Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

2,648 results found
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Brain herniation

Brain herniation, also referred to as acquired intracranial herniation, refers to shift of brain tissue from its normal location, into an adjacent space as a result of mass effect. It is a life-threatening condition that requires prompt diagnosis.  Pathology There are a number of different pat...
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Brain infection protocol (MRI)

MRI protocol for brain infection assessment is a group of MRI sequences put together to best approach CNS infections in general. Note: This article is intended to outline some general principles of protocol design. The specifics will vary depending on MRI hardware and software, radiologist's an...
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Brain mass lesion (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Brain mass lesions are a broad collection of pathological processes that result in changes on brain imaging (usually CT or MRI). They are a very disparate group of conditions ranging from infection (abscess) to brain tumors...
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Brain metastases

Brain metastases are estimated to account for approximately 25-50% of intracranial tumors in hospitalized patients. Due to great variation in imaging appearances, these metastases present a common diagnostic challenge which can importantly affect the management approach for individual patients. ...
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Brain morphometry

Brain morphometry is the act of measuring various dimensions (typically volume) of parts of the brain. Historically, this was only performed post-mortem.   In modern practice, this is performed in vivo using MRI. A volumetric scan of the brain (typically T1 weighted) is obtained and segmented i...
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Brain screen protocol (MRI)

Brain screen protocol is a simple non-contrast MRI protocol comprising a group of basic MRI sequences as a useful approach when imaging the brain when no particular condition is being sought (e.g. headache). The protocol is designed to obtain a good general overview of the brain. Additionally, t...
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Brainstem

The brainstem is the most caudal part of the brain. It adjoins, is structurally continuous with the spinal cord and consists of the: midbrain (mesencephalon) pons (part of the metencephalon) medulla oblongata (myelencephalon) The brainstem provides the main motor and sensory innervation to t...
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Brainstem glioma

Brainstem gliomas consist of a heterogeneous group which vary greatly in histology and prognosis. Terminology Unless otherwise specified the term brainstem glioma usually refers to the most common histology, the diffuse brainstem glioma, and in children this is most likely a diffuse midline gl...
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Brainstem nuclei

The brainstem nuclei are the nuclei in the brainstem. These include: cranial nerve nuclei red nucleus substantia nigra
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Brainstem stroke syndromes

Brainstem stroke syndromes, also known as crossed brainstem syndromes, refer to a group of syndromes that occur secondary to lesions, most commonly infarcts, of the brainstem. Epidemiology Although many different brainstem stroke syndromes have been classically described, the majority appear e...
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Brain stereotaxis protocol (MRI)

The brain MRI stereotactic study, also known as frame-based stereotactic MRI study or conventional brain MRI stereotaxis, is a localization MRI protocol that delineates an intracranial structure or lesion in relation to a three-dimension coordinate system allowing precise surgical access to them...
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Brain stone

Brain stones, also known as cerebral calculi, refers to large intracranial calcifications that may be solitary or multiple.  Clinical presentation If symptomatic, patients most commonly present with seizures.  Pathology Localization of brain stones can help narrow the underlying etiology but...
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Brain trauma protocol (MRI)

MRI protocol for brain trauma is a group of MRI sequences put together to best approach traumatic brain injury, especially diffuse axonal injury.  Note: This article is intended to outline some general principles of protocol design. The specifics will vary depending on MRI hardware and software...
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Brain tumor protocol (MRI)

MRI protocol for brain tumor assessment is a group of MRI sequences put together to best approach CNS tumors in general. Note: This article is intended to outline some general principles of protocol design. The specifics will vary depending on MRI hardware and software, radiologist's and referr...
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Brain tumors

Brain tumors arise from the normal constituents of the brain and its coverings (meninges). Spinal tumors are considered separately.  Epidemiology As a general rule, brain tumors increase in frequency with age, with individual exceptions (e.g. pilocytic astrocytoma, the vast majority of which a...
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Brain tumors in infancy

Common brain tumors in infancy (i.e. under one year of age) are quite different from those of brain tumors in adulthood. Most are located in the supratentorial region (~65%) and they carry a poor prognosis. The frequency of these tumors varies according to studies, but the most common brain tum...
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Branchio-oculo-facial syndrome

Branchio-oculo-facial syndrome (BOFS) is a very rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder that is characterized clinically by abnormalities affecting the eyes, craniofacial structures, and branchial sinuses. Epidemiology More than 80 cases have been reported in the global literature since its f...
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Bridging of the sella turcica

Bridging of the sella turcica is the fusion of the anterior and posterior clinoid processes. Epidemiology The prevalence of a sella turcica bridge in a healthy population is estimated to be ~4% (range 1.75-6 %) in anatomical and radiographic studies. Pathology It has been reported to occur i...
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Bright rim sign (DNET)

The bright rim sign, also known as the hyperintense ring sign, has been described in dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNET). It is described as a well-defined rim of high signal around the DNET on FLAIR sequences. This T2/FLAIR hyperintense ring, whether complete or incomplete, is fairl...
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Brissaud-Sicard syndrome

Brissaud-Sicard syndrome is a very rare pontine stroke syndrome that involves the anterolateral and inferior pons. Clinical presentation Classically, the syndrome presents as ipsilateral facial cramps and contralateral hemiparesis 1-3. Pathology It has been postulated that the syndrome is ca...
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Broca's area

Broca's area (Brodmann area 44) is an area of the lateral frontal lobe in the dominant hemisphere concerned with the production of speech. Gross anatomy Broca's area is located in the posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pars opercularis and pars triangularis) of the dominant hemisphere, anterior...
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Brodmann areas

Brodmann areas are a system to divide the cerebral cortex according to cytoarchitectural organization, and are, despite controversy, still very widely used as a standardized nomenclature which is superimposed on the somewhat variable gyral and sulcal anatomy.  The classification relies on the f...
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Brownell-Oppenheimer variant of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

The Brownell-Oppenheimer phenotypic variant of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a distinct clinical entity with predominant gait ataxia, linked to molecular subtype VV2 1,2. The EEG findings in patients with Oppenheimer-Brownell phenotype usually reveal the absence of periodic sharp-w...
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Brown-Séquard syndrome

Brown-Séquard syndrome, also known as hemicord syndrome, is the result of damage to, or impairment of, the left or right side of the spinal cord. It is characterized by a characteristic pattern of motor and sensory deficits that are determined by the decussation pattern of various white matter t...
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Brown syndrome (orbit)

The Brown syndrome refers to an inability of a patient to perform an upward gaze while the eye is adducted due to an abnormality of the superior oblique tendon sheath complex. History and etymology It was first described by Allan Brown in 1950 1. See also Brown-Sequard syndrome
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Brudzinski sign (meningism)

Brudzinski sign occurs in meningitis (of any etiology) or meningism where passive flexion of a patient's neck elicits reflexive bilateral knee and hip flexion; it was originally known as the "nape of the neck sign" and was one of several physical exam maneuvers concurrently described to be chara...
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Bruns syndrome

Bruns syndrome occurs in patients with an obstructing intraventricular mass and consists of abrupt paroxysms of: severe headache vertigo vomiting The symptoms are characteristically exacerbated with sudden movements of the head. Pathology There are two main theories as to the pathogenesis ...
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Buphthalmos

Buphthalmos is a descriptive term which simply means an enlarged eyeball or ocular globe due to increased intraocular pressure (glaucoma), without deformation or and intrinsic mass lesion. Epidemiology It typically manifests in infants and young children. Pathology It usually indicates the p...
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Burnt out meningioma

A burnt-out meningioma is a term used to denote a meningioma which has become completely calcified/ossified 1. The term refers to the usually indolent behavior, as these tumors rarely seem to grow.  Most burnt out meningiomas are likely to be psammomatous meningiomas, as these are far more comm...
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Burst lobe

A burst lobe is an uncommonly used description of traumatic lobar intraparenchymal hemorrhage of the brain that ruptures into the subdural space and communicates with subdural hemorrhage 1. As traumatic hemorrhages are more common in the frontal and temporal lobes, these lobes are the most affe...
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Butterfly glioma

Butterfly gliomas are a high grade astrocytoma, usually a glioblastoma (WHO grade IV), which crosses the midline via the corpus callosum. Other white matter commissures are also occasionally involved. The term butterfly refers to the symmetric wing-like extensions across the midline.  Most freq...
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Butterfly sign (choroid plexus)

The butterfly sign refers to the normal appearance of the choroid plexuses on axial imaging of the fetal brain, commonly observed on the antenatal ultrasound. Its absence may suggest holoprosencephaly 1. In the CNS, the term should not be confused with a butterfly glioma, which is a glioblastom...
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Café au lait spots

Café au lait spots are a type of pigmented skin lesions which are classically described as being light brown in color.   Conditions associated with them include: neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) Jaffe-Campanacci syndrome McCune-Albright syndrome: typically irregular which has been likened to t...
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Calcar avis

Calcar avis, previously known as hippocampus minor, is a normal variant of the cerebral ventricular system. Gross anatomy It is a medial side indentation of the junction of the trigone and the occipital horn of the lateral ventricles by the calcarine fissure in the brain 1. Radiographic featu...
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Calcarine artery

The calcarine artery, named according to its course in the calcarine fissure, is a branch of the posterior cerebral artery, usually from the P3 segment. It may also arise from the parieto-occipital artery or posterior temporal branches. It courses deep in the fissure, giving branches both to the...
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Calcarine fissure

The calcarine fissure, or calcarine sulcus, is located on the medial surface of the occipital lobe and divides the visual cortex (a.k.a. calcarine cortex) into two.  The fissure is variable in course (figure 1), but is generally oriented horizontally, anteriorly joining the parieto-occipital fi...
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Calcification of the globe (differential)

Calcification of the globe has many causes, varying from the benign to malignant. When calcification is seen of the posterior half of the globe, it could relate to any of the layers (scleral, choroidal or retinal), as it is not possible to separate them out on CT. Retinal drusen: 1% population...
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Calcified cephalohematoma

Calcified cephalohematoma is an uncommon complication of cephalohematoma. It occurs when a cephalohematoma is not absorbed within the first weeks of its presentation and begins to ossify over the surface. The calcification may continue to enlarge. Epidemiology Calcification occurs in <5% of ce...
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Calcified cerebral embolus

Calcified cerebral embolus is an uncommon and often overlooked cause of embolic ischemic stroke.  Epidemiology Although emboli are a common cause of ischemic stroke, calcified cerebral emboli are considered rare. With only a paucity of literature regarding calcified cerebral emboli – only 48 r...
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Calcified chronic subdural hematoma

Calcified chronic subdural hematomas are rare variants of chronic subdural hematomas. Epidemiology Calcified chronic subdural hematomas are uncommon, accounting for only 0.3-2.7% of chronic subdural hematomas 1-3. They are seen more commonly in children than in adults 1-3. Clinical presentati...
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Calcified glial tumors (mnemonic)

In order of decreasing frequency, a useful mnemonic to remember glial tumors which calcify is: Old Elephants Age Gracefully Mnemonic O: oligodendroglioma E: ependymoma A: astrocytoma G: glioblastoma
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Calcifying pseudoneoplasm of the neuraxis

Calcifying pseudoneoplasms of the neuraxis (CAPNON) are very rare, non-neoplastic, calcified lesions of the central nervous system of poorly understood etiology. Epidemiology Given the rarity of these lesions, detailed epidemiological data is not available. Since their first description, less ...
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Callen MS-ADEM criteria

The Callen MS-ADEM criteria can be useful in differentiating between acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and multiple sclerosis (MS) in children, as the first attack of immune-mediated demyelination is a frequent diagnostic challenge. Given the diagnostic challenge, several diagnostic c...
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Call-Fleming syndrome

Call-Fleming syndrome, also called Call syndrome, essentially synonymous with the more current term reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS), although it is felt to be a subset of the former by some, representing the idiopathic RCVS.  Call-Flemming syndrome is therefore characterize...
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Callosal angle

The callosal angle has been proposed as a useful marker of patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH), helpful in distinguishing these patients from those with ex-vacuo ventriculomegaly (see hydrocephalus versus atrophy).  It should be noted that there is nothing magical abou...
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Callosal sulcus

The callosal sulcus is a sulcus of the brain, located on the medial side of each cerebral hemisphere, deep within the medial longitudinal fissure.  Gross anatomy The callosal sulcus runs posteriorly from the genu to the splenium of the corpus callosum. It separates the cingulate gyrus dorsally...
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Callosomarginal artery

The callosomarginal artery, also known as median artery of corpus callosum, is the largest branch of the pericallosal artery. It courses within or posterior to the cingulate sulcus, in parallel orientation to the pericallosal artery. It divides to give two or more cortical branches to supply the...
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Callososeptal interface

The callososeptal interface is located on the inferior surface of the corpus callosum, where the septum pellucidum abuts it.  It came to radiological attention when T2 hyperintense lesions affecting this region were believed to be specific for multiple sclerosis. This has, as is usually the cas...
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Calvarial doughnut lesion

Calvarial doughnut lesions are radiolucent ring-like skull defects, with surrounding sclerotic haloes, which may have central bone density, and may occur in any part of the skull. Epidemiology Most of these lesions occur in middle and old age, but also may be seen in juvenile skulls 1,2. Clin...
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Calvarial thickening

Calvarial thickening can occur from a number of causes. These include: idiopathic chronic ventricular shunting 1 antiepileptics phenytoin 3 osteopetrosis 2 fibrous dysplasia acromegaly anemias (largely associated with massive hematopoiesis) Paget disease hyperparathyroidism certain sc...
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Canadian CT head rule

The Canadian CT head rule (CCTHR) is a validated clinical decision rule to determine the need for CT head in adult emergency department patients with minor head injuries. Inclusion criteria Patient has suffered minor head trauma with resultant: loss of consciousness GCS 13-15 confusion amn...
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Canadian Neurological Scale

The Canadian Neurological Scale is a validated tool to evaluate stroke severity 1,2 designed to be performed on patients who are alert or drowsy. Patients who are stuporous or comatose are evaluated with the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) instead. Classification Section A is completed first. In the ...
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Canavan disease

Canavan disease, also known as spongiform degeneration of white matter (not to be confused with Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease) or aspartoacylase deficiency, is a leukodystrophy clinically characterized by megalencephaly, severe mental and neurological deficits, and blindness.  Epidemiology Canavan...
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Capillary hemangioma of the orbit

Capillary hemangiomas of the orbit, also known as strawberry hemangiomas, on account of its coloring, or orbital infantile hemangiomas, are the most common orbital tumors of infancy, and unlike orbital cavernous hemangiomas, they are neoplasms rather than vascular malformations. Clinical presen...
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Caput medusae sign (developmental venous anomaly)

The caput medusae sign refers to developmental venous anomalies of the brain, where a number of veins drain centrally towards a single drain vein. The appearance is reminiscent of Medusa, a gorgon of Greek mythology, who was encountered and defeated by Perseus. The sign is seen on both CT and M...
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Caput succedaneum

Caput succedaneum is a manifestation of birth trauma, and it consists of a subcutaneous serosanguineous fluid collection external to the galea aponeurosis in the newborn's scalp. The fluid collection is extra-periosteal. It may be imaged with ultrasound, CT, or MRI. Caput succedaneum results fr...
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Carbon monoxide poisoning

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning may result in an anoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, with acute as well as delayed effects. Epidemiology Carbon monoxide poisoning is mostly preventable with common causes including malfunctioning heating systems, improperly ventilated motor vehicles, and residential...
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Caroticocavernous fistula

Caroticocavernous fistulas (CCF) represent abnormal communication between the carotid circulation and the cavernous sinus. They can be classified as direct or indirect which are separate conditions with different etiologies.   Epidemiology Direct CCFs are often secondary to trauma, and as such...
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Caroticotympanic artery

The caroticotympanic branch (tympanic branch) is a small branch from the C2 segment of the internal carotid artery. It is a vestigial remnant of the hyoid artery. It passes posterolaterally into the middle ear cavity and anastomoses with the inferior tympanic artery (a branch of the ascending p...
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Carotid artery stenosis

Carotid artery stenosis, also known as extracranial carotid artery stenosis, is usually caused by an atherosclerotic process and is one of the major causes of stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA).  This article refers to stenosis involving the carotid bulb and the proximal segment of inte...
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Carotid cave

The carotid cave is a potential dural space formed by the redundant distal dural ring on the medial aspect of the clinoid segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA). It has been reported to be present in ~80% of cadaveric specimens 3. Gross anatomy The clinoid segment of the ICA is bounded b...
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Carotid near-occlusion

Carotid near-occlusion is a special form of severe carotid artery stenosis that results in a partial or complete collapse of the distal internal carotid artery lumen due to underfilling.  It should not be confused with carotid pseudo-occlusion due to terminal intracranial internal carotid arter...
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Carotid pseudo-occlusion

Carotid pseudo-occlusion refers to apparent occlusion of the cervical internal carotid artery on CT angiography or digital subtraction angiography due to a stagnant column of unopacified blood proximal to terminal T-junction occlusion by thromboembolism 1,2.  It is important not to mistake this...
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Carotid web

Carotid webs, also known as carotid intimal variant fibromuscular dysplasia, are rare vascular pathologies of the internal carotid artery that are an important cause of cryptogenic and recurrent ischemic stroke. Terminology Carotid webs have had many different names in the literature, includin...
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Cartilaginous meningioma

Cartilaginous meningiomas are extremely rare histological variants of meningiomas grouped into the subtype of metaplastic meningiomas, being WHO grade I tumors. They are characterized by the cartilaginous transformation observed within the tumor. Although reported numbers are too small to confi...
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Cases in radiology (video tutorials)

The cases featured in these video lectures are specifically selected to teach important concepts in radiology over a broad range of topics. The tutorials vary in difficulty from basic to advanced. For maximum learning, try the cases for yourself in Radiopaedia quiz mode first.  We love this ser...
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CASK related disorders

CASK related disorders are caused by mutations of the CASK gene and have a wide phenotypic spectrum, with a typically more disabling phenotype in females.  Clinical presentation In males there may be mental retardation and congenital nystagmus. In females there may be only mental retardation, ...
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Cataract

Cataracts are an opacification or thickening of the lens within the globe and are the leading cause of blindness in the world.  Clinical presentation Visual deterioration occurs with increasing degrees of severity, and left untreated may present as complete blindness. The diagnosis is made cli...
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Cauda equina

The cauda equina is the collective term given to nerve roots distal to the conus medullaris, which occupy the lumbar cistern.  Its name comes from the Latin for "horse's tail". The cauda equina is contained within the thecal sac and suspended in CSF. The lower sacral (S2-S5) and coccygeal root...
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Cauda equina syndrome

Cauda equina syndrome is considered an incomplete cord syndrome, even though it occurs below the conus. Cauda equina syndrome refers to a collection of symptoms and signs that result from severe compression of the descending lumbar and sacral nerve roots. It is most commonly caused by an acutely...
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Caudal epidural injection

Caudal epidural injections, or sacral hiatus epidural injections, are one of several possible spinal epidural injections.  Indications Typically, epidural injections are performed in patients who are currently not surgical candidates. The caudal injection can be performed when patients are on ...
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Caudal regression syndrome

Caudal regression syndrome represents a spectrum of structural defects of the caudal region. Malformations vary from isolated partial agenesis of the coccyx to lumbosacral agenesis. Epidemiology Caudal regression syndrome is rare, with an estimated incidence of 1:7500-100,000 7,10. The vast m...
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Caudate nucleus

Caudate nuclei are paired nuclei which along with the globus pallidus and putamen are referred to as the corpus striatum, and collectively make up the basal ganglia. The caudate nuclei have both motor and behavioral functions, in particular maintaining body and limb posture, as well as controlli...
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Caudothalamic groove

The caudothalamic groove is an important landmark when performing neonatal cranial ultrasound. Gross anatomy As the name suggests, it is located between the caudate nucleus and thalamus and is a shallow groove projecting from the floor of the lateral ventricle. It is approximately at the level...
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Causes of acute confusion in the elderly (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to help recall some of the causes of acute confusion in the elderly: How Come 'Dis DoDo Is Excited Mnemonic H: hypoxia C: constipation D: drug effects D: diabetes mellitus D: dehydration I: infection E: electrolyte imbalance
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Causes of dementia (mnemonic)

The causes of dementia can be remembered using the mnemonic: VANISHED Mnemonic V: vascular, vitamin deficiency: B1, B6, B12, folate A: Alzheimer disease, autoimmune: cerebral vasculitis, systemic lupus erythematosus N: normal pressure hydrocephalus, neoplasia I: infection, e.g. Creutzfeldt...
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Cavernous sinus

The cavernous sinuses are paired dural venous sinuses.  Gross anatomy The cavernous sinus is located on either side of the pituitary fossa and body of the sphenoid bone between the endosteal and meningeal layers of the dura. It spans from the apex of the orbit to the apex of the petrous tempor...
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Cavernous sinus contents (mnemonic)

The cavernous sinus contents (structures within the sinus proper and also in its lateral wall) and their relative positions can be recalled with the following mnemonic: O TOM CAT Consider a coronal view of the cavernous sinus. 'O TOM' are the first letters of components of the lateral wall of...
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Cavernous sinus gas

Cavernous sinus gas locules can be seen in several settings. iatrogenic pneumocephalus secondary to gas embolism (especially venous gas embolism) from IV access (can be a relatively common finding in the absence of direct trauma and does not require treatment). traumatic pneumocephalus: in the...
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Cavernous sinus hemangioma

Cavernous sinus hemangioma is an uncommon cause of a cavernous sinus mass. Preoperative diagnosis is important to avoid unexpected surgical blood loss.  Epidemiology Cavernous hemangiomas of the cavernous sinus account for less than 1% of all parasellar masses 1. They have a predilection for m...
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Cavernous sinus mass

A cavernous sinus mass has a wide differential including:  meningioma orbital apical inflammation with cavernous sinus involvement (Tolosa-Hunt syndrome) infection  schwannoma  any of the cranial nerves traversing the cavernous sinus: III, IV, V (V1 and V2) and VI trigeminal schwannoma is ...
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Cavernous sinus syndrome

Cavernous sinus syndromes refer to constellations of clinical signs and symptoms referable to pathology within or adjacent to the cavernous sinus. Clinical presentation Patients present with multiple unilateral cranial neuropathies involving any combination of the following: ophthalmoplegia (...
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Cavernous sinus thrombosis

Cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) is a rare condition, most commonly infectious in nature, and the diagnosis on imaging is not always straightforward. It has high mortality and morbidity rates. Epidemiology Cavernous sinus thrombosis is rare with ~4.5 cases per 1,000,000 per year 5. It is the l...
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Cavernous venous malformation

Cavernous venous malformation, also traditionally referred to as a cavernous hemangioma (despite it not being a tumor) or cavernomas, are non-neoplastic slow flow venous malformations found in many parts of the body.  Terminology Despite the ubiquity of use of the traditional terms cavernoma, ...
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Cavum septum pellucidum

Cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) is a normal variant CSF space between the leaflets of the septum pellucidum. Terminology While the term "cavum septum pellucidum" is generally accepted, it is grammatically incorrect. Since it denotes a space (cavum meaning cave) of the septum pellucidum, the seco...
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Cavum veli interpositi

A cavum veli interpositi (CVI), often incorrectly termed a cavum velum interpositum, is an anatomic variation where there is a dilatation of the normal cistern of the velum interpositum. When larger than 1 cm in axial transverse measurement, with outwardly bowed margins and positive mass effect,...
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Cavum vergae

The cavum vergae (CV), along with the cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) that lies immediately anterior to it, is a persistence of the embryological fluid-filled space between the leaflets of the septum pellucidum and is a common anatomical variant.  Terminology The cavum vergae has also been refer...
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Cavum vergae cyst

Cavum vergae cysts are rare lesions which are usually asymptomatic. It should not be confused with cavum septum pellucidum et vergae which is common. Although there is no actual pathological distinction between a run-of-the-mill cavum vergae and a cavum vergae cyst, the later is sometimes used t...
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CEC syndrome

CEC syndrome refers to the combination of celiac disease, epilepsy and bilateral occipital calcifications. This is also known as Gobbi syndrome. Patients with cerebral calcifications and celiac disease without epilepsy are considered as having an incomplete form of CEC syndrome 1. Epidemiology ...
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Cella media

The cella media is another term to denote the body of the lateral ventricle, extending from the foramen of Monro to the ventricular atrium 1. In modern practice, it is seldom if ever used and it is unlikely to be familiar to most clinicians or radiologists. 
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Cella media index

The cella media index (also known as Schiersmann's index) is one of the methods used to assess ventricle size with respect to brain tissue and cerebral atrophy. It is the ratio of biparietal diameter of skull to maximum external diameter of bodies of the lateral ventricles (cella media) 1.A norm...
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Central base of skull

The central base of skull is a region of the skull base centered on the pituitary fossa and includes surrounding structures. Despite no single universally accepted definition of this region, it is frequently used clinically and is conceptually useful particularly when considering tumors of the ...
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Central canal

The central canal is the longitudinal CSF-filled space which runs the entire length of the spinal cord and represents the most caudal portion of the ventricular system. It is lined by ependyma. Gross anatomy The central canal spans the length of the spinal cord from the caudal angle of the fou...

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