Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

2,503 results found
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Cerebellopontine angle cistern

The cerebellopontine angle cistern, also known as the pontocerebellar cistern, is a triangular CSF-filled subarachnoid cistern that lies between the anterior surface of the cerebellum and the lateral surface of the pons. Gross anatomy Boundaries superior: tentorium cerebelli posterior: anter...
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Cerebellopontine angle lipoma

Cerebellopontine angle (CPA) lipomas account for ~10% of all intracranial lipomas. Characteristically lipomas of the CPA have the facial nerve and vestibulocochlear nerve coursing through it on their way to the IAM. They are associated with intravestibular lipomas and sensorineural hearing loss...
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Cerebellopontine angle mass

Cerebellopontine angle (CPA) masses are relatively common. Although a diverse range of pathologies may be seen in this region, the most common by far is a vestibular schwannoma. Pathology Cerebellopontine angle masses can be divided into four groups, based on imaging characteristics:  enhanci...
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Cerebellopontine angle mass (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for the common cerebellopontine angle masses include: AMEN or MEAN SAME ANGLES Mnemonics AMEN/MEAN A: acoustic neuroma (a.k.a. vestibular schwannoma) (~80%) M: meningioma (~10%) E: ependymoma (~5%) N: neuroepithelial cyst (arachnoid/epidermoid) (~5%) SAME S: schwannoma  ves...
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Cerebellum

The cerebellum, meaning "the little brain", sits at the base of the brain in the posterior cranial fossa below the tentorium and behind the brainstem.  Gross anatomy The cerebellum has the following features: three surfaces: anterior (petrosal), superior (tentorial), inferior (suboccipital) ...
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Cerebral abscess (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Cerebral abscesses represent focal areas of infection within brain parenchyma, usually containing pus and having a thick capsule. They typically have enhancing walls and can mimic a number of other significant pathologies. ...
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Cerebral air embolism

Cerebral air embolism is rare but can be fatal. They may be venous or arterial and are often iatrogenic in cause.  Clinical presentation Presentation is often varied and non-specific but include confusion, motor weakness, decreased consciousness, seizure and vision loss.  Pathology Cerebral ...
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Cerebral amyloid angiopathy

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a cerebrovascular disorder caused by the accumulation of cerebral amyloid-β (Aβ) in the tunica media and adventitia of leptomeningeal and cortical vessels of the brain. The resultant vascular fragility tends to manifest in normotensive elderly patients as lob...
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Cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation, also known as cerebral amyloid angiitis or cerebral amyloid inflammatory vasculopathy, is an uncommon cerebral amyloid deposition disease, closely related to the far more common non-inflammatory cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and can present as are...
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Cerebral amyloid deposition diseases

Cerebral amyloid deposition diseases are a group of related conditions characterized by the accumulation of cerebral amyloid-β (Aβ) in various parts of the central nervous system. They lead to inflammation, neurotoxicity, and vascular friability, and are typically encountered in the elderly.  F...
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Cerebral amyloidoma

Cerebral amyloidomas are the rarest manifestation of cerebral amyloid deposition, typically appearing as solidly enhancing masses.  Epidemiology Reported numbers are low due to the rarity of this condition, making generalizations about epidemiological features difficult. Generally, cases have ...
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Cerebral angiography

Cerebral angiography is an interventional procedure for the diagnosis and/or treatment of intracranial pathology. Indications Cerebral digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is indicated in a variety of settings including: diagnosis and treatment of: aneurysms acute ischemic stroke vascular...
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Cerebral aqueduct (of Sylvius)

The cerebral aqueduct (of Sylvius) is the structure within the brainstem that connects the third ventricle to the fourth. It is located within the midbrain, surrounded by periaqueductal grey matter (PAG) with the tectum of midbrain located posteriorly and the tegmentum anteriorly. It is filled ...
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Cerebral arteriovenous fistula

Cerebral arteriovenous fistulae (CAVF) are cerebral vascular malformations or acquired conditions in which there is an abnormal direct communication between a venous and an arterial channel without the presence of a true nidus.  dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) caroticocavernous fistula (CCF...
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Cerebral arteriovenous malformation

Cerebral arteriovenous malformations (CAVMs), also known as classic brain AVMs, are a common form of cerebral vascular malformation and are composed of a nidus of vessels through which arteriovenous shunting occurs. Terminology This article corresponds to the classic form of arteriovenous malf...
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Cerebral atrophy

Cerebral atrophy is the morphological presentation of brain parenchymal volume loss that is frequently seen on cross sectional imaging. Rather than being a primary diagnosis, it is the common endpoint for range disease processes that affect the central nervous system. Though often no identifiabl...
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Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL)

Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is an autosomal dominant microvasculopathy characterized by recurrent lacunar and subcortical white matter ischemic strokes and vascular dementia in young and middle age patients without known va...
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Cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CARASIL)

Cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CARASIL) is a systemic genetic disorder affecting the cerebral small vessels, spine and hair follicles.  It should not be confused with its autosomal dominant counterpart, CADASIL. Autosomal recessive i...
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Cerebral blood flow (CBF)

Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is one of the parameters generated by perfusion techniques (CT perfusion and MR perfusion). CBF is defined as the volume of blood passing through a given amount of brain tissue per unit of time, most commonly milliliters of blood per minute per 100g of brain tissue 1. ...
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Cerebral blood volume (CBV)

Cerebral blood volume (CBV) (often relative CBV: see below) is one of the parameters generated by perfusion techniques (CT perfusion and MR perfusion). CBV is defined as the volume of blood in a given amount of brain tissue, most commonly milliliters of blood per 100 g of brain tissue 1. CBV ca...
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Cerebral cavernous venous malformation

Cerebral cavernous venous malformations, commonly known as cavernous hemangioma or cavernoma, are common cerebral vascular malformations, usually with characteristic appearances on MRI.  Cavernous malformations are found throughout the body. This article focuses on cerebral cavernous venous mal...
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Cerebral cortex

The cerebral cortex and underlying connecting white matter accounts for the largest part of the human brain. It is composed of five different types of neurons arranged into distinct layers (in most places 6 layers) admixed with supporting glial cells (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia) ...
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Cerebral fat embolism

Cerebral fat embolism is one manifestation of fat embolism syndrome. Epidemiology Cerebral fat embolism typically occurs in patients with bony fractures (usually long bones of the lower limb). Rarely it has been described as part of a sickle cell crisis with bone marrow fat necrosis and subseq...
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Cerebral hemorrhagic contusion

Cerebral hemorrhagic contusions are a type of intracerebral hemorrhage and are common in the setting of significant head injury. They are usually characterized on CT as hyperdense foci in the frontal lobes adjacent to the floor of the anterior cranial fossa and in the temporal poles. Epidemiolo...
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Cerebral hemiatrophy

Cerebral hemiatrophy has a variety of causes, and is generally associated with seizures and hemiplegia. Causes include: congenital idiopathic (primary) intrauterine vascular injury acquired perinatal intracranial hemorrhage Rasmussen encephalitis postictal cerebral hemiatrophy basal gang...
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Cerebral hemisphere

The two cerebral hemispheres are divided in the midsagittal plane by the interhemispheric fissure. Together they fill most of the intra-cranial cavity. Gross anatomy The medial surface of each cerebral hemisphere is flat, the inferior surface is irregular and even slightly concave anteriorly, ...
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Cerebral herniation

Cerebral herniation, also referred to as acquired intracranial herniation, refers to shift of cerebral tissue from its normal location, into an adjacent space as a result of mass effect. It is a life-threatening condition that requires prompt diagnosis.  Pathology There are a number of differe...
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Cerebral hydatid disease

Cerebral hydatid disease (neurohydatidosis) is caused by Echinococcus granulosus or less commonly E. alveolaris or E. multilocularis. The larval stage is the cause of hydatid disease in humans 1. For a general discussion, and for links to other system specific manifestations, please refer to th...
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Cerebral intraparenchymal hyperattenuations post thrombectomy

Cerebral intraparenchymal hyperattenuations have been increasingly recognized on CT scans following mechanical thrombectomy for treatment of thromboembolic ischemic stroke. It is a term that encompasses both contrast staining and petechial hemorrhagic change, and is used as distinguishing betwee...
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Cerebral malaria

Cerebral malaria is a rare intracranial complication of a malarial infection. Epidemiology Cerebral malaria is mainly encountered in young children and adults living or traveling in malaria-endemic areas. It is estimated to occur in ~2% of patients with acute Plasmodium falciparum infection, t...
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Cerebral manifestations of mucopolysaccharidoses

The mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs), which constitute a hereditary subgroup of the lysosomal storage disorders, have distinctive cerebral manifestations. The MPSs are characterized by excessive accumulation of mucopolysaccharides secondary to deficiencies in specific enzymes (lysosomal hydrolases)...
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Cerebral microhemorrhage

Cerebral microhemorrhages, or cerebral microbleeds, are small focal intracerebral hemorrhages, often only visible on susceptibility-sensitive MRI sequences. Pathology Common etiologies cavernous malformations 8 especially Zabramski classification type IV malformations causes include multipl...
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Cerebral edema

Cerebral edema refers to a number of interconnected processes which result in abnormal shifts of water in various compartments of the brain parenchyma. It has traditionally been broadly divided into vasogenic cerebral edema and cytotoxic cerebral edema, the latter a term commonly used to denote...
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Cerebral edema (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Cerebral edema describes the collection of additional fluid within the white matter of the brain. It is the brain's response to an insult and may take one of two broad forms: vasogenic (white matter) and cytotoxic (grey and...
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Cerebral paragonimiasis

Cerebral paragonimiasis refers to brain infection with a specific genus of flukes and is a serious manifestation of paragonimiasis which is primarily a lung disease caused by trematodes of the genus Paragonimus. 1 Epidemiology Paragonimiasis is endemic in Asia, West Africa, and Latin America. ...
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Cerebral peduncles

The cerebral peduncles are the anterior part of the midbrain that connects the remainder of the brainstem to the thalami. They are paired, separated by the interpeduncular cistern, and contain the large white matter tracts that run to and from the cerebrum. Terminology The crus cerebri (cerebr...
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Cerebral perfusion pressure

Cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) is the pressure gradient between the systemic blood pressure (MAP) and the intracranial pressure (ICP) 1. It is expressed by the following equation:  CPP = MAP - ICP CPP corresponds to the pressure necessary to pump blood from the aorta into the cranial compar...
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Cerebral proliferative angiopathy

Cerebral proliferative angiopathy (CPA), previously known as diffuse nidus type AVM, is a cerebral vascular malformation separated from classic brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM) and characterized by the presence of normal brain parenchyma interspersed throughout the tangle of vessels that c...
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Cerebral radiation necrosis

Cerebral radiation necrosis refers to necrotic degradation of brain tissue following intracranial or regional radiation either delivered for the treatment of intracranial pathology (e.g. astrocytoma, cerebral arteriovenous malformation) or as a result of irradiation of head and neck tumors (e.g....
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Cerebral ring enhancing lesions

The differential for peripheral or ring enhancing cerebral lesions includes: cerebral abscess tuberculoma neurocysticercosis metastasis glioblastoma subacute infarct/hemorrhage/contusion demyelination (incomplete ring) tumefactive demyelinating lesion (incomplete ring) radiation necrosi...
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Cerebral ring enhancing lesions (mnemonic)

Convenient mnemonics for the causes of cerebral ring enhancing lesions are: MAGIC DR or DR MAGIC DR MAGIC L MAGICAL DR Mnemonics MAGIC DR or DR MAGIC M: metastasis A: abscess G: glioblastoma I: infarct (subacute phase), inflammatory - neurocysticercosis (NCC), tuberculoma C: contusion ...
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Cerebral sulci and fissures

Cerebral sulci and fissures are grooves between the adjacent gyri on the surface of the cerebral hemispheres. By allowing the cortex to invaginate to form sulci and gyri the surface area of the cortex is is increased threefold 4. The result is that the surface area of the human cortex is 2200 cm...
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Cerebral transthyretin-associated amyloidoses

Cerebral involvement can be seen transthyretin-associated amyloidoses and presents as a neurodegenerative disease.  Epidemiology Age of presentation is very wide, ranging from adolescence to old age 1.  Clinical presentation Clinical presentation is variable, but includes 1: dementia spast...
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Cerebral vascular malformations

Vascular malformations of the central nervous system can be divided, as they can elsewhere, into high and low flow malformations. High flow arteriovenous malformation (AVM) cerebral AVM (pial/parenchymal AVM) cerebral proliferative angiopathy dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) pial arteri...
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Cerebral vascular territories

An understanding of cerebral vascular territories is important in understanding stroke and complications from surgery and endovascular procedures.  Although one could be excused for thinking that within the brain, such a carefully organized organ, blood supply would be constant, the truth is th...
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Cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage

Cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage is a major complication of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). It is overtaking rebleed as the major cause of mortality and morbidity in the subgroup of patients with SAH who reach the hospital and receive medical care. It usually occurs after a fe...
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Cerebral veins

The cerebral veins drain the brain parenchyma and are located in the subarachnoid space. They pierce the meninges and drain further into the cranial venous sinuses. The cerebral veins lack muscular tissue and valves. The cerebral venous system can be divided into: superficial (cortical) cerebr...
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Cerebral venous infarction

Cerebral venous infarction is an uncommon form of stroke, and is most commonly secondary to cerebral venous thrombosis and frequently manifests with hemorrhage. It should be considered in infarcts (with or without hemorrhage) which do not correspond to a typical arterial territory 1. Epidemiolo...
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Cerebral venous system

The cerebral venous system, somewhat unlike the majority of the rest of the body, does not even remotely follow the cerebral arterial system. The cortical veins lie superficially, unlike cortical arteries, and are adherent to the deep surface of the arachnoid mater so that they keep the sulci o...
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Cerebral venous thrombosis

Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) refers to occlusion of venous channels in the cranial cavity, including dural venous thrombosis, cortical vein thrombosis and deep cerebral vein thrombosis. They often co-exist and the clinical presentation among them is very similar and nonspecific. Furthermore,...
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Cerebral sparganosis

Cerebral sparganosis is a rare parasitic infection of the brain by the second-stage larva of Spirometra mansoni,  most commonly encountered in Southeast Asia, China and South America.  Epidemiology Infection occurs from drinking contaminated water, ingesting poorly cooked or raw snake or frog ...
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Cerebritis

Cerebritis is a term that represents inflammation of the brain in the setting of infection, before the development of a cerebral abscess.  Terminology Cerebritis is essentially the same as encephalitis except that it is used to denote brain parenchymal inflammation secondary to infection with ...
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Cerebrofacial arteriovenous metameric syndrome

Cerebrofacial arteriovenous metameric syndrome (CAMS) encompasses maxillofacial/intracranial vascular malformation complexes including Wyburn-Mason Syndrome and Sturge-Weber syndrome 1-4. Three types are described depending on location 2,6: CAMS I: medial prosencephalic group with involvement o...
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Cerebrospinal fluid

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is the clear liquid that surrounds and bathes the brain and spinal cord. Physiology Production Cerebrospinal fluid is produced by the epithelium of the choroid plexus within the ventricular system and flows in the direction from the lateral ventricles to the third ve...
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Cerebrospinal fluid diversion (summary)

Cerebrospinal fluid diversion describes a situation where cerebrospinal fluid is diverted from its physiological pathway, generally, but not always, in cases of increased cerebrospinal fluid pressure. Some of the commonly used shunts are: third ventriculostomy ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts...
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Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis

Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis is an autosomal recessive lipid storage disorder caused by defects in sterol-27-hydroxylase enzyme in bile acid synthesis. This leads to early cataract formation, atherosclerosis, hypercholesterolemia, and tendinous xanthomas.  Clinical presentation Clinically ce...
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Cerebrum

The cerebrum is a paired neural structure composed of the two cerebral hemispheres (left and right) each containing a central space, the lateral ventricle. It develops from the telencephalon. Gross anatomy The cerebrum takes up most of the intracranial cavity and lies above the tentorium cereb...
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Cervical enlargement

The cervical enlargement of the spinal cord is the source of the spinal nerves that contribute to the brachial plexus and supply the upper limbs. Gross anatomy It is one of two symmetrical enlargements which occupy the segments of the limb plexuses, the other being the lumbosacral enlargement ...
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Cervical interlaminar epidural injection

Cervical interlaminar epidural injections are one of some possible spinal epidural injections. For an alternative approach for the same region, please refer to the article on cervical transforaminal epidural injections.  Indications Typically epidural injections are performed in patients with ...
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Cervical spine injury

Cervical spine injuries can involve the cervical vertebral column, intervertebral discs and cervical spine ligaments, and/or cervical spinal cord. The cervical spine accounts for ~50% of all spinal injuries.  Epidemiology 5-10% of patients with blunt trauma have a cervical spine injury 1.  Pa...
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Cervical stenosis (disambiguation)

The term cervical stenosis can refer to: stenosis of the uterine cervix bony cervical canal stenosis (cervical spinal stenosis)
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Chagas disease

Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis (plural: trypanosomiases), is a tropical parasitic infection with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations since it can virtually affect any organ, but there are characteristic radiological features. Epidemiology Chagas disease is endemi...
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CHALICE rule

The Children’s Head injury ALgorithm for prediction of Clinically Important Events (CHALICE) clinical decision rule was developed to predict clinically important brain injuries in children with head trauma. This rule identifies high-risk criteria and divides them into history, examination and me...
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Chamberlain line

Chamberlain line is a line joining the back of hard palate with the opisthion on a lateral view of the craniocervical junction. Significance It helps to recognize basilar invagination which is said to be present if the tip of the dens is >3 mm above this line. McGregor developed a modificatio...
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Charcot-Bouchard aneurysm

Charcot-Bouchard aneurysms are minute aneurysms which develop as a result of chronic hypertension and appear most commonly in the basal ganglia and other areas such as the thalamus, pons and cerebellum, where there are small penetrating vessels (diameter <300 micrometers) 1-3. They should not b...
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Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease

Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease, also known as hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN), is the most commonly inherited neuropathy of lower motor (to a lesser degree sensory) neurons. Epidemiology The prevalence of CMT in one Norwegian study was 82.3 cases per 100,000 people 4.  Clini...
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Charles-Bonnet syndrome

Charles-Bonnet syndrome occurs in patients with loss of vision (usually due to ocular pathology) who experience visual hallucinations.  Epidemiology Although numerous causes are seen (any cause of gradual ocular visual failure can theoretically produce Charles Bonnet syndrome, as can other loc...
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Chiari 1.5 malformation

Chiari 1.5 malformation, or bulbar variant of Chiari I malformation, is a term used in the literature to describe the combination of cerebellar tonsillar herniation (as seen in Chiari I malformation) along with caudal herniation of some portion of the brainstem (often obex of the medulla oblonga...
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Chiari III malformation

Chiari III malformation is an extremely rare anomaly characterized by a low occipital and high cervical encephalocele with herniation of posterior fossa contents, that is, the cerebellum and/or the brainstem, occipital lobe, and fourth ventricle.  Pathology Associations agenesis of the corpus...
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Chiari II malformation

Chiari II malformation, also known as Arnold-Chiari malformation, is a relatively common congenital malformation of the spine and posterior fossa characterized by myelomeningocele (lumbosacral spina bifida aperta) and a small posterior fossa with descended brainstem and cerebellar tonsils. Numer...
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Chiari I malformation

Chiari I malformation is the most common variant of the Chiari malformations, and is characterized by a caudal descent of the cerebellar tonsils (and brainstem in its subtype, Chiari 1.5) through the foramen magnum. Symptoms are proportional to the degree of descent. MRI is the imaging modality ...
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Chiari IV malformation

Chiari IV malformation was a term some authors gave to describe a form of extreme cerebellar hypoplasia. This can be associated with hypoplasia of pons as well as a small funnel-shaped posterior fossa. It is now considered to be an obsolete term. See also Chiari malformations
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Chiari malformations

Chiari malformations are a group of defects associated with congenital caudal 'displacement' of the cerebellum and brainstem. Initial descriptions were based on autopsy observations. Three types were described, with others added later. Types II and III are thought to be related to each other wh...
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Chinese paralytic syndrome

Chinese paralytic syndrome also known as acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) is characterized progressive symmetric flaccid paralysis with areflexia. It is a pure motor axonopathy and a variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome
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Cholesteatoma

Cholesteatomas are histologically-equivalent to an epidermoid cyst and are composed of desquamated keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium forming a mass. Clinical presentation They may be asymptomatic, or may present with conductive hearing loss, dizziness, or otorrhea. Pathology The ma...
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Choline peak

Choline is a precursor of acetylcholine (ACH), a component of cell membranes which is commonly examined in MR spectroscopy. It resonates at 3.2 ppm chemical shift. Choline is a marker of cellular membrane turnover and therefore elevated in neoplasms, demyelination, inflammation and gliosis 1. ...
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Chondrosarcoma

Chondrosarcomas are malignant cartilaginous tumors that account for ~25% of all primary malignant bone tumors. They are most commonly found in older patients within the long bones and can arise de novo or secondary from an existing benign cartilaginous neoplasm. On imaging, these tumors have rin...
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Chondrosarcoma of the skull base

Chondrosarcomas of the base of the skull are rare compared with other skull base tumors but are an important differential diagnosis as surgical resection and management are affected by the preoperative diagnosis. Epidemiology Chondrosarcomas of the base of the skull make up only a small fracti...
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Chorda tympani

The chorda tympani is a nerve that arises from the mastoid segment of the facial nerve, carrying afferent special sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue via the lingual nerve, as well as efferent parasympathetic secretomotor innervation to the submandibular and sublingual glands. ...
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Chordoid glioma of the third ventricle

Chordoid gliomas of the third ventricle are rare slow growing well-circumscribed low-grade tumors lesions that arise from the anterior wall or roof of the third ventricle.  Epidemiology Epidemiological data is limited due to the rare nature of this finding and less than 100 cases have been pub...
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Chordoid meningioma

Chordoid meningiomas are uncommon histological variants of meningiomas, and due to their predilection for rapid growth and local recurrence are designated as grade 2 tumors under the current WHO classification of CNS tumors.  Chordoid tumors are encountered in a very wide age range (possibly so...
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Chordoma

Chordomas are uncommon malignant tumors of the axial skeleton that account for 1% of intracranial tumors and 4% of all primary bone tumors.  They originate from embryonic remnants of the primitive notochord (earliest fetal axial skeleton, extending from the Rathke's pouch to the tip of the cocc...
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Chorea

Chorea is a type of dyskinesia characterized by sudden, rapid, involuntary, and purposeless movements that happen during a person’s normal voluntary movement. Pathology It is a clinical symptom related to different etiologies, such as infectious, inflammatory, vascular, hereditary (e.g. Huntin...
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Chorea-acanthocytosis

Chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc) is an autosomal recessive, progressive neurological disorder. It is the commonest of the four core neuroacanthocytosis syndromes (NAS). Symptomatology includes movement disorder, acanthocytosis, elevated creatinine kinase, and atrophy of the basal ganglia.  Epidemio...
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Chorioretinitis

Chorioretinitis refers to inflammation of the retina and choroid. As a delayed sequelae, it is one of the causes of calcification of the globe. It is often considered a form of posterior uveitis. Pathology Etiology various congenital infections such as  2,3 rubella: ocular rubella cytomegal...
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Choristoma

A choristoma is simply a collection of microscopically normal cells or tissues in an abnormal location. This is different to a hamartoma which is derived only from local tissues. Examples include: adrenal choristoma (myelolipoma) nasopharyngeal choristoma facial nerve choristoma optic nerve...
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Choroidal detachment

Choroidal detachment is a detachment of the choroid from the underlying sclera due to the accumulation of fluid in the suprachoroidal space generally due to increased intraocular pressure (IOP), as observed in some settings: choroidal effusion transudative: trauma exudative: fluid accumulatin...
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Choroidal epithelial cells

Choroidal epithelial cells are one of the three types of ependymal cells, themselves a type of glial cell. They cover the surface of the choroid plexus and produce cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). 1. 
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Choroidal fissure

The choroidal fissure, or choroid fissure, is a cleft of the medial surface of the cerebral hemisphere running immediately above the hippocampus and forms the medial wall of the lateral ventricle and attachment site for the choroid plexus. Gross anatomy The C-shaped fissure runs between the fo...
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Choroidal fissure cyst

Choroidal fissure cysts, also known as choroid fissure cysts, are benign intracranial cysts occurring within the choroidal fissure. They are therefore a location-based diagnosis rather than a distinct pathological entity. Clinical presentation They are usually asymptomatic and discovered incid...
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Choroid (eye)

The choroid is part of the uveal layer of the eye along with the ciliary body and iris 1.   Summary location: posterior aspect of the globe function: vascularization of the outer retina arterial supply: posterior ciliary arteries innervation: short ciliary nerves, long ciliary nerves rela...
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Choroid plexitis

Choroid plexitis is a general term referring to an inflammatory process affecting the choroid plexus; it is usually due an infectious process. It is rarely seen as an isolated process and is commonly found in association with encephalitis, meningitis, or ventriculitis 1. The choroid plexus can a...
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Choroid plexus

The choroid plexus is located within the cerebral ventricles and is made of epithelial cells, loose connective tissue (tela choroidea) and permeable capillaries. It produces cerebrospinal fluid.  Gross anatomy Location roof of the temporal horns of the lateral ventricles, extending along the ...

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