Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

2,648 results found
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Charcot-Bouchard aneurysm

Charcot-Bouchard aneurysms are thought to be minute aneurysms which develop along perforating arteries as a result of chronic hypertension, most commonly in the basal ganglia and other areas such as the thalamus, pons and cerebellum. They are believed to be the source of hypertensive hemorrhages...
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Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease

Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease, also known as hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN), is the most commonly inherited neuropathy of lower motor (to a lesser degree sensory) neurons. Epidemiology The prevalence of CMT in one Norwegian study was 82.3 cases per 100,000 people 4.  Clini...
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Charles Bonnet syndrome

Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) occurs in patients with loss of vision (usually due to ocular pathology) who experience visual hallucinations.  Epidemiology Although numerous causes are seen (any cause of gradual ocular visual failure can theoretically produce Charles Bonnet syndrome, as can oth...
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CHEDDA syndrome

CHEDDA syndrome stands for congenital hypotonia, epilepsy, developmental delay and digital anomalies. Is a newly discovered neurodevelopmental syndrome associated with mutations in a conserved histidine-rich motif within Atrophin-1 (ATN-1).1 Epidemiology CHEDDA syndrome is very rare, with only...
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Chemical exchange saturation transfer

Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging is a novel molecular MR technique that enables imaging certain compounds at concentrations that are too low to impact the contrast of standard MR imaging and too low to directly be detected in MRS at typical water imaging resolution 1. Amide ...
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Chiari 1.5 malformation

Chiari 1.5 malformation, or bulbar variant of Chiari I malformation, is a term used in the literature to describe the combination of cerebellar tonsillar herniation (as seen in Chiari I malformation) along with caudal herniation of some portion of the brainstem (often obex of the medulla oblonga...
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Chiari III malformation

Chiari III malformation is an extremely rare anomaly characterized by a low occipital and high cervical encephalocele with herniation of posterior fossa contents, that is, the cerebellum and/or the brainstem, occipital lobe, and fourth ventricle.  Pathology Associations agenesis of the corpus...
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Chiari II malformation

Chiari II malformations are relatively common congenital malformation of the spine and posterior fossa characterized by myelomeningocele (lumbosacral spina bifida aperta) and a small posterior fossa with descent of the brainstem and cerebellar tonsils and vermis. Numerous associated abnormalitie...
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Chiari I malformation

Chiari I malformation is the most common variant of the Chiari malformations and is characterized by a caudal descent of the cerebellar tonsils (and brainstem in its subtype, Chiari 1.5) through the foramen magnum. Symptoms are proportional to the degree of descent. MRI is the imaging modality o...
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Chiari IV malformation

Chiari IV malformation was a term some authors gave to describe a form of extreme cerebellar hypoplasia. This can be associated with hypoplasia of pons as well as a small funnel-shaped posterior fossa. It is now considered to be an obsolete term. See also Chiari malformations
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Chiari malformations

Chiari malformations are a group of defects associated with congenital caudal 'displacement' of the cerebellum and brainstem. Classification Initial descriptions were based on autopsy observations. Three types were described, with others added later. Types II and III are thought to be related ...
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Chinese paralytic syndrome

Chinese paralytic syndrome also known as acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) is characterized progressive symmetric flaccid paralysis with areflexia. It is a pure motor axonopathy and a variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome
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Cholesteatoma

Cholesteatomas are histologically-equivalent to an epidermoid cyst and are composed of desquamated keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium forming a mass. Clinical presentation They may be asymptomatic, or may present with conductive hearing loss, dizziness, or otorrhea. Pathology The ma...
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Choline peak

Choline is a precursor of acetylcholine (ACH), a component of cell membranes which is commonly examined in MR spectroscopy. It resonates at 3.2 ppm chemical shift. An infant’s brain shows, due to active myelination with synthesis of membrane constituents, high choline signals 3-6. Choline is a ...
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Chondrosarcoma

Chondrosarcomas are malignant cartilaginous tumors that account for ~25% of all primary malignant bone tumors. They are most commonly found in older patients within the long bones and can arise de novo or secondary from an existing benign cartilaginous neoplasm. On imaging, these tumors have rin...
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Chondrosarcoma of the skull base

Chondrosarcomas of the base of the skull are rare compared with other skull base tumors but are an important differential diagnosis as surgical resection and management are affected by the preoperative diagnosis. Epidemiology Chondrosarcomas of the base of the skull make up only a small fracti...
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Chorda tympani

The chorda tympani is a nerve that arises from the mastoid segment of the facial nerve, carrying afferent special sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue via the lingual nerve, as well as efferent parasympathetic secretomotor innervation to the submandibular and sublingual glands. ...
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Chordoid glioma of the third ventricle

Chordoid gliomas of the third ventricle are rare slow growing well-circumscribed low-grade tumors lesions that arise from the anterior wall or roof of the third ventricle.  Epidemiology Epidemiological data is limited due to the rare nature of this finding and less than 100 cases have been pub...
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Chordoid meningioma

Chordoid meningiomas are uncommon histological variants of meningiomas, and due to their predilection for rapid growth and local recurrence are designated as grade 2 tumors under the current WHO classification of CNS tumors.  Chordoid tumors are encountered in a very wide age range (possibly so...
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Chordoma

Chordomas are uncommon malignant tumors of the axial skeleton that account for 1% of intracranial tumors and 4% of all primary bone tumors.  They originate from embryonic remnants of the primitive notochord (earliest fetal axial skeleton, extending from the Rathke's pouch to the tip of the cocc...
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Chorea

Chorea is a type of dyskinesia characterized by sudden, rapid, involuntary, and purposeless movements that happen during a person’s normal voluntary movement. Pathology It is a clinical symptom related to different etiologies, such as infectious, inflammatory, vascular, hereditary (e.g. Huntin...
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Chorea-acanthocytosis

Chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc) is an autosomal recessive, progressive neurological disorder. It is the commonest of the four core neuroacanthocytosis syndromes (NAS). Symptomatology includes movement disorder, acanthocytosis, elevated creatinine kinase, and atrophy of the basal ganglia.  Epidemio...
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Chorioretinitis

Chorioretinitis refers to inflammation of the retina and choroid. As a delayed sequelae, it is one of the causes of calcification of the globe. It is often considered a form of posterior uveitis. Pathology Etiology various congenital infections such as  2,3 rubella: ocular rubella cytomegal...
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Choristoma

A choristoma is simply a collection of microscopically normal cells or tissues in an abnormal location. This is different to a hamartoma which is derived only from local tissues. Examples include: adrenal choristoma (myelolipoma) nasopharyngeal choristoma facial nerve choristoma optic nerve...
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Choroidal detachment

Choroidal detachment is a detachment of the choroid from the underlying sclera due to the accumulation of fluid in the suprachoroidal space generally due to increased intraocular pressure (IOP), as observed in some settings: choroidal effusion transudative: trauma exudative: fluid accumulatin...
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Choroidal epithelial cells

Choroidal epithelial cells are one of the three types of ependymal cells, themselves a type of glial cell. They cover the surface of the choroid plexus and produce cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). 1. 
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Choroidal fissure

The choroidal fissure, or choroid fissure, is a cleft of the medial surface of the cerebral hemisphere running immediately above the hippocampus and forms the medial wall of the lateral ventricle and attachment site for the choroid plexus. Gross anatomy The C-shaped fissure runs between the fo...
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Choroidal fissure cyst

Choroidal fissure cysts, also known as choroid fissure cysts, are benign intracranial cysts occurring within the choroidal fissure. They are therefore a location-based diagnosis rather than a distinct pathological entity. Clinical presentation They are usually asymptomatic and discovered incid...
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Choroid (eye)

The choroid is part of the uveal layer of the eye along with the ciliary body and iris 1.   Summary location: posterior aspect of the globe function: vascularization of the outer retina arterial supply: posterior ciliary arteries innervation: short ciliary nerves, long ciliary nerves rela...
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Choroid plexitis

Choroid plexitis is a general term referring to an inflammatory process affecting the choroid plexus; it is usually due an infectious process. It is rarely seen as an isolated process and is commonly found in association with encephalitis, meningitis, or ventriculitis 1. The choroid plexus can a...
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Choroid plexus

The choroid plexus is located within the cerebral ventricles and is made of epithelial cells, loose connective tissue (tela choroidea), and permeable capillaries. It produces cerebrospinal fluid.  The choroid plexuses also form the blood-CSF barrier alongside arachnoid and arachnoid villi 2. G...
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Choroid plexus carcinoma

Choroid plexus carcinomas are malignant neoplasms arising from the choroid plexus. They are classified as a WHO grade III tumor and while there is considerable overlap in imaging characteristics it carries significantly poorer prognosis than both WHO grade II atypical choroid plexus papilloma, a...
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Choroid plexus cyst (antenatal)

Antenatal choroid plexus cysts are benign and are often transient typically resulting in utero from an infolding of the neuroepithelium.   They should not be confused with adult choroid plexus cysts (which are very commonly found at autopsy and likely degenerative), large intraventricular simpl...
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Choroid plexus hyperplasia

Choroid plexus hyperplasia (CPH), also known as villous hypertrophy of the choroid plexus, is a rare benign condition that is characterized by bilateral enlargement of the entire choroid plexus in lateral ventricles without any discrete masses. This can result in overproduction of CSF and commun...
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Choroid plexus infarction

Choroid plexus infarction is an uncommon stroke syndrome that results from ischemic changes of the choroid plexus cells supplied by the medial posterior choroidal artery, a branch from the posterior cerebral artery (PCA). Clinical presentation Isolated choroid plexus infarction is rare and has...
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Choroid plexus lipoma

Choroid plexus lipomas are uncommon and like other intracranial lipomas are usually found incidentally at the trigones of the lateral ventricles when imaging is obtained for other indications. Terminology Some of the literature refers to the extension of tubulonodular pericallosal lipoma into ...
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Choroid plexus malignancy

Choroid plexus malignancies can be classified as primary or secondary neoplasms of the choroid plexus: Primary tumors choroid plexus papilloma (WHO grade I or II "atypical")  choroid plexus carcinoma (WHO Grade III) intraventricular meningioma Secondary tumors choroid plexus metastases Th...
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Choroid plexus metastases

Metastases to the choroid plexus from extracranial tumors are rare, but nonetheless should be included in the differential diagnosis of an intraventricular mass. They are most commonly found within the lateral ventricles, presumably because a large proportion of the choroid plexus is located the...
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Choroid plexus papilloma

Choroid plexus papillomas are an uncommon, benign (WHO grade I) neuroepithelial intraventricular tumor, which can occur in both the pediatric (more common) and adult population.  On imaging, these tumors are usually identified in the fourth ventricle in adults and in the lateral ventricles in t...
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Choroid plexus xanthogranuloma

Choroid plexus xanthogranulomata are common, incidental and almost invariably asymptomatic lesions. It is unclear in much of the literature whether they represent a distinct entity from adult choroid plexus cysts, but they share imaging characteristics and are only likely to be distinguishable o...
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Christmas inspired signs

There are many signs in radiology that are related to Christmas: snowcap sign in avascular necrosis snowman sign in total anomalous pulmonary venous return in pituitary macroadenomas snowstorm appearance in complete hydatidiform and testicular microlithiasis holly leaf sign in calcified pl...
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Chronic encephalitides

There are several viral and prion infections which can result in a chronic encephalitis with slow progression into brain atrophy. These have a very poor prognosis with no effective treatment. Some of these include: progressive multifocal leukoencephalitis subacute sclerosing panencephalitis ...
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Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an acquired demyelinating disease involving peripheral nerves, and is generally considered the chronic counterpart to Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS).  Clinical presentation Patients typically present with a gradual and protracted (>2 m...
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Chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS)

Chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) is an uncommon and only recently described disorder characterized by infiltration of the brain by inflammatory cells. It has a predilection for the pons, with fairly characteristic curvilinea...
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Chronic otomastoiditis

Chronic otomastoiditis is defined as persistent or recurrent inflammation of the middle ear (chronic otitis media) and mastoid, lasting usually for a minimum of 12 weeks, often resulting in permanent perforation of the tympanic membrane. It should be considered a separate entity from acute otoma...
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Chronic relapsing inflammatory optic neuropathy

Chronic relapsing inflammatory optic neuropathy (CRION) describes a rare, recurrent, corticosteroid-responsive optic neuropathy that should be considered as an important differential diagnosis in patients with multiple episodes of suspected optic neuritis. Epidemiology The exact incidence of C...
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Chronic small vessel disease

Chronic small vessel disease​, also known as leukoaraiosis, is a radiological term used to describe diffuse white matter changes thought to be related to small vessel disease. Terminology There is no consensus in the literature regarding terminology for chronic small vessel disease/leukoaraios...
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Chronic traumatic encephalopathy

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy is a neurodegenerative tauopathy that is thought to result from mild repetitive head trauma.  Epidemiology The exact incidence and prevalence are unknown. It is most commonly seen in amateur and professional sports players where head contact is common (e.g. box...
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cIMPACT recommendations for the classification of diffuse gliomas 2020

cIMPACT (the Consortium to Inform Molecular and Practical Approaches to CNS Tumor Taxonomy) is a forum under the auspices of the International Society of Neuropathology that recommends proposed changes to future central nervous system tumor classification systems, primarily the WHO classificatio...
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Cingulate gyrus

The cingulate gyrus lies on the medial aspect of the cerebral hemisphere. It forms a major part of the limbic system which has functions in emotion and behavior. The frontal portion is termed the anterior cingulate gyrus (or cortex) 1,2.  Gross anatomy Location The cingulate gyrus extends fro...
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Cingulate island sign

The cingulate island sign is a highly specific radiological sign described in dementia with Lewy bodies. It refers to the pattern of metabolism seen on FDG-PET in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies 1-3. On FDG-PET, there is occipital hypometabolism with relative sparing of the posterior ci...
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Cingulate sulcus

The cingulate sulcus is situated directly superior to the cingulate gyrus, which is formed by the medial surface of the frontal lobes that is directly above the corpus callosum.
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Cingulate sulcus sign

The cingulate sulcus sign has been proposed as being useful as an MRI feature of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). It denotes the posterior part of the cingulate sulcus being narrower than the anterior part. The divider between the anterior and posterior parts of the sulcus being a...
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Circle of Willis

The Circle of Willis is an arterial polygon (heptagon) formed as the internal carotid and vertebral systems anastomose around the optic chiasm and infundibulum of the pituitary stalk in the suprasellar cistern. This communicating pathway allows equalization of blood-flow between the two sides of...
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Circular sulcus

The circular sulcus is a deep sulcus that surrounds the insular cortex and separates it from the operculum of the frontal, temporal and parietal lobes. The circular sulcus is contiguous with the lateral (Sylvian) sulcus inferiorly.
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Circumventricular organs (CNS)

The circumventricular organs are neuroendocrine anatomical structures localized around the ventricles of the brain. They are characterized by a rich vasculature and fenestrated (permeable) capillaries. As such, with the exception of the subcomissural organ, they are also characterized by the abs...
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Cirrhosis (CNS manifestations)

There are several central nervous system complications that can arise in the setting of cirrhosis, which can be classified as those which are general (essentially hepatic encephalopathy) and those that are specific to the cause of cirrhosis. General manifestations The major manifestation is he...
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Cisterna magna

The cisterna magna (also known as the cerebellomedullary cistern) is the largest of the CSF-filled subarachnoid cisterns. Gross anatomy The cisterna magna is located between the cerebellum and the dorsal surface of the medulla oblongata at and above the level of the foramen magnum. CSF produce...
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Cistern of the lamina terminalis

The cistern of the lamina terminalis is one of the unpaired CSF-filled subarachnoid cisterns. Gross anatomy The cistern of lamina terminalis lies anterior to the anterior wall of the 3rd ventricle in the midline and appears like a high-top tent with diamond-shaped floor1. It acts as a connecti...
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Classification of spinal meningeal cysts

Spinal meningeal cysts can be classified according to a system published by Nabor et al 2: type I: extradural meningeal cyst without neural tissue type Ia: extradural spinal arachnoid cyst type Ib: sacral meningocele type II: extradural meningeal cyst containing neural tissue, e.g. Tarlov cy...
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Classification system for malformations of cortical development

The classification system for malformations of cortical development organizes myriad conditions into one of three major underlying groups according to the main underlying mechanism: group I: abnormal cell proliferation or apoptosis group II: abnormal neuronal migration group III: abnormal cor...
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Classification system for malformations of the cerebellum

Classification systems for malformations of the cerebellum are varied and are constantly being revised as greater understanding of the underlying genetics and embryology of the disorders is uncovered. A classification proposed by Barkovich et al. in 2009 1 divides cerebellar malformations in two...
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Classification system for midline abnormalities of the brain and skull

Classification systems for midline abnormalities of the brain and skull are varied and constantly changing as the underlying embryology and genetics are uncovered. A relatively simple and robust classification system is based on the location of abnormalities, always remembering that midline abno...
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Claude syndrome

Claude syndrome is one of the brainstem stroke syndromes in which there is infarction of the dorsomedial aspect of the midbrain. Clinical presentation Clinical picture is characteristic and includes ipsilateral oculomotor nerve palsy and contralateral upper and lower limb ataxia 1-4. Patholog...
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Claustrum

The claustrum (plural: claustra) is a vertical curved sheet of subcortical grey matter oriented sagittally between the white matter tracts of the external capsule and extreme capsule. It is lateral to the putamen and medial to the insular cortex. It is not part of the basal ganglia. There are l...
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Claustrum sign

The claustrum sign refers to the bilateral claustral involvement seen in febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES). This sign is described in T2 and FLAIR sequences, seen as hyperintensity of both claustra during the acute phase and posterior hypointensity during the chronic phase if ...
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Claw sign (mass)

The claw sign is useful in determining that a mass arises from a solid structure rather than is located adjacent to it and distorts the outline. It refers to the sharp angles on either side of the mass, which the surrounding normal parenchyma forms when the mass has arisen from the parenchyma. ...
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Clear cell ependymoma

Clear cell ependymomas are a histological variant of ependymoma characterized by prominent perinuclear cytoplasmic clearing, reminiscent of oligodendrogliomas 1.  They are typically encountered in younger patients and usually in the supratentorial compartment 1.  They have a tendency to be qui...
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Clear cell meningioma

Clear cell meningiomas are a histological variant of meningioma with poorer prognosis and a higher rate of recurrence. They are therefore considered WHO grade 2 tumors, regardless of mitotic index, cellular atypia/anaplasia, or presence of brain invasion.  Epidemiology Clear cell meningiomas h...
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Clinically isolated syndrome

Clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) is the first episode suggestive of demyelination 1,2. It can either be monofocal (single lesion) or multifocal 1,2. Not all patients with CIS will go on to develop multiple sclerosis however if at presentation there are changes on MRI suggestive of MS, then the...
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Clinically unclassifiable parkinsonism

Clinically unclassifiable parkinsonism (CUP) is a term applied to patients who have some parkinsonism features, but who do not fulfill clinical criteria for a particular disorder such as:  Parkinson disease  progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP)  multiple system atrophy (MSA-P)   corticobasal...
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Clival diploic veins

Clival diploic veins are veins that travel through the body of the clivus connecting intracranial venous structures on the inner surface of the skull (e.g. basilar venous plexus, inferior petrosal sinuses, marginal sinus, internal carotid artery venous plexus of Rektorzik, inferior petro-occipit...
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Clival masses

The differential of a mass involving or arising from the clivus is a relatively narrow one and can be divided into whether the lesion arises from the skull base itself, the intracranial compartment above or the base of skull below. When evaluating the clivus it is important to compare the marro...
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Cluster headache

Cluster headaches are a particularly painful form of recurrent headache considered the most common trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias 1.  Epidemiology Cluster headaches are fairly uncommon affecting 0.06 to 0.4% of the population 1. Men are more often affected (M:F 3:1) 1.  Clinical presentati...
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CNS aspergillosis

CNS aspergillosis results from angioinvasive infection of the central nervous system by the fungus Aspergillus spp. Along with CNS cryptococcosis, it is one of the most common fungal opportunistic infections of the central nervous system. Epidemiology The disease predominates in immunocompromi...
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CNS capillary telangiectasia

CNS capillary telangiectasiae(s) are small, asymptomatic low flow vascular lesions of the brain.  Epidemiology As these lesions are asymptomatic, diagnosis usually matches the age of first imaging with MRI, and as such are most frequently found in middle-aged and elderly adults. Their inciden...
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CNS cryptococcosis

CNS cryptococcosis results from infection of the central nervous system with the yeast-like fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. It is the most common fungal infection and second most common opportunistic infection of the central nervous system. For a general discussion of infection with this organi...
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CNS infectious diseases

This article aims to be a collection of articles that represent central nervous system infectious (CNS) diseases.  Classification By organsim The organisms involved in CNS infections vary depending on the specific location of infection. Bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, and prions can all ...
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CNS lymphoma

CNS lymphoma refers to the involvement of the central nervous system with lymphoma. It can be broadly divided into primary and secondary, with a number of special types of also recognized.  primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) intravascular lymphoma MALT lymphoma of the dura 5 secondary CNS lymphoma...
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COACH syndrome

The acronym COACH describes a syndrome associated with: C - cerebellar vermis defect (Joubert syndrome) O - oligophrenia A - ataxia C - coloboma H - hepatic fibrosis Epidemiology There only as little as 11 cases having been reported in the English medical literature. Associations The as...
Article

Coalescent mastoiditis

Coalescent mastoiditis is simply the term given to acute otomastoiditis when mucoperiosteal disease extends to involve the bone. The septae which normally separate one mastoid air cell from another are resorbed. This change is only easily appreciated on thin section bone-algorithm through the te...
Article

CoA synthase protein associated neurodegeneration

CoA synthase protein associated neurodegeneration (CoPAN) is a type of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA). Clinical presentation Patients typically present with a variety of symptoms including spastic-dystonic paraparesis, Parkinsonism, cognitive impairment, obsessive-compul...
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Coccidioidal meningitis

Coccidioidal meningitis refers to central nervous system involvement of the dimorphic fungus Coccidioides spp, mainly Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasi. For a general discussion, and for links to other system specific manifestations, please refer to the article on coccidioidomycosi...
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Coccidioidomycosis

Coccidioidomycosis refers to an infection caused by the dimorphic fungus Coccidioides spp, usually localized to the lungs. This disease is not to be confused with the similarly named paracoccidioidomycosis. Epidemiology The most common forms of Coccidioides spp are Coccidioides immitis and Coc...
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Cochlear implant

Cochlear implants (CI) are a surgically implanted electronic device that provides a sense of sound to a person who is profoundly deaf or severely hard of hearing. Unlike conventional hearing aids, the cochlear implant does not amplify sound, but works by directly stimulating any functioning audi...
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Cochlear incomplete partition

Cochlear incomplete partition is a group of cochlear malformations associated with variable other inner ear architecture defects. These malformations have in common that the cochlea is clearly separated from the vestibule and the external contour of the cochlear is nearly normal in size, but the...
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Cochlear incomplete partition type I

Cochlear incomplete partition type I (IP-I) is a type of cochlear anomaly associated with sensorineural hearing loss. Radiographic features CT As with other types of incomplete partition, the cochlea is clearly differentiated from the vestibule and the external dimensions of the cochlea are n...
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Cochlear incomplete partition type II

Cochlear incomplete partition type II  (IP-II) is a type of cochlear anomaly associated with sensorineural hearing loss. It should not be confused with Mondini anomaly, which is a historic term for a combination of IP-II and large vestibular aqueduct. Radiographic features CT On CT, the coch...
Article

Cochlear nuclei

The cochlear nuclei are a group of two small special sensory nuclei in the upper medulla for the cochlear nerve component of the vestibulocochlear nerve. They are part of the extensive cranial nerve nuclei within the brainstem. Gross Anatomy The dorsal and ventral nuclei are located in the dor...
Article

Cockayne syndrome

Cockayne syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive dysmyelinating disease. Cockayne syndrome is classified among the childhood leukodystrophies, and brain imaging findings are cardinal features suggesting the diagnosis of Cockayne syndrome. Previously published Cockayne syndrome imaging studies hav...
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Code stroke CT (an approach)

A code stroke CT can be daunting to interpret as not only does it involve many sequences but it also includes CT perfusion with which many radiologists and clinicians alike are relatively unfamiliar. If that wasn’t challenging enough, there is usually the added pressure to make the diagnosis rap...
Article

Coffin-Siris syndrome

Coffin-Siris syndrome, first described in 1970, is a rare genetic abnormality. Coffin-Siris syndrome should not be confused with Coffin-Lowry syndrome. Epidemiology It occurs more frequently in females (with a M:F of ~4:1). Clinical presentation One of the most typical features is absence o...
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Cognard classification of dural arteriovenous fistulas

The Cognard classification of dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVF) correlates venous drainage patterns with increasingly aggressive neurological clinical course and stratifies the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage. It was first described in 1995 1 and at the time of writing (July 2016) is probably...

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