Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

2,648 results found
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Central control of respiration

A number of cell groups in the reticular formation of the pons and medulla are responsible for the central control of the respiratory cycle: inspiratory center (a.k.a. dorsal respiratory group) - bilateral groups of cells in the region of the nucleus of the tractus solitarius in the dorsum of t...
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Central cord syndrome

Central cord syndrome is the most common type of incomplete spinal cord syndrome, usually, the result of trauma, accounting for ~10% of all spinal cord injuries. As the name implies, this syndrome is the result of damage to the central portion spinal cord and in the setting of trauma most common...
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Central giant cell lesions (granuloma)

Central giant cell lesions (granulomas), also known as giant cell reparative cysts/granulomas, occurs almost exclusively in the mandible, although cases in the skull and maxilla have been reported. Epidemiology It is most frequently seen in young women (F:M 2:1) 5 and typically presents in the...
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Central herniation

Central herniation is the subtype of downward transtentorial herniation of the brain that involves descent of the diencephalon and midbrain. It usually occurs with other types of downward herniation such as uncal herniation. Clinical manifestations The clinical syndrome of central herniation c...
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Central nervous system curriculum

The central nervous system curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core central nervous system knowledge. Definition  Topics pertaining to the intracranial content (brain, pituitary, dura, intracranial vasculatures). There will be...
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Central nervous system embryology

Central nervous system (CNS) embryology is complex, and below is a brief summary of its development.  The early CNS begins as a simple neural plate that folds to form a groove then tube, open initially at each end. Within the neural tube stem cells generate the two major classes of cells that m...
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Central nervous system germinoma

Intracranial germinomas, also known as dysgerminomas or extra-gonadal seminomas, are a type of germ cell tumor and are predominantly seen in pediatric populations. They tend to occur in the midline, either at the pineal region (majority) or along the floor of the third ventricle/suprasellar regi...
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Central nervous system vasculitis

Central nervous system (CNS) vasculitides represent a heterogeneous group of inflammatory diseases affecting the walls of blood vessels in the brain, spinal cord, and the meninges. Please refer to the article on vasculitis for a general discussion of that entity.  The aim of this article will ...
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Central neurocytoma

Central neurocytomas are WHO grade II neuroepithelial intraventricular tumors with fairly characteristic imaging features, appearing as heterogeneous masses of variable size and enhancement within the lateral ventricle, typically attached to the septum pellucidum. They are typically seen in youn...
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Central pontine myelinolysis

Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) is now more commonly referred to as osmotic demyelination syndrome, which recognizes that the same phenomenon is also seen in other areas of the brain (previously known as extrapontine myelinolysis).  As such the condition is described in the osmotic demyelina...
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Central sulcus

The central sulcus (of Rolando) is a very important landmark in both anatomical and functional neuroanatomy. Gross anatomy The central sulcus separates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe, and more specifically separates the primary motor cortex anteriorly from the primary somatosensory co...
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Central tegmental tract high T2 signal

High T2 signal of the central tegmental tract, which connects the red nucleus and inferior olivary nucleus, is an uncommon finding typically encountered in early childhood.  The central tegmental tract refers mainly to the extrapyramidal tracts connecting between the red nucleus and the inferio...
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Central vein sign

The central vein sign is a marker for multiple sclerosis (MS) and is the imaging manifestation of the perivenular nature of demyelinating plaques. It is not pathognomonic but can be useful in helping differentiate multiple sclerosis from mimics, such as cerebral small vessel disease, neuromyelit...
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Centrum semiovale

The centrum semiovale is a mass of white matter superior to the lateral ventricles and corpus callosum, present in each of the cerebral hemispheres, subjacent to the cerebral cortex. It has a semi-oval shape and contains projection, commissural, and association fibers. Inferolaterally these fib...
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Cephalocele

Cephalocele refers to the outward herniation of CNS contents through a defect in the cranium. The vast majority are midline. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is 0.8-4:10,000 live births 13 with a well recognized geographical variation between types; however, this has been speculated to be ...
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Cephalohematoma

Cephalohematomas are traumatic subperiosteal hematomas of the skull that are usually caused by birth injury. They are bound between the periosteum and cranium, and therefore cannot cross sutures. Being bound by a suture line distinguishes them from subgaleal hematoma, which can cross sutures. E...
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Cerebellar agenesis

Cerebellar agenesis is a rare congenital abnormality which can result from failure to develop normal cerebellar tissue or destruction of normally developed tissue. For a more general overview of cerebellar malformations, please refer to the article on classification systems for malformations of...
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Cerebellar ataxia with neuropathy and vestibular areflexia syndrome (CANVAS)

Cerebellar ataxia with neuropathy and vestibular areflexia syndrome (CANVAS) is a rare neurodegenerative balance disorder characterized by cerebellar ataxia, sensory neuronopathy (ganglionopathy), and bilateral vestibular hypofunction. Epidemiology The epidemiology is yet to be defined, but CA...
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Cerebellar cleft

Cerebellar clefts are rare congenital abnormalities of the posterior fossa, where cerebellar grey matter extends from the surface into the parenchyma, in some cases even reaching the fourth ventricle.  Clinical presentation Language and speech disorders, cognitive impairment, truncal ataxia, o...
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Cerebellar hemorrhage

Cerebellar hemorrhage is a form of intracranial hemorrhage and is most frequently seen in the setting of poorly controlled hypertension, although this can of course also be secondary to an underlying lesion (e.g. tumor or vascular malformation) or due to supratentorial surgery (see remote cerebe...
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Cerebellar, hippocampal, and basal nuclei transient edema with restricted diffusion (CHANTER) syndrome

Cerebellar, hippocampal, and basal nuclei transient edema with restricted diffusion (CHANTER) syndrome is a recently described constellation of imaging findings in adults with opioid neurotoxicity. It is characterized by cytotoxic edema in the bilateral hippocampi and cerebellar cortices, and va...
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Cerebellar hypoplasia

Cerebellar hypoplasia is a type of congenital morphological cerebellar abnormality in which the cerebellum has reduced volume, but a normal shape, and is stable over time 1,4. The pattern of volume loss may be regional (affecting only part of the cerebellum) or global.  Terminology Global cere...
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Cerebellar infarction

Cerebellar infarction is a relatively uncommon subtype of ischemic stroke. It may involve any of the three arteries supplying the cerebellum: superior cerebellar artery (SCA): superior cerebellar arterial infarct anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA): anterior inferior cerebellar arterial...
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Cerebellar liponeurocytoma

Cerebellar liponeurocytomas, also known as neurolipocytomas, are rare tumors of the cerebellum with neurocytic differentiation and abundant intracellular lipid. They are considered WHO grade II tumors 1.  Epidemiology These tumors have been reported at a wide range of ages (4-77 years) but see...
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Cerebellar mutism syndrome

Cerebellar mutism syndrome, also known as post-operative pediatric cerebellar mutism syndrome (pCMS), usually develops after resection of midline cerebellar or intraventricular tumors in the posterior cranial fossa. Typical features of this condition are transient mutism, ataxia, hypotonia and i...
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Cerebellar nuclei

The cerebellar nuclei comprise 4 paired deep grey matter nuclei deep within the cerebellum near the fourth ventricle. They are arranged in the following order, from lateral to medial: dentate nuclei (the largest and most lateral)  emboliform nuclei  globose nuclei fastigial nuclei (most medi...
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Cerebellar tonsillar ectopia

Cerebellar tonsillar ectopia denotes an inferior location of the cerebellar tonsils below the margins of the foramen magnum. It, therefore, encompasses both minor asymptomatic tonsilar ectopia and Chiari I malformations.  Terminology Use of the term cerebellar tonsillar ectopia is not uniform....
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Cerebellar tonsils

The cerebellar tonsils are ovoid structures on the inferomedial surface of each cerebellar hemisphere. They are attached to the underlying cerebellum by the tonsillar peduncle 1-4. Gross Anatomy Relations medial: uvula of the vermis superior: flocculonodular lobe anterior: posterior surface...
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Cerebellopontine angle cistern

The cerebellopontine angle cistern, also known as the pontocerebellar cistern, is a triangular CSF-filled subarachnoid cistern that lies between the anterior surface of the cerebellum and the lateral surface of the pons. Gross anatomy Boundaries superior: tentorium cerebelli posterior: anter...
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Cerebellopontine angle lipoma

Cerebellopontine angle (CPA) lipomas account for ~10% of all intracranial lipomas. Characteristically lipomas of the CPA have the facial nerve and vestibulocochlear nerve coursing through it on their way to the internal auditory canal. They are associated with intravestibular lipomas and sensor...
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Cerebellopontine angle mass

Cerebellopontine angle (CPA) masses are relatively common. Although a diverse range of pathologies may be seen in this region, the most common by far is a vestibular schwannoma. Pathology Cerebellopontine angle masses can be divided into four groups, based on imaging characteristics:  enhanci...
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Cerebellopontine angle mass (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for the common cerebellopontine angle masses include: AMEN or MEAN SAME ANGLES Mnemonics AMEN/MEAN A: acoustic neuroma (a.k.a. vestibular schwannoma) (~80%) M: meningioma (~10%) E: ependymoma (~5%) N: neuroepithelial cyst (arachnoid/epidermoid) (~5%) SAME S: schwannoma  ves...
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Cerebellum

The cerebellum, meaning "the little brain", sits at the base of the brain in the posterior cranial fossa below the tentorium and behind the brainstem.  Gross anatomy The cerebellum has the following features: three surfaces: anterior (petrosal), superior (tentorial), inferior (suboccipital) ...
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Cerebral abscess (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Cerebral abscesses represent focal areas of infection within brain parenchyma, usually containing pus and having a thick capsule. They typically have enhancing walls and can mimic a number of other significant pathologies. ...
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Cerebral air embolism

Cerebral air embolism is rare but can be fatal. They may be venous or arterial and are often iatrogenic in cause.  Clinical presentation Presentation is often varied and non-specific but include confusion, motor weakness, decreased consciousness, seizure and vision loss.  Pathology Cerebral ...
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Cerebral amyloid angiopathy

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a cerebrovascular disorder caused by the accumulation of cerebral amyloid-β (Aβ) in the tunica media and adventitia of leptomeningeal and cortical vessels of the brain. The resultant vascular fragility tends to manifest in normotensive elderly patients as lob...
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Cerebral amyloid deposition diseases

Cerebral amyloid deposition diseases are a group of related conditions characterized by the accumulation of cerebral amyloid-β (Aβ) in various parts of the central nervous system. They lead to inflammation, neurotoxicity, and vascular friability, and are typically encountered in the elderly.  F...
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Cerebral amyloidoma

Cerebral amyloidomas are the rarest manifestation of cerebral amyloid deposition, typically appearing as solidly enhancing masses.  Epidemiology Reported numbers are low due to the rarity of this condition, making generalizations about epidemiological features difficult. Generally, cases have ...
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Cerebral angiography

Cerebral angiography is an interventional procedure for the diagnosis and/or treatment of intracranial pathology. Indications Cerebral digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is indicated in a variety of settings including: diagnosis and treatment of: aneurysms acute ischemic stroke vascular...
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Cerebral aqueduct (of Sylvius)

The cerebral aqueduct (of Sylvius) is the structure within the brainstem that connects the third ventricle to the fourth. It is located within the midbrain, surrounded by periaqueductal grey matter (PAG) with the tectum of midbrain located posteriorly and the tegmentum anteriorly. It is filled ...
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Cerebral arteriovenous fistula

Cerebral arteriovenous fistulae (CAVF) are cerebral vascular malformations or acquired conditions in which there is an abnormal direct communication between a venous and an arterial channel without the presence of a true nidus.  dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) caroticocavernous fistula (CCF...
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Cerebral atrophy

Cerebral atrophy is the morphological presentation of brain parenchymal volume loss that is frequently seen on cross-sectional imaging. Rather than being a primary diagnosis, it is the common endpoint for a range of disease processes that affect the central nervous system. Though often no identi...
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Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL)

Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is an autosomal dominant microvasculopathy characterized by recurrent lacunar and subcortical white matter ischemic strokes and vascular dementia in young and middle age patients without known va...
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Cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CARASIL)

Cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CARASIL) is a systemic genetic disorder affecting the cerebral small vessels, spine and hair follicles.  It should not be confused with its autosomal dominant counterpart, CADASIL. Autosomal recessive i...
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Cerebral blood flow (CBF)

Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is one of the parameters generated by perfusion techniques (CT perfusion and MR perfusion). CBF is defined as the volume of blood passing through a given amount of brain tissue per unit of time, most commonly milliliters of blood per minute per 100 g of brain tissue 1. ...
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Cerebral blood volume (CBV)

Cerebral blood volume (CBV) (often relative CBV: see below) is one of the parameters generated by perfusion techniques (CT perfusion and MR perfusion). CBV is defined as the volume of blood in a given amount of brain tissue, most commonly milliliters of blood per 100 g of brain tissue 1. CBV ca...
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Cerebral cavernous venous malformation

Cerebral cavernous venous malformations, also commonly known as cavernous hemangiomas or cavernomas, are common cerebral vascular malformations, usually with characteristic appearances on MRI. It is the third most common cerebral vascular malformation after developmental venous anomaly and capil...
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Cerebral cortex

The cerebral cortex and underlying connecting white matter accounts for the largest part of the human brain. It is composed of five different types of neurons arranged into distinct layers (in most places 6 layers) admixed with supporting glial cells (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia) ...
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Cerebral cortical calcification

Cerebral cortical calcification or gyral calcification refers to curvilinear calcifications involving the cerebral cortex. Causes include: vascular ischemic stroke sequelae arteriovenous malformation TORCH infection congenital cerebral toxoplasmosis congenital cytomegalovirus infection p...
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Cerebral cortical restricted diffusion

Cerebral cortical restricted diffusion or gyriform restricted diffusion refers to curvilinear hyperintense signal involving the cerebral cortex on DWI images with a corresponding low signal on ADC images. Causes include: vascular thrombo-occlusive disease (most common) 1 cerebral venous throm...
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Cerebral cortical T1 hyperintensity

Cerebral cortical T1 hyperintensity or gyriform T1 hyperintensity refers to curvilinear hyperintense signal involving the cerebral cortex on T1-weighted images on brain MRI. Causes include : accumulation of denatured proteins and/or lipid-laden macrophages cortical laminar necrosis 2 accumul...
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Cerebral cortical T2 hyperintensity

Cerebral cortical T2 hyperintensity or gyriform T2 hyperintensity refers to curvilinear hyperintense signal involving the cerebral cortex on T2 weighted and FLAIR imaging. The causes include: developmental anomalies focal cortical dysplasia neoplastic glioblastoma1 vascular thrombo-occlusi...
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Cerebral fat embolism

Cerebral fat embolism is one manifestation of fat embolism syndrome. Epidemiology Cerebral fat embolism typically occurs in patients with bony fractures (usually long bones of the lower limb). Rarely it has been described as part of a sickle cell crisis with bone marrow fat necrosis and subseq...
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Cerebral hemiatrophy

Cerebral hemiatrophy has a variety of causes, and is generally associated with seizures and hemiplegia. Causes include: congenital idiopathic (primary) intrauterine vascular injury acquired perinatal intracranial hemorrhage Rasmussen encephalitis postictal cerebral hemiatrophy basal gang...
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Cerebral hemisphere

The two cerebral hemispheres are divided in the midsagittal plane by the interhemispheric fissure. Together they fill most of the intra-cranial cavity. Gross anatomy The medial surface of each cerebral hemisphere is flat, the inferior surface is irregular and even slightly concave anteriorly, ...
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Cerebral hydatid disease

Cerebral hydatid disease (neurohydatidosis) is caused by Echinococcus granulosus or less commonly E. alveolaris or E. multilocularis. The larval stage is the cause of hydatid disease in humans 1. For a general discussion, and for links to other system specific manifestations, please refer to th...
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Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome

Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome is a rare complication seen after treatment of long-standing severe carotid stenosis by carotid endarterectomy or carotid artery stenting. It is believed to be the result of failure of normal cerebral blood flow autoregulation.  Epidemiology Hyperperfusion occu...
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Cerebral intraparenchymal hyperattenuation post thrombectomy

Cerebral intraparenchymal hyperattenuations have been increasingly recognized on CT scans following mechanical thrombectomy for treatment of thromboembolic ischemic stroke. It is a term that encompasses both contrast staining and petechial hemorrhagic change, and is used as distinguishing betwee...
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Cerebral malaria

Cerebral malaria is a rare intracranial complication of a malarial infection. Epidemiology Cerebral malaria is mainly encountered in young children and adults living or traveling in malaria-endemic areas. It is estimated to occur in ~2% of patients with acute Plasmodium falciparum infection, t...
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Cerebral manifestations of mucopolysaccharidoses

The mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs), which constitute a hereditary subgroup of the lysosomal storage disorders, have distinctive cerebral manifestations. The MPSs are characterized by excessive accumulation of mucopolysaccharides secondary to deficiencies in specific enzymes (lysosomal hydrolases)...
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Cerebral microhemorrhage

Cerebral microhemorrhages, or cerebral microbleeds, are small focal intracerebral hemorrhages, often only visible on susceptibility-sensitive MRI sequences. Pathology Common etiologies cavernous malformations 1,8 especially Zabramski classification type IV malformations causes include multi...
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Cerebral edema

Cerebral edema refers to a number of interconnected processes which result in abnormal shifts of water in various compartments of the brain parenchyma. It has traditionally been broadly divided into vasogenic cerebral edema and cytotoxic cerebral edema, the latter a term commonly used to denote...
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Cerebral edema (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Cerebral edema describes the collection of additional fluid within the white matter of the brain. It is the brain's response to an insult and may take one of two broad forms: vasogenic (white matter) and cytotoxic (grey and...
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Cerebral paragonimiasis

Cerebral paragonimiasis refers to brain infection with a specific genus of flukes and is a serious manifestation of paragonimiasis, which is primarily a lung disease caused by trematodes of the genus Paragonimus. Epidemiology Paragonimiasis is endemic in Asia, West Africa, and Latin America. I...
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Cerebral peduncles

The cerebral peduncles are the anterior part of the midbrain that connects the remainder of the brainstem to the thalami. They are paired, separated by the interpeduncular cistern, and contain the large white matter tracts that run to and from the cerebrum. Terminology The crus cerebri (cerebr...
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Cerebral perfusion pressure

Cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) is the pressure gradient between the systemic blood pressure (MAP) and the intracranial pressure (ICP) 1. It is expressed by the following equation:  CPP = MAP - ICP CPP corresponds to the pressure necessary to pump blood from the aorta into the cranial compar...
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Cerebral proliferative angiopathy

Cerebral proliferative angiopathy (CPA), previously known as diffuse nidus type AVM, is a cerebral vascular malformation separated from classic brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM) and characterized by the presence of normal brain parenchyma interspersed throughout the tangle of vessels that c...
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Cerebral radiation necrosis

Cerebral radiation necrosis refers to necrotic degradation of brain tissue following intracranial or regional radiation either delivered for the treatment of intracranial pathology (e.g. astrocytoma, cerebral arteriovenous malformation) or as a result of irradiation of head and neck tumors (e.g....
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Cerebral ring enhancing lesions

The differential for peripheral or ring enhancing cerebral lesions includes: cerebral abscess tuberculoma neurocysticercosis metastasis glioblastoma subacute infarct/hemorrhage/contusion demyelination (incomplete ring) tumefactive demyelinating lesion (incomplete ring) radiation necrosi...
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Cerebral ring enhancing lesions (mnemonic)

Convenient mnemonics for the causes of cerebral ring enhancing lesions are: MAGIC DR or DR MAGIC DR MAGIC L MAGICAL DR Mnemonics MAGIC DR or DR MAGIC M: metastasis A: abscess G: glioblastoma I: infarct (subacute phase), inflammatory - neurocysticercosis (NCC), tuberculoma C: contusion ...
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Cerebral sulci and fissures

Cerebral sulci and fissures are grooves between the adjacent gyri on the surface of the cerebral hemispheres. By allowing the cortex to invaginate to form sulci and gyri the surface area of the cortex is is increased threefold 4. The result is that the surface area of the human cortex is 2200 cm...
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Cerebral transthyretin-associated amyloidoses

Cerebral involvement can be seen transthyretin-associated amyloidoses and presents as a neurodegenerative disease.  Epidemiology Age of presentation is very wide, ranging from adolescence to old age 1.  Clinical presentation Clinical presentation is variable, but includes 1: dementia spast...
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Cerebral varix

Cerebral varices, also known as cerebral venous aneurysms or isolated cerebral varices are uncommon cerebral vascular malformations, rarely found in isolation, hence the name isolated cerebral varix. They are more commonly encountered in association with other vascular malformation, such as dura...
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Cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage

Cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage is a major complication of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). It is overtaking rebleed as the major cause of mortality and morbidity in the subgroup of patients with SAH who reach the hospital and receive medical care. It usually occurs after a fe...
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Cerebral veins

The cerebral veins drain the brain parenchyma and are located in the subarachnoid space. They pierce the meninges and drain further into the cranial venous sinuses. The cerebral veins lack muscular tissue and valves. The cerebral venous system can be divided into: superficial (cortical) cerebr...
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Cerebral venous infarction

Cerebral venous infarction is an uncommon form of stroke, and is most commonly secondary to cerebral venous thrombosis and frequently manifests with hemorrhage. It should be considered in infarcts (with or without hemorrhage) which do not correspond to a typical arterial territory 1. Epidemiolo...
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Cerebral venous system

The cerebral venous system, somewhat unlike the majority of the rest of the body, does not even remotely follow the cerebral arterial system. The cortical veins lie superficially, unlike cortical arteries, and are adherent to the deep surface of the arachnoid mater so that they keep the sulci o...
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Cerebral venous thrombosis

Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) refers to occlusion of venous channels in the cranial cavity, including dural venous thrombosis, cortical vein thrombosis and deep cerebral vein thrombosis. They often co-exist and the clinical presentation among them is very similar and nonspecific. Furthermore,...
Article

Cerebral sparganosis

Cerebral sparganosis is a rare parasitic infection of the brain by the second-stage larva of Spirometra mansoni,  most commonly encountered in Southeast Asia, China and South America.  Epidemiology Infection occurs from drinking contaminated water, ingesting poorly cooked or raw snake or frog ...
Article

Cerebritis

Cerebritis is a term that represents inflammation of the brain in the setting of infection, before the development of a cerebral abscess.  Terminology Cerebritis is essentially the same as encephalitis except that it is used to denote brain parenchymal inflammation secondary to infection with ...
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Cerebrofacial arteriovenous metameric syndrome

Cerebrofacial arteriovenous metameric syndrome (CAMS) encompasses maxillofacial/intracranial vascular malformation complexes including Wyburn-Mason Syndrome and Sturge-Weber syndrome 1-4. Three types are described depending on location 2,6: CAMS I: medial prosencephalic group with involvement o...
Article

Cerebrospinal fluid

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is the clear liquid that surrounds and bathes the brain and spinal cord. Physiology Production Cerebrospinal fluid is produced by the epithelium of the choroid plexus within the ventricular system and flows in the direction from the lateral ventricles to the third ve...
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Cerebrospinal fluid diversion (summary)

Cerebrospinal fluid diversion describes a situation where cerebrospinal fluid is diverted from its physiological pathway, generally, but not always, in cases of increased cerebrospinal fluid pressure. Some of the commonly used shunts are: third ventriculostomy ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts...
Article

Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis

Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis is an autosomal recessive lipid storage disorder caused by defects in sterol-27-hydroxylase enzyme in bile acid synthesis. This leads to early cataract formation, atherosclerosis, hypercholesterolemia, and tendinous xanthomas.  Clinical presentation Clinically ce...
Article

Cerebrovascular malformations

Cerebrovascular malformations are vascular malformations related to the vessels that supply the brain and other cranial structures. Classification Over the years, cerebrovascular malformations have been classified in a variety of ways by different authors. Over the years cerebral vascular mal...
Article

Cerebrum

The cerebrum is a paired neural structure composed of the two cerebral hemispheres (left and right) each containing a central space, the lateral ventricle. It develops from the telencephalon. Gross anatomy The cerebrum takes up most of the intracranial cavity and lies above the tentorium cereb...
Article

Cervical enlargement

The cervical enlargement of the spinal cord is the source of the spinal nerves that contribute to the brachial plexus and supply the upper limbs. Gross anatomy It is one of two symmetrical enlargements which occupy the segments of the limb plexuses, the other being the lumbosacral enlargement ...
Article

Cervical interlaminar epidural steroid injection

Cervical interlaminar epidural steroid injections (ILESIs) are used to inject steroids in the epidural space and around the exiting nerve roots and are one of the two main spinal epidural injections; the other cervical transforaminal epidural injections.  Indications Typically performed in pat...
Article

Cervical spine injury

Cervical spine injuries can involve the cervical vertebral column, intervertebral discs and cervical spine ligaments, and/or cervical spinal cord. The cervical spine accounts for ~50% of all spinal injuries.  Epidemiology 5-10% of patients with blunt trauma have a cervical spine injury 1.  Pa...
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Cervical stenosis (disambiguation)

The term cervical stenosis can refer to: stenosis of the uterine cervix bony cervical canal stenosis (cervical spinal stenosis)
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Chagas disease

Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis (plural: trypanosomiases), is a tropical parasitic infection with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations since it can virtually affect any organ, but there are characteristic radiological features. Epidemiology Chagas disease is endemi...
Article

CHALICE rule

The Children’s Head injury ALgorithm for prediction of Clinically Important Events (CHALICE) clinical decision rule was developed to predict clinically important brain injuries in children with head trauma. This rule identifies high-risk criteria and divides them into history, examination and me...
Article

Chamberlain line

Chamberlain line is a line joining the back of hard palate with the opisthion on a lateral view of the craniocervical junction. Significance It helps to recognize basilar invagination which is said to be present if the tip of the dens is >3 mm above this line. McGregor developed a modificatio...

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