Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

2,503 results found
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Bright rim sign (DNET)

The bright rim sign, also known as the hyperintense ring sign, has been described in dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNET). It is described as a well-defined rim of high signal around the DNET on FLAIR sequences. This T2/FLAIR hyperintense ring, whether complete or incomplete, is fairl...
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Brissaud-Sicard syndrome

Brissaud-Sicard syndrome is a very rare pontine stroke syndrome that involves the anterolateral and inferior pons. Clinical presentation Classically, the syndrome presents as ipsilateral facial cramps and contralateral hemiparesis 1-3. Pathology It has been postulated that the syndrome is ca...
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Broca's area

Broca's area (Brodmann area 44) is an area of the lateral frontal lobe in the dominant hemisphere concerned with the production of speech. Gross anatomy Broca's area is located in the posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pars opercularis and pars triangularis) of the dominant hemisphere, anterior...
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Brodmann areas

Brodmann areas are a system to divide the cerebral cortex according to cytoarchitectural organization, and are, despite controversy, still very widely used as a standardized nomenclature which is superimposed on the somewhat variable gyral and sulcal anatomy.  The classification relies on the f...
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Brownell-Oppenheimer variant of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

The Brownell-Oppenheimer phenotypic variant of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a distinct clinical entity with predominant gait ataxia, linked to molecular subtype VV2 1,2. The EEG findings in patients with Oppenheimer-Brownell phenotype usually reveal the absence of periodic sharp-w...
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Brown-Séquard syndrome

Brown-Séquard syndrome, also known as hemicord syndrome, is the result of damage to, or impairment of, the left or right side of the spinal cord. It is characterized by a characteristic pattern of motor and sensory deficits that are determined by the decussation pattern of various white matter t...
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Brown syndrome (orbit)

The Brown syndrome refers to an inability of a patient to perform an upward gaze while the eye is adducted due to an abnormality of the superior oblique tendon sheath complex. History and etymology It was first described by Allan Brown in 1950 1. See also Brown-Sequard syndrome
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Brudzinski sign (meningism)

Brudzinski sign occurs in meningitis (of any etiology) or meningism where passive flexion of a patient's neck elicits reflexive bilateral knee and hip flexion; it was originally known as the "nape of the neck sign" and was one of several physical exam maneuvers concurrently described to be chara...
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Bruns syndrome

Bruns syndrome occurs in patients with an obstructing intraventricular mass.It consists of abrupt paroxysms of: severe headache vertigo vomiting The symptoms are characteristically exacerbated with sudden movements of the head. Pathology There are two main theories as to the pathogenesis o...
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Buphthalmos

Buphthalmos is a descriptive term which simply means an enlarged eyeball or ocular globe due to increased intraocular pressure (glaucoma), without deformation or and intrinsic mass lesion. Epidemiology It typically manifests in infants and young children. Pathology It usually indicates the p...
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Burnt out meningioma

A burnt-out meningioma is a term used to denote a meningioma which has become completely calcified/ossified 1. The term refers to the usually indolent behavior, as these tumors rarely seem to grow.  Most burnt out meningiomas are likely to be psammomatous meningiomas, as these are far more comm...
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Burst lobe

A burst lobe is an uncommonly used description of traumatic lobar intraparenchymal hemorrhage of the brain that ruptures into the subdural space and communicates with subdural hemorrhage 1. As traumatic hemorrhages are more common in the frontal and temporal lobes, these lobes are the most affe...
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Butterfly glioma

Butterfly gliomas are a high grade astrocytoma, usually a glioblastoma (WHO grade IV), which crosses the midline via the corpus callosum. Other white matter commissures are also occasionally involved. The term butterfly refers to the symmetric wing-like extensions across the midline.  Most freq...
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Butterfly sign (choroid plexus)

The butterfly sign refers to the normal appearance of the choroid plexuses on axial imaging of the fetal brain, commonly observed on the antenatal ultrasound. Its absence may suggest holoprosencephaly 1. In the CNS, the term should not be confused with a butterfly glioma, which is a glioblastom...
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Café au lait spots

Café au lait spots are a type of pigmented skin lesions which are classically described as being light brown in color.   Conditions associated with them include: neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) Jaffe-Campanacci syndrome McCune-Albright syndrome: typically irregular which has been likened to t...
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Calcarine artery

The calcarine artery, named according to its course in the calcarine fissure, is a branch of the posterior cerebral artery, usually from the P3 segment. It may also arise from the parieto-occipital artery or posterior temporal branches. It courses deep in the fissure, giving branches both to the...
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Calcarine fissure

The calcarine fissure, or calcarine sulcus, is located on the medial surface of the occipital lobe and divides the visual cortex (a.k.a. calcarine cortex) into two.  The fissure is variable in course (figure 1), but is generally oriented horizontally, anteriorly joining the parieto-occipital fi...
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Calcification of the globe (differential)

Calcification of the globe has many causes, varying from the benign to malignant. When calcification is seen of the posterior half of the globe, it could relate to any of the layers (scleral, choroidal or retinal), as it is not possible to separate them out on CT. Retinal drusen: 1% population...
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Calcified cephalohematoma

Calcified cephalohematoma is an uncommon complication of cephalohematoma. It occurs when a cephalohematoma is not absorbed within the first weeks of its presentation and begins to ossify over the surface. The calcification may continue to enlarge. Epidemiology Calcification occurs in <5% of ce...
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Calcified cerebral embolus

Calcified cerebral embolus is an uncommon and often overlooked cause of embolic ischemic stroke.  Epidemiology Although emboli are a common cause of ischemic stroke, calcified cerebral emboli are considered rare. With only a paucity of literature regarding calcified cerebral emboli – only 48 r...
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Calcified chronic subdural hematoma

Calcified chronic subdural hematomas are rare variants of chronic subdural hematomas. Epidemiology Calcified chronic subdural hematomas are uncommon, accounting for only 0.3-2.7% of chronic subdural hematomas 1-3. They are seen more commonly in children than in adults 1-3. Clinical presentati...
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Calcified glial tumors (mnemonic)

In order of decreasing frequency, a useful mnemonic to remember glial tumors which calcify is: Old Elephants Age Gracefully Mnemonic O: oligodendroglioma E: ependymoma A: astrocytoma G: glioblastoma
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Calcifying pseudoneoplasm of the neuraxis

Calcifying pseudoneoplasms of the neuraxis (CAPNON) are very rare, non-neoplastic, calcified lesions of the central nervous system of poorly understood etiology. Epidemiology Given the rarity of these lesions, detailed epidemiological data is not available. Since their first description, less ...
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Callen MS-ADEM criteria

The Callen MS-ADEM criteria can be useful in differentiating between acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and multiple sclerosis (MS) in children, as the first attack of immune-mediated demyelination is a frequent diagnostic challenge. Given the diagnostic challenge, several diagnostic c...
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Call-Fleming syndrome

Call-Fleming syndrome, also called Call syndrome, essentially synonymous with the more current term reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS), although it is felt to be a subset of the former by some, representing the idiopathic RCVS.  Call-Flemming syndrome is therefore characterize...
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Callosal angle

The callosal angle has been proposed as a useful marker of patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH), helpful in distinguishing these patients from those with ex-vacuo ventriculomegaly (see hydrocephalus versus atrophy).  It should be noted that there is nothing magical abou...
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Callosal sulcus

The callosal sulcus is a sulcus of the brain, located on the medial side of each cerebral hemisphere, deep within the medial longitudinal fissure.  Gross anatomy The callosal sulcus runs posteriorly from the genu to the splenium of the corpus callosum. It separates the cingulate gyrus dorsally...
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Callosomarginal artery

The callosomarginal artery, also known as median artery of corpus callosum, is the largest branch of the pericallosal artery. It courses within or posterior to the cingulate sulcus, in parallel orientation to the pericallosal artery. It divides to give two or more cortical branches to supply the...
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Callososeptal interface

The callososeptal interface is located on the inferior surface of the corpus callosum, where the septum pellucidum abuts it.  It came to radiological attention when T2 hyperintense lesions affecting this region were believed to be specific for multiple sclerosis. This has, as is usually the cas...
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Calvarial doughnut lesion

Calvarial doughnut lesions are radiolucent ring-like skull defects, with surrounding sclerotic halo, which may have central bone density, and may occur in any part of the skull. Epidemiology Most of these lesions occur in middle life and old age, but it also may happen in juvenile skulls 1,2. ...
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Calvarial thickening

Calvarial thickening can occur from a number of causes. These include: idiopathic chronic ventricular shunting 1 antiepileptics phenytoin 3 osteopetrosis 2 fibrous dysplasia acromegaly anemias (largely associated with massive hematopoiesis) Paget disease hyperparathyroidism certain sc...
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Canadian CT head rule

The Canadian CT head rule (CCTHR) is a validated clinical decision rule to determine the need for CT head in adult emergency department patients with minor head injuries. Inclusion criteria Patient has suffered minor head trauma with resultant: loss of consciousness GCS 13-15 confusion amn...
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Canavan disease

Canavan disease, also known as spongiform degeneration of white matter (not to be confused with Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease) or aspartoacylase deficiency, is a leukodystrophy clinically characterized by megalencephaly, severe mental and neurological deficits, and blindness.  Epidemiology Canavan...
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Capillary hemangioma of the orbit

Capillary hemangiomas of the orbit, also known as strawberry hemangiomas, on account of its coloring, or orbital infantile hemangiomas, are the most common orbital tumors of infancy, and unlike orbital cavernous hemangiomas, they are neoplasms rather than vascular malformations. Clinical presen...
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Caput medusae sign (developmental venous anomaly)

The caput medusae sign refers to developmental venous anomalies of the brain, where a number of veins drain centrally towards a single drain vein. The appearance is reminiscent of Medusa, a gorgon of Greek mythology, who was encountered and defeated by Perseus. The sign is seen on both CT and M...
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Caput succedaneum

Caput succedaneum is a manifestation of birth trauma, and it consists of a subcutaneous serosanguineous fluid collection external to the galea aponeurosis in the newborn's scalp. The fluid collection is extra-periosteal. It may be imaged with ultrasound, CT, or MRI. Caput succedaneum results fr...
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Carbon monoxide poisoning

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning may result in an anoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, with acute as well as delayed effects. Epidemiology Carbon monoxide poisoning is mostly preventable with common causes including malfunctioning heating systems, improperly ventilated motor vehicles, and residential...
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Caroticocavernous fistula

Caroticocavernous fistulas (CCF) represent abnormal communication between the carotid circulation and the cavernous sinus. They can be classified as direct or indirect which are separate conditions with different etiologies.   Epidemiology Direct CCFs are often secondary to trauma, and as such...
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Caroticotympanic artery

The caroticotympanic branch (tympanic branch) is a small branch from the C2 segment of the internal carotid artery. It is a vestigial remnant of the hyoid artery. It passes posterolaterally into the middle ear cavity and anastomoses with the inferior tympanic artery (a branch of the external ca...
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Carotid artery stenosis

Carotid artery stenosis also known as extracranial carotid artery stenosis, is usually caused by an atherosclerotic process and is one of the major causes of stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) 1.  This article refers to stenosis involving carotid bulb and the proximal segment of interna...
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Carotid cave

The carotid cave is a potential dural space formed by the redundant distal dural ring on the medial aspect of the clinoid segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA). It has been reported to be present in ~80% of cadaveric specimens 3. Gross anatomy The clinoid segment of the ICA is bounded b...
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Carotid web

Carotid webs, also known as carotid intimal variant fibromuscular dysplasia, are rare vascular pathologies of the internal carotid artery that are an important cause of cryptogenic and recurrent ischemic stroke. Terminology Carotid webs have had many different names in the literature, includin...
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Cartilaginous meningioma

Cartilaginous meningiomas are extremely rare histological variants of meningiomas grouped into the subtype of metaplastic meningiomas, being WHO grade I tumors. They are characterized by the cartilaginous transformation observed within the tumor. Although reported numbers are too small to confi...
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Cases in radiology (video tutorials)

The cases featured in these video lectures are specifically selected to teach important concepts in radiology over a broad range of topics. The tutorials vary in difficulty from basic to advanced. For maximum learning, try the cases for yourself in Radiopaedia quiz mode first.  We love this ser...
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Cataract

Cataracts are an opacification or thickening of the lens within the globe and are the leading cause of blindness in the world.  Clinical presentation Visual deterioration occurs with increasing degrees of severity, and left untreated may present as complete blindness. The diagnosis is made cli...
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Cauda equina

The cauda equina is the collective term given to nerve roots distal to the conus medullaris, which occupy the lumbar cistern.  Its name comes from the Latin for "horse's tail".
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Cauda equina syndrome

Cauda equina syndrome is considered an incomplete cord syndrome, even though it occurs below the conus, and refers to a collection of symptoms and signs that result from severe compression of the descending lumbar and sacral nerve roots. It is most commonly caused by an acutely extruded lumbar d...
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Caudal epidural injection

Caudal epidural injections, or sacral hiatus epidural injections, are one of several possible spinal epidural injections.  Indications Typically, epidural injections are performed in patients who are currently not surgical candidates. The caudal injection can be performed when patients are on ...
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Caudal regression syndrome

Caudal regression syndrome represents a spectrum of structural defects of the caudal region. Malformations vary from isolated partial agenesis of the coccyx to lumbosacral agenesis. Epidemiology Caudal regression syndrome is rare, with an estimated incidence of 1:7500-100,000 7,10. The vast m...
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Caudate nucleus

Caudate nuclei are paired nuclei which along with the globus pallidus and putamen are referred to as the corpus striatum, and collectively make up the basal ganglia. The caudate nuclei have both motor and behavioral functions, in particular maintaining body and limb posture, as well as controlli...
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Caudothalamic groove

The caudothalamic groove is an important landmark when performing neonatal cranial ultrasound. Gross anatomy As the name suggests, it is located between the caudate nucleus and thalamus, and is a shallow groove projecting from the floor of the lateral ventricle. It is approximately at the leve...
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Causes of acute confusion in the elderly (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to help recall some of the causes of acute confusion in the elderly: How Come 'Dis DoDo Is Excited Mnemonic H: hypoxia C: constipation D: drug effects D: diabetes mellitus D: dehydration I: infection E: electrolyte imbalance
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Causes of dementia (mnemonic)

The causes of dementia can be remembered using the mnemonic: VANISHED Mnemonic V: vascular, vitamin deficiency: B1, B6, B12, folate A: Alzheimer disease, autoimmune: cerebral vasculitis, systemic lupus erythematosus N: normal pressure hydrocephalus, neoplasia I: infection, e.g. Creutzfeldt...
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Cavernous sinus

The cavernous sinuses are paired dural venous sinuses.  Gross anatomy The cavernous sinus is located on either side of the pituitary fossa and body of the sphenoid bone between the endosteal and meningeal layers of the dura. It spans from the apex of the orbit to the apex of the petrous tempor...
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Cavernous sinus contents (mnemonic)

The cavernous sinus contents (structures within the sinus proper and also in its lateral wall) and their relative positions can be recalled with the following mnemonic: O TOM CAT Consider a coronal view of the cavernous sinus. 'O TOM' are the first letters of components of the lateral wall of...
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Cavernous sinus hemangioma

Cavernous sinus hemangioma is an uncommon cause of a cavernous sinus mass. Preoperative diagnosis is important to avoid unexpected surgical blood loss.  Epidemiology Cavernous hemangiomas of the cavernous sinus account for less than 1% of all parasellar masses 1. They have a predilection for m...
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Cavernous sinus mass

A cavernous sinus mass has a wide differential including:  meningioma orbital apical inflammation with cavernous sinus involvement (Tolosa-Hunt syndrome) infection  schwannoma  any of the cranial nerves traversing the cavernous sinus: III, IV, V (V1 and V2) and VI trigeminal schwannoma is ...
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Cavernous sinus syndrome

Cavernous sinus syndromes refer to constellations of clinical signs and symptoms referable to pathology within or adjacent to the cavernous sinus. Clinical presentation Patients present with multiple unilateral cranial neuropathies involving any combination of the following: ophthalmoplegia (...
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Cavernous sinus thrombosis

Cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) is a rare condition, most commonly infectious in nature, and the diagnosis on imaging is not always straightforward. It has high mortality and morbidity rates. Epidemiology CST is rare with ~4.5 cases per 1,000,000 per year 5. It is the least common dural venou...
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Cavernous venous malformation

Cavernous venous malformation, also traditionally referred to as a cavernous hemangioma (despite it not being a tumor) or cavernomas, are non-neoplastic slow flow venous malformations found in many parts of the body.  Terminology Despite the ubiquity of use of the traditional terms cavernoma, ...
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Cavum septum pellucidum

Cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) is a normal variant CSF space between the leaflets of the septum pellucidum. Terminology While the term "cavum septum pellucidum" is generally accepted, it is grammatically incorrect. Since it denotes a space (cavum meaning cave) of the septum pellucidum, the seco...
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Cavum veli interpositi

A cavum veli interpositi (CVI), often incorrectly termed a cavum velum interpositum, is an anatomic variation where there is a dilatation of the normal cistern of the velum interpositum. When larger than 1 cm in axial transverse measurement, with outwardly bowed margins and positive mass effect,...
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Cavum vergae

The cavum vergae (CV), along with the cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) that lies immediately anterior to it, is a persistence of the embryological fluid-filled space between the leaflets of the septum pellucidum and is a common anatomical variant.  Terminology The cavum vergae has also been refer...
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Cavum vergae cyst

Cavum vergae cysts are rare lesions which are usually asymptomatic. It should not be confused with cavum septum pellucidum et vergae which is common. Although there is no actual pathological distinction between a run-of-the-mill cavum vergae and a cavum vergae cyst, the later is sometimes used t...
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CEC syndrome

CEC syndrome refers to the combination of celiac disease, epilepsy and bilateral occipital calcifications. This is also known as Gobbi syndrome. Patients with cerebral calcifications and celiac disease without epilepsy are considered as having an incomplete form of CEC syndrome 1. Epidemiology ...
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Cella media index

The cella media index is one of the methods used to assess ventricle size with respect to brain tissue and cerebral atrophy. It is the ratio of biparietal diameter of skull to maximum external diameter of lateral ventricles at cella media (i.e central part of lateral ventricles).A normally cella...
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Central base of skull

The central base of skull is a region of the skull base centered on the pituitary fossa and includes surrounding structures. Despite no single universally accepted definition of this region, it is frequently used clinically and is conceptually useful particularly when considering tumors of the ...
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Central canal

The central canal is the longitudinal CSF-filled space which runs the entire length of the spinal cord and represents the most caudal portion of the ventricular system. It is lined by ependyma. Gross anatomy The central canal spans the length of the spinal cord from the caudal angle of the fou...
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Central control of respiration

A number of cell groups in the reticular formation of the pons and medulla are responsible for the central control of the respiratory cycle: inspiratory center (a.k.a. dorsal respiratory group) - bilateral groups of cells in the region of the nucleus of the tractus solitarius in the dorsum of t...
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Central cord syndrome

Central cord syndrome is the most common type of incomplete spinal cord syndrome, usually the result of trauma, accounting for ~10% of all spinal cord injuries. As the name implies, this syndrome is the result of a damage to the central portion spinal cord and in the setting of trauma most commo...
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Central giant cell lesions (granuloma)

Central giant cell lesions (granulomas), also known as giant cell reparative cysts/granulomas, occurs almost exclusively in the mandible, although cases in the skull and maxilla have been reported. Epidemiology It is most frequently seen in young women (F:M 2:1) 5 and typically presents in the...
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Central nervous system curriculum

The central nervous system curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core central nervous system knowledge. Definition  Topics pertaining to the intracranial content (brain, pituitary, dura, intracranial vasculatures). There will be...
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Central nervous system embryology

Central nervous system (CNS) embryology is complex, and below is a brief summary of its development.  The early CNS begins as a simple neural plate that folds to form a groove then tube, open initially at each end. Within the neural tube stem cells generate the two major classes of cells that m...
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Central nervous system germinoma

Intracranial germinomas, also known as dysgerminomas or extra-gonadal seminomas, are a type of germ cell tumor and are predominantly seen in pediatric populations. They tend to occur in the midline, either at the pineal region (majority) or along the floor of the third ventricle/suprasellar regi...
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Central nervous system vasculitides

Central nervous system (CNS) vasculitides represent a heterogeneous group of inflammatory diseases affecting the walls of blood vessels in the brain, spinal cord, and the meninges. Please refer to the article on vasculitis for a general discussion of that entity.  The aim of this article will ...
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Central neurocytoma

Central neurocytomas are WHO grade II neuroepithelial intraventricular tumors with fairly characteristic imaging features, appearing as heterogeneous masses of variable size and enhancement within the lateral ventricle, typically attached to the septum pellucidum. They are typically seen in youn...
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Central pontine myelinolysis

Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) is now more commonly referred to as osmotic demyelination syndrome, which recognizes that the same phenomenon is also seen in other areas of the brain (previously known as extrapontine myelinolysis).  As such the condition is described in the osmotic demyelina...
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Central sulcus

The central sulcus (of Rolando) is a very important landmark in both anatomical and functional neuroanatomy. Gross anatomy The central sulcus separates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe, and more specifically separates the primary motor cortex anteriorly from the primary somatosensory co...
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Central tegmental tract high T2 signal

High T2 signal of the central tegmental tract, which connects the red nucleus and inferior olivary nucleus, is an uncommon finding typically encountered in early childhood.  The central tegmental tract refers mainly to the extrapyramidal tracts connecting between the red nucleus and the inferio...
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Central vein sign

The central vein sign is a marker for multiple sclerosis (MS) and is the imaging manifestation of the perivenular nature of demyelinating plaques. It is not pathognomonic but can be useful in helping differentiate multiple sclerosis from mimics, such as cerebral small vessel disease, neuromyelit...
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Centrum semiovale

The centrum semiovale is a mass of white matter superior to the lateral ventricles and corpus callosum, present in each of the cerebral hemispheres, subjacent to the cerebral cortex. It has a semi-oval shape and contains projection, commissural, and association fibers. Inferolaterally these fib...
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Cephalocele

Cephalocele refers to the outward herniation of CNS contents through a defect in the cranium. The vast majority are midline. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is 0.8-4:10,000 live births 13 with a well recognized geographical variation between types; however, this has been speculated to be ...
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Cephalohematoma

Cephalohematomas are traumatic subperiosteal hematomas of the skull that are usually caused by birth injury. They are bound between the periosteum and cranium, and therefore cannot cross sutures. Being bound by a suture line distinguishes them from subgaleal hematoma, which can cross sutures. E...
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Cerebellar agenesis

Cerebellar agenesis is a rare congenital abnormality which can result from failure to develop normal cerebellar tissue or destruction of normally developed tissue. For a more general overview of cerebellar malformations, please refer to the article on classification systems for malformations of...
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Cerebellar ataxia with neuropathy and vestibular areflexia syndrome (CANVAS)

Cerebellar ataxia with neuropathy and vestibular areflexia syndrome (CANVAS) is a rare neurodegenerative balance disorder characterized by cerebellar ataxia, sensory neuronopathy (ganglionopathy), and bilateral vestibular hypofunction. Epidemiology The epidemiology is yet to be defined, but CA...
Article

Cerebellar hemorrhage

Cerebellar hemorrhage is a form of intracranial hemorrhage and is most frequently seen in the setting of poorly controlled hypertension, although this can of course also be secondary to an underlying lesion (e.g. tumor or vascular malformation) or due to supratentorial surgery (see remote cerebe...
Article

Cerebellar hypoplasia

Cerebellar hypoplasia is a type of congenital morphological cerebellar abnormality in which the cerebellum has reduced volume, but a normal shape, and is stable over time 1,4. The pattern of volume loss maybe regional (affecting only part of the cerebellum) or global.  Terminology Global cereb...
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Cerebellar infarction

Cerebellar infarction is a relatively uncommon subtype of ischemic stroke. It may involve any of the three arteries supplying the cerebellum: superior cerebellar artery (SCA): superior cerebellar arterial infarct anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA): anterior inferior cerebellar arterial...
Article

Cerebellar liponeurocytoma

Cerebellar liponeurocytomas, also known as neurolipocytomas, are rare tumors of the cerebellum with neurocytic differentiation and abundant accumulation of intracellular lipid. They are considered WHO grade II tumors 1.  Epidemiology As only a small number of cases have been reported, detailed...
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Cerebellar mutism syndrome

Cerebellar mutism syndrome usually develops after resection of midline cerebellar or intraventricular tumors in the posterior fossa. Typical features of this condition are transient mutism, ataxia, hypotonia and irritability. Terminology The nomenclature of this syndrome has considerable confu...
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Cerebellar nuclei

The cerebellar nuclei comprise 4 paired deep grey matter nuclei deep within the cerebellum near the fourth ventricle. They are arranged in the following order, from lateral to medial: dentate nuclei (the largest and most lateral)  emboliform nuclei  globose nuclei fastigial nuclei (most medi...
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Cerebellar tonsillar ectopia

Cerebellar tonsillar ectopia denotes an inferior location of the cerebellar tonsils below the margins of the foramen magnum. It, therefore, encompasses both minor asymptomatic tonsilar ectopia and Chiari I malformations.  Terminology Use of the term cerebellar tonsillar ectopia is not uniform....
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Cerebellar tonsils

Gross Anatomy The cerebellar tonsils are ovoid structures on the inferiormedial surface of each cerebellar hemisphere. They are attached to the underlying cerebellum by the tonsillar peduncle 1-4. Relations medial: uvula of the vermis superior: flocculonodular lobe anterior: posterior surfa...

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