital heart anomaly in which a single trunk supplies both the pulmonary and systemic circulation, instead of a separate aorta and a pulmonary trunk. It is usually classified as a conotruncal anomaly. It accounts for up to 2% of congenital cardiac anomalies ...
Article

Tuberous sclerosis

Tuberous sclerosis (TS), also known as tuberous sclerosis complex or Bourneville disease, is a neurocutaneous disorder (phakomatosis) characterised by the development of multiple benign tumours of the embryonic ectoderm (e.g. skin, eyes, and nervous system). Epidemiology Tuberous sclerosis has...
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Tuberous sclerosis diagnostic criteria

The tuberous sclerosis diagnostic criteria have been developed to aid the diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis and have been adapted from Roach et al 1998 1: definitive TS complex: either 2 major features or 1 major and 2 minor probable TS complex: 1 major and 1 minor possible TS complex: either 1...
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Twiddler syndrome

Twiddler syndrome occurs when a patient manipulates (rotates) a subcutaneous chest device to the point of detaching and retracting the distal portion of the device. It is most commonly seen with implanted cardiac pacemakers or implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICDs). With continued rotation, ...
Article

Uhl anomaly

Uhl anomaly is an unusual cardiac disorder which affects the right ventricle where there is almost complete absence of right ventricular myocardium, normal tricuspid valve, and preserved septal and left ventricular myocardium. History and etymology It is named after Henry S D Uhl, who first de...
Article

Unifocalisation procedure

A unifocalisation procedure is a corrective surgical technique used in patients with complete pulmonary artery atresia with major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (MAPCAs). In this technique, the collateral vessels supplying blood from the aorta directly to the lungs are brought into continuit...
Article

Unilateral pulmonary vein atresia

Unilateral pulmonary vein atresia is a type of pulmonary vein atresia. Pathology It results from failure of incorporation of the common pulmonary vein into the left atrium. There is no recognised right or left predilection. Clinical presentation The condition usually present in infancy or ch...
Article

Unroofed coronary sinus

An unroofed coronary sinus is a rare variant of atrial septal defect (ASD). The atrial wall between the coronary sinus and left atrium is either partially or completely absent, resulting in a left-to-right shunt. It is associated with persistent left-sided SVC and heterotaxy syndromes. Clinica...
Article

Vagoglossopharyngeal neuralgia

Vagoglossopharyngeal neuralgia is an uncommon presentation of glossopharyngeal neuralgia where the typical symptoms of pain are associated with cardiac symptoms including arrhythmias, asystole, and syncope. It is believed to be due to complex interconnections between the nervus intermedius, the...
Article

Vein of Marshall

The vein of Marshall, oblique vein of Marshall or the oblique vein of the left atrium is a small vein that descends on and drains the posterior wall of the left atrium. It drains directly into the coronary sinus at the same end as the great cardiac vein, marking the origin of the sinus. It repr...
Article

Venae cordis minimae

The venae cordis minimae (smallest cardiac veins or thebesian veins) are a small group of valveless myocardial coronary veins within the walls of each of the 4 cardiac chambers that drain venous blood directly into each of the respective chambers. They are most frequent in the right atrium and t...
Article

Ventricular septal defect

Ventricular septal defects (VSD) represent defects in the interventricular septum that allow a haemodynamic communication between the right and left ventricles. It typically results in a left-to-right shunt. Epidemiology They represent one of the most common congenital cardiac anomalies and ma...

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