Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

2,302 results found
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Cerebral ring enhancing lesions (mnemonic)

Convenient mnemonics for the causes of cerebral ring enhancing lesions are: MAGIC DR or DR MAGIC DR MAGIC L MAGICAL DR Mnemonics MAGIC DR or DR MAGIC M: metastasis A: abscess G: glioblastoma I: infarct (subacute phase) C: contusion D: demyelinating disease (classically incomplete rim ...
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Cerebral sulci and fissures

Cerebral sulci and fissures are grooves between the adjacent gyri on the surface of the cerebral hemispheres. By allowing the cortex to invaginate to form sulci and gyri the surface area of the cortex is is increased threefold 4. The result is that the surface area of the human cortex is 2200 cm...
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Cerebral transthyretin-associated amyloidoses

Cerebral involvement can be seen transthyretin-associated amyloidoses and presents as a neurodegenerative disease.  Epidemiology Age of presentation is very wide, ranging from adolescence to old age 1.  Clinical presentation Clinical presentation is variable, but includes 1: dementia spast...
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Cerebral vascular malformations

Vascular malformations of the central nervous system can be divided, as they can elsewhere, into high and low flow malformations. High flow arteriovenous malformation (AVM) cerebral AVM (pial/parenchymal AVM) cerebral proliferative angiopathy dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) pial arteri...
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Cerebral vascular territories

An understanding of cerebral vascular territories is important in understanding stroke and complications from surgery and endovascular procedures.  Although one could be excused for thinking that within the brain, such a carefully organised organ, blood supply would be constant, the truth is th...
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Cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage

Cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage is a major complication of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). It is overtaking rebleed as the major cause of mortality and morbidity in the subgroup of patients with SAH who reach the hospital and receive medical care. Epidemiology It is seen in...
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Cerebral veins

The cerebral veins drain the brain parenchyma and are located in the subarachnoid space. They pierce the meninges and drain further into the cranial venous sinuses. The cerebral veins lack muscular tissue and valves. The cerebral venous system can be divided into: superficial (cortical) cerebr...
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Cerebral venous infarction

Cerebral venous infarction is an uncommon form of stroke, and is most commonly secondary to cerebral venous thrombosis and frequently manifests with hemorrhage. It should be considered in infarcts (with or without hemorrhage) which do not correspond to a typical arterial territory 1. Epidemiolo...
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Cerebral venous system

The cerebral venous system, somewhat unlike the majority of the rest of the body, does not even remotely follow the cerebral arterial system. The cortical veins lie superficially, unlike cortical arteries, and are adherent to the deep surface of the arachnoid mater so that they keep the sulci o...
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Cerebral venous thrombosis

Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) refers to occlusion of venous channels in the cranial cavity, including dural venous thrombosis, cortical vein thrombosis and deep cerebral vein thrombosis. They often co-exist and the clinical presentation among them is very similar and nonspecific. Furthermore,...
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Cerebral sparganosis

Cerebral sparganosis is a rare parasitic infection of the brain by the second-stage larva of Spirometra mansoni,  most commonly encountered in Southeast Asia, China and South America.  Epidemiology Infection occurs from drinking contaminated water, ingesting poorly cooked or raw snake or frog ...
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Cerebritis

Cerebritis is a term that represents inflammation of the brain in the setting of infection, before the development of a cerebral abscess.  Terminology Cerebritis is essentially the same as encephalitis except that it is used to denote brain parenchymal inflammation secondary to infection with ...
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Cerebrofacial arteriovenous metameric syndrome

Cerebrofacial arteriovenous metameric syndrome (CAMS) encompasses maxillofacial/intracranial vascular malformation complexes including Wyburn-Mason Syndrome and Sturge-Weber syndrome 1-4. Three types are described depending on location 2,6: CAMS I: medial prosencephalic group with involvement o...
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Cerebrospinal fluid

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is the clear liquid that surrounds and bathes the brain and spinal cord. CSF is produced by the epithelium of the choroid plexus within the ventricular system and flows in the direction from the lateral ventricles to the third ventricle, then fourth ventricle and then ...
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Cerebrospinal fluid diversion (summary)

Cerebrospinal fluid diversion describes a situation where cerebrospinal fluid is diverted from its physiological pathway, generally, but not always, in cases of increased cerebrospinal fluid pressure. Some of the commonly used shunts are: third ventriculostomy ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts...
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Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis

Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis is an autosomal recessive lipid storage disorder caused by defects in sterol-27-hydroxylase enzyme in bile acid synthesis. This leads to early cataract formation, atherosclerosis, hypercholesterolemia, and tendinous xanthomas.  Clinical presentation Clinically ce...
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Cerebrum

The cerebrum is a paired neural structure composed of the two cerebral hemispheres (left and right) each containing a central space, the lateral ventricle. It develops from the telencephalon. Gross anatomy The cerebrum takes up most of the intracranial cavity and lies above the tentorium cereb...
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Cervical enlargement

The cervical enlargement of the spinal cord is the source of the spinal nerves that contribute to the brachial plexus and supply the upper limbs. Gross anatomy It is one of two symmetrical enlargements which occupy the segments of the limb plexuses, the other being the lumbosacral enlargement ...
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Cervical interlaminar epidural injection

Cervical interlaminar epidural injections are one of some possible spinal epidural injections. For an alternative approach for the same region, please refer to the article on cervical transforaminal epidural injections.  Indications Typically epidural injections are performed in patients with ...
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Cervical spine injury

Cervical spine injuries can involve the cervical vertebral column, intervertebral discs and cervical spine ligaments, and/or cervical spinal cord. The cervical spine accounts for ~50% of all spinal injuries.  Epidemiology 5-10% of patients with blunt trauma have a cervical spine injury 1.  Pa...
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Cervical stenosis (disambiguation)

The term cervical stenosis can refer to: stenosis of the uterine cervix bony cervical canal stenosis (cervical spinal stenosis)
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Chagas disease

Chagas disease, also referred as trypanosomiasis, is a tropical parasitic infection with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, since it can virtually affect any organ, but there are characteristic radiological features. Epidemiology Chagas disease is endemic to Central and South America....
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CHALICE rule

The Children’s Head injury ALgorithm for prediction of Clinically Important Events (CHALICE) clinical decision rule was developed to predict clinically important brain injuries in children with head trauma. This rule identifies high-risk criteria and divides them into history, examination and me...
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Chamberlain line

Chamberlain line is a line joining the back of hard palate with the opisthion on a lateral view of the craniocervical junction. Significance It helps to recognize basilar invagination which is said to be present if the tip of the dens is >3 mm above this line. McGregor developed a modificatio...
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Charcot-Bouchard aneurysm

Charcot-Bouchard aneurysms are minute aneurysms which develop as a result of chronic hypertension and appear most commonly in the basal ganglia and other areas such as the thalamus, pons and cerebellum, where there are small penetrating vessels (diameter <300 micrometres) 1-3. They should not b...
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Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease

Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease, also known as hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN), is the most commonly inherited neuropathy of lower motor (to a lesser degree sensory) neurons. Epidemiology The prevalence of CMT in one Norwegian study was 82.3 cases per 100,000 people 4.  Clini...
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Charles-Bonnet syndrome

Charles-Bonnet syndrome occurs in patients with loss of vision (usually due to ocular pathology) who experience visual hallucinations.  Epidemiology Although numerous causes are seen (any cause of gradual ocular visual failure can theoretically produce Charles Bonnet syndrome, as can other loc...
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Chasing the dragon sign (toxic leukoencephalopathy)

Chasing the dragon sign is seen in toxic leukoencephalopathy caused by the inhalation of heroin fumes.  Clinical presentation Three stages are recognised: cerebellar signs and motor restlessness pyramidal and pseudobulbar signs spasms, hypotonic paresis, and ultimately death Only a minorit...
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Chiari 1.5 malformation

Chiari 1.5 malformation, or bulbar variant of Chiari I malformation, is a term used in the literature to describe the combination of cerebellar tonsillar herniation (as seen in Chiari I malformation) along with caudal herniation of some portion of the brainstem (often obex of the medulla oblonga...
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Chiari III malformation

Chiari III malformation is an extremely rare anomaly characterized by a low occipital and high cervical encephalocele with herniation of posterior fossa contents, that is, the cerebellum and/or the brainstem, occipital lobe, and fourth ventricle.  Pathology Associations agenesis of the corpus...
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Chiari II malformation

Chiari II malformation, also known as Arnold-Chiari malformation, is a relatively common congenital malformation of the spine and posterior fossa characterized by myelomeningocoele (lumbosacral spina bifida aperta) and a small posterior fossa with a descent of the brainstem and cerebellar tonsil...
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Chiari I malformation

Chiari I malformation is the most common variant of the Chiari malformations, and is characterized by a caudal descent of the cerebellar tonsils (and brainstem in its subtype, Chiari 1.5) through the foramen magnum. Symptoms are proportional to the degree of descent. MRI is the imaging modality ...
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Chiari IV malformation

Chiari IV malformation was a term some authors gave to describe a form of extreme cerebellar hypoplasia. This can be associated with hypoplasia of pons as well as a small funnel-shaped posterior fossa. It is now considered to be an obsolete term. See also Chiari malformations
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Chiari malformations

Chiari malformations are a group of defects associated with congenital caudal 'displacement' of the cerebellum and brainstem. Initial descriptions were based on autopsy observations. Three types were described, with others added later. Types II and III are thought to be related to each other wh...
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Chinese paralytic syndrome

Chinese paralytic syndrome also known as acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) is characterized progressive symmetric flaccid paralysis with areflexia. It is a pure motor axonopathy and a variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome
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Cholesteatoma

Cholesteatoma is histologically-equivalent to an epidermoid cyst and is composed of desquamated keratinising stratified squamous epithelium forming a mass. They usually present with conductive hearing loss. Pathology The mass is lined by epithelium (facing inwards) which continues to grow, the...
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Choline peak

Choline is a precursor of acetylcholine (ACH), a component of cell membranes which is commonly examined in MR spectroscopy. It resonates at 3.2 ppm chemical shift. Choline is a marker of cellular membrane turnover and therefore elevated in neoplasms, demyelination, inflammation and gliosis 1. ...
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Chondrosarcoma

Chondrosarcomas are malignant cartilaginous tumors that account for ~25% of all primary malignant bone tumors. They are most commonly found in older patients within the long bones and can arise de novo or secondary from an existing benign cartilaginous neoplasm. On imaging, these tumors have rin...
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Chondrosarcoma of the skull base

Chondrosarcomas of the base of the skull are rare compared with other skull base tumors but are an important differential diagnosis as surgical resection and management are affected by the preoperative diagnosis. Epidemiology Chondrosarcomas of the base of the skull make up only a small fracti...
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Chorda tympani

The chorda tympani is a nerve that arises from the mastoid segment of the facial nerve, carrying afferent special sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue via the lingual nerve, as well as efferent parasympathetic secretomotor innervation to the submandibular and sublingual glands. ...
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Chordoid glioma of the third ventricle

Chordoid gliomas of the third ventricle are rare slow growing well-circumscribed low-grade tumors lesions that arise from the anterior wall or roof of the third ventricle.  Epidemiology Epidemiological data is limited due to the rare nature of this finding and less than 100 cases have been pub...
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Chordoid meningioma

Chordoid meningiomas are uncommon histological variants of meningiomas, and due to their predilection for rapid growth and local recurrence are designated as grade 2 tumors under the current WHO classification of CNS tumors.  Chordoid tumors are encountered in a very wide age range (possibly so...
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Chordoma

Chordomas are uncommon malignant tumors of the axial skeleton that account for 1% of intracranial tumors and 4% of all primary bone tumors.  They originate from embryonic remnants of the primitive notochord (earliest fetal axial skeleton, extending from the Rathke's pouch to the tip of the cocc...
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Chorea

Chorea is a type of dyskinesia characterized by sudden, rapid, involuntary, and purposeless movements that happen during a person’s normal voluntary movement. Pathology It is a clinical symptom related to different etiologies, such as infectious, inflammatory, vascular, hereditary (e.g. Huntin...
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Chorioretinitis

Chorioretinitis refers to inflammation of the retina and choroid. As a delayed sequelae, it is one of the causes of calcification of the globe. It is often considered a form of posterior uveitis. Pathology Etiology various congenital infections such as  2,3 rubella: ocular rubella cytomegal...
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Choristoma

A choristoma is simply a collection of microscopically normal cells or tissues in an abnormal location. This is different to a hamartoma which is derived only from local tissues. Examples include: adrenal choristoma (myelolipoma) nasopharyngeal choristoma facial nerve choristoma optic nerve...
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Choroidal detachment

Choroidal detachment is a detachment of the choroid from the underlying sclera due to the accumulation of fluid in the suprachoroidal space generally due to increased intraocular pressure (IOP), as observed in some settings: choroidal effusion transudative: trauma exudative: fluid accumulatin...
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Choroidal epithelial cells

Choroidal epithelial cells are one of the three types of ependymal cells, themselves a type of glial cell. They cover the surface of the choroid plexus and produce cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). 1. 
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Choroidal fissure

The choroidal fissure, or choroid fissure, is a cleft of the medial surface of the brain that forms the medial wall of the lateral ventricle and attachment site for the choroid plexus. Gross anatomy The C-shaped fissure runs between the fornix (body, crus, and fimbria) and the thalamus. At the...
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Choroidal fissure cyst

Choroidal fissure cysts, also known as choroid fissure cysts, are benign intracranial cysts occurring within the choroidal fissure. They are therefore a location-based diagnosis rather than a distinct pathological entity. Clinical presentation They are usually asymptomatic and discovered incid...
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Choroid plexitis

Choroid plexitis is a general term referring to an inflammatory process affecting the choroid plexus; it is usually due an infectious process. It is rarely seen as an isolated process and is commonly found in association with encephalitis, meningitis, or ventriculitis 1. The choroid plexus can a...
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Choroid plexus

The choroid plexus is located within the cerebral ventricles and is made of epithelial cells, loose connective tissue (tela choroidea) and permeable capillaries. It produces cerebrospinal fluid.  Gross anatomy Location roof of the temporal horns of the lateral ventricles, extending along the ...
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Choroid plexus carcinoma

Choroid plexus carcinomas are malignant neoplasms arising from the choroid plexus. They are classified as a WHO grade III tumor and while there is considerable overlap in imaging characteristics it carries significantly poorer prognosis than both WHO grade II atypical choroid plexus papilloma, a...
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Choroid plexus cyst (antenatal)

Antenatal choroid plexus cysts are benign and are often transient typically resulting in utero from an infolding of the neuroepithelium.   They should not be confused with adult choroid plexus cysts (which are very commonly found at autopsy and likely degenerative), large intraventricular simpl...
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Choroid plexus hyperplasia

Choroid plexus hyperplasia (CPH), also known as villous hypertrophy of the choroid plexus, is a rare benign condition that is characterized by bilateral enlargement of the entire choroid plexus in lateral ventricles without any discrete masses. This can result in overproduction of CSF and commun...
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Choroid plexus malignancy

Choroid plexus malignancies can be classified as primary or secondary neoplasms of the choroid plexus: primary choroid plexus papilloma (CPP) 80% WHO Grade I, and WHO Grade II when atypical choroid plexus carcinoma (CPC)  20% WHO Grade III intraventricular meningioma secondary choroid ...
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Choroid plexus metastases

Metastases to the choroid plexus from extracranial tumors are rare, but nonetheless should be included in the differential diagnosis of an intraventricular mass. They are most commonly found within the lateral ventricles, presumably because a large proportion of the choroid plexus is located the...
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Choroid plexus papilloma

Choroid plexus papillomas are an uncommon, benign (WHO grade I) neuroepithelial intraventricular tumor which can occur in both the pediatric (more common) and adult population.  On imaging, these tumors are usually identified in the fourth ventricle in adults and in the lateral ventricles in th...
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Choroid plexus xanthogranuloma

Choroid plexus xanthogranulomas are common, incidental and almost invariably asymptomatic lesions. It is unclear in much of the literature whether they represent a distinct entity from adult choroid plexus cysts, but they share imaging characteristics and are only likely to be distinguishable on...
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Christmas inspired signs

There are many signs in radiology that are related to Christmas: snowcap sign in avascular necrosis snowman sign in total anomalous pulmonary venous return in pituitary macroadenomas snowstorm appearance in complete hydatidiform and testicular microlithiasis holly leaf sign in calcified pl...
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Chronic encephalitides

There are several viral and prion infections which can result in a chronic encephalitis with slow progression into brain atrophy. These have a very poor prognosis with no effective treatment. Some of these include: progressive multifocal leukoencephalitis subacute sclerosing panencephalitis ...
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Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an acquired demyelinating disease involving peripheral nerves, and is generally considered the chronic counterpart to Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS).  Clinical presentation Patients typically present with a gradual and protracted (> 2 ...
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Chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS)

Chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) is an uncommon and only recently described disorder characterized by infiltration of the brain by inflammatory cells. It has a predilection for the pons, with fairly characteristic curvilinea...
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Chronic otomastoiditis

Chronic otomastoiditis should be considered a separate entity from acute otomastoiditis, and is defined as persistent or recurrent inflammation of the middle ear and mastoid, lasting usually for a minimum of 12 weeks, and resulting in permanent perforation of the tympanic membrane. Clinical pre...
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Chronic relapsing inflammatory optic neuropathy

Chronic relapsing inflammatory optic neuropathy (CRION) describes a rare, recurrent, corticosteroid-responsive optic neuropathy that should be considered as an important differential diagnosis in patients with multiple episodes of suspected optic neuritis. Epidemiology The exact incidence of C...
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Chronic traumatic encephalopathy

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy is a neurodegenerative tauopathy that is thought to result from mild repetitive head trauma.  Epidemiology The exact incidence and prevalence are unknown. It is most commonly seen in amateur and professional sports players where head contact is common (e.g. box...
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Cingulate gyrus

The cingulate gyrus lies on the medial aspect of the cerebral hemisphere. It forms a major part of the limbic system which has functions in emotion and behavior. The frontal portion is termed the anterior cingulate gyrus (or cortex) 1,2.  Gross anatomy Location The cingulate gyrus extends fro...
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Cingulate sulcus

The cingulate sulcus is situated directly superior to the cingulate gyrus, which is formed by the medial surface of the frontal lobes that is directly above the corpus callosum.
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Cingulate sulcus sign

The cingulate sulcus sign has been proposed as being useful as an MRI feature of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). It denotes the posterior part of the cingulate sulcus being narrower than the anterior part. The divider between the anterior and posterior parts of the sulcus being a...
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Circle of Willis

The Circle of Willis is an arterial polygon formed as the internal carotid and vertebral systems anastomose around the optic chiasm and infundibulum of the pituitary stalk in the suprasellar cistern. This communicating pathway allows equalization of blood-flow between the two sides of the brain,...
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Circumventricular organs (CNS)

The circumventricular organs are neuroendocrine anatomical structures localised around the ventricles of the brain. They are characterized by a rich vasculature and fenestrated (permeable) capillaries. As such, with the exception of the subcomissural organ, they are also characterized by the abs...
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Cisterna magna

The cisterna magna (also known as the cerebellomedullary cistern) is the largest of the CSF-filled subarachnoid cisterns. Gross anatomy The cisterna magna is located between the cerebellum and the dorsal surface of the medulla oblongata at and above the level of the foramen magnum. CSF produce...
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Classification of cerebral vascular malformations

Cerebral vascular malformations encompass a large variety vascular lesions which differ in haemodynamics, structure and prognosis. Some can be life threatening (e.g. vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations, arteriovenous malformations) whilst others are almost always incidental and asymptomatic (...
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Classification of spinal meningeal cysts

Spinal meningeal cysts can be classified according to a system published by Nabor et. al 2: type I: extradural meningeal cyst without neural tissue type Ia: extradural spinal arachnoid cyst type Ib: sacral meningocele type II: extradural meningeal cyst containing neural tissue, e.g. Tarlov c...
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Classification system for malformations of cortical development

Classification system for malformations of cortical development organises a myriad of conditions into one of three major underlying groups according to the main underlying mechanism: group I: abnormal cell proliferation or apoptosis group II: abnormal neuronal migration group III: abnormal co...
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Classification system for malformations of the cerebellum

Classification systems for malformations of the cerebellum are varied and are constantly being revised as greater understanding of the underlying genetics and embryology of the disorders is uncovered. A classification proposed by Barkovich et al. in 2009 1 divides cerebellar malformations in two...
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Classification system for midline abnormalities of the brain and skull

Classification systems for midline abnormalities of the brain and skull are varied and constantly changing as the underlying embryology and genetics are uncovered. A relatively simple and robust classification system is based on the location of abnormalities, always remembering that midline abno...
Article

Claude syndrome

Claude syndrome is one of the brainstem stroke syndromes in which there is infarction of the dorsomedial aspect of the midbrain. Clinical presentation Clinical picture is characteristic and includes ipsilateral oculomotor nerve palsy and contralateral upper and lower limb ataxia 1-4. Patholog...
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Claustrum

The claustrum is a vertical curved sheet of subcortical grey matter oriented sagittally between the white matter tracts of the external capsule and extreme capsule. It is lateral to the putamen and medial to the insular cortex. It is not part of the basal ganglia. There are lateral and medial t...
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Claw sign (mass)

The claw sign is useful in determining that a mass arises from a solid structure rather than is located adjacent to it and distorts the outline. It refers to the sharp angles on either side of the mass, which the surrounding normal parenchyma forms when the mass has arisen from the parenchyma. ...
Article

Clear cell ependymoma

Clear cell ependymomas are a histological variant of ependymoma characterized by prominent perinuclear cytoplasmic clearing, reminiscent of oligodendrogliomas 1.  They are typically encountered in younger patients and usually in the supratentorial compartment 1.  They have a tendency to be qui...
Article

Clear cell meningioma

Clear cell meningiomas are a histological variant of meningioma with poorer prognosis and a higher rate of recurrence. They are therefore considered WHO grade 2 tumors, regardless of mitotic index, cellular atypia/anaplasia, or presence of brain invasion.  Epidemiology Clear cell meningiomas h...
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Clinically isolated syndrome

Clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) is the first episode suggestive of demyelination 1,2. It can either be monofocal (single lesion) or multifocal 1,2. Not all patients with CIS will go on to develop multiple sclerosis however if at presentation there are changes on MRI suggestive of MS, then the...
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Clinically unclassifiable parkinsonism

Clinically unclassifiable parkinsonism (CUP) is a term applied to patients who have some parkinsonism features, but who do not fulfill clinical criteria for a particular disorder such as:  Parkinson disease  progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP)  multiple system atrophy (MSA-P)   corticobasal...
Article

Clival masses

The differential of a mass involving or arising from the clivus is a relatively narrow one and can be divided into whether the lesion arises from the skull base itself, the intracranial compartment above or the base of skull below. When evaluating the clivus it is important to compare the marro...
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Cluster headache

Cluster headaches are a particularly painful form of recurrent headache considered the most common trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias 1.  Epidemiology Cluster headaches are fairly uncommon affecting 0.06 to 0.4% of the population 1. Men are more often affected (M:F 3:1) 1.  Clinical presentati...
Article

CNS aspergillosis

CNS aspergillosis results from angioinvasive infection of the central nervous system by the fungus Aspergillus spp. Along with CNS cryptococcosis, it is one of the most common fungal opportunistic infections of the central nervous system. Epidemiology The disease predominates in immunocompromi...
Article

CNS capillary telangiectasia

CNS capillary telangiectasiae(s) are small, asymptomatic low flow vascular lesions of the brain.  Epidemiology As these lesions are asymptomatic, diagnosis usually matches the age of first imaging with MRI, and as such are most frequently found in middle-aged and elderly adults. Their inciden...
Article

CNS cryptococcosis

CNS cryptococcosis results from infection of the central nervous system with the yeast-like fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. It is the most common fungal infection and second most common opportunistic infection of the central nervous system. For a general discussion of infection with this organi...
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CNS infectious diseases

This article aims to be a collection of articles that represent central nervous system infectious (CNS) diseases.  Classification By organsim The organisms involved in CNS infections vary depending on the specific location of infection. Bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, and prions can all ...
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CNS lymphoma

CNS lymphoma refers to the involvement of the central nervous system with lymphoma. It can be broadly divided into primary and secondary, with a number of special types of also recognised.  primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) intravascular lymphoma MALT lymphoma of the dura 5 secondary CNS lymphoma...
Article

COACH syndrome

The acronym COACH describes a syndrome associated with: C - cerebellar vermis defect (Joubert syndrome) O - oligophrenia A - ataxia C - coloboma H - hepatic fibrosis Epidemiology There only as little as 11 cases having been reported in the English medical literature....
Article

Coalescent mastoiditis

Coalescent mastoiditis is simply the term given to acute otomastoiditis when mucoperiosteal disease extends to involve the bone. The septae which normally separate one mastoid air cell from another are resorbed. This change is only easily appreciated on thin section bone-algorithm through the te...

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