Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

2,648 results found
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CSF-venous fistula

CSF-venous fistulas are rare and only recently recognized causes of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. They are a direct communication between the spinal subarachnoid space and epidural veins allowing for the loss of CSF directly into the circulation and can be either iatrogenic or spontaneou...
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CT angiographic spot sign (intracerebral hemorrhage)

The spot sign is a CTA sign in acute intracerebral hemorrhage and representing the focal accumulation/pooling/extravasation of contrast containing blood within the hematomas. It is an important feature to identify during the evaluation of acute intracerebral hemorrhage as it significantly increa...
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CT angiography of the cerebral arteries (technique)

CT angiography of the cerebral arteries (also known as a CTA carotids or an arch to vertex angiogram) is a noninvasive technique allows visualization of the internal and external carotid arteries and vertebral arteries and can include just the intracranial compartment or also extend down to the ...
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CT angiography source image ASPECTS

CT angiography source image ASPECTS (CTA-SI ASPECTS) is a semiquantitative scoring system to characterize the extent and severity of mainly middle cerebral artery ischemic stroke, although it can be adapted to other vascular territories as well. The added value of CTA-SI ASPECTS is that it direc...
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CT cerebral venography (technique)

CT cerebral venography (also known as a CTV head or CT venogram) is a contrast-enhanced examination with an acquisition delay providing an accurate detailed depiction of the cerebral venous system.  NB: This article is intended to outline some general principles of protocol design. The specific...
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CT cisternography

Computed tomography (CT) cisternography is an imaging technique used to diagnose CSF rhinorrhea or CSF otorrhea (CSF leaks), as CT allows the assessment of the bones of the base of the skull.  Procedure pre-contrast CT is performed with thin slices 3-10 mL of an iodinated non-ionic low-osmola...
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CT comma sign (head)

The CT comma sign is a characteristic sign seen in head trauma. It is the presence of concurrent epidural and subdural hematomas, which gives the characteristic appearance of this sign as a "comma" shape.
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CT head

CT head (sometimes termed CT brain), refers to a computed tomography examination of the brain and surrounding structures. It can be performed as a single non-contrast study or the combination of a non-contrast and post-contrast (delayed) study. This allows the identification of abnormal contrast...
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CT head (an approach)

The approach taken to interpreting a CT scan of the head is no doubt different depending on the circumstances and the reading clinician, however, most radiologists will go through the same steps, although order may vary. What follows is merely a suggested approach to interpreting a CT of the hea...
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CT head (standard report)

A CT head standard report may not be applicable in all situations, but gives an idea of some of the areas to cover when reporting a CT head. Standardized reports are controversial and should be used with caution. Report Clinical details Headache with photophobia. Technique CT head without ...
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CT head (subdural window)

The subdural (blood) window can be used when reviewing a CT brain as it makes intracranial hemorrhage more conspicuous, and may help in the detection of thin acute subdural hematomas that are against the calvaria that are similar density to adjacent bone. It is a wider setting than the standard ...
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CT head (technique)

CT head technique describes how a CT head is performed. Technique The technique for performing a CT of the head depends on the scanner available and fall into two broad camps:  step-and-shoot (sequential) volumetric acquisition (helical)  Helical is the most common technique.  Step-and-sho...
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CT perfusion in ischemic stroke

CT perfusion in ischemic stroke has become established in most centers with stroke services as an important adjunct, along with CT angiography (CTA), to conventional unenhanced CT brain imaging. It enables differentiation of salvageable ischemic brain tissue (the penumbra) from the irrevocably ...
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Cuneate fasciculus

The cuneate fasciculus, also known as the fasciculus cuneatus (plural: fasciculi cuneati) or column of Burdach, represents the lateral portion of the dorsal columns and carries input from between and including C1 and T6 1.  Function The cuneate fasciculus is responsible for transmitting vibrat...
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Cuneus

The cuneus (plural: cunei) is a wedge-shaped region on the medial surface of the occipital lobe. Gross anatomy Relations Anterosuperiorly the parieto-occipital sulcus separates the cuneus from the precuneus of the parietal lobe. Posteroinferiorly the cuneus abuts the calcarine sulcus which s...
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Cushing response

The Cushing response or reflex occurs in the setting of raised intracranial pressure and is the triad of: hypertension bradycardia apnea/irregular breathing
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Cyanide poisoning

Cyanide poisoning is a cause of an acute anoxic-ischemic encephalopathy that also has eventual chronic sequelae.  Epidemiology Acute cyanide poisoning is rare and often occurs after suicidal oral ingestion of cyanide-containing compounds, however there are other sources such as after smoke inh...
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Cyclopia

Cyclopia refers to a rare fetal malformation characterized by a single palpebral fissure and a single midline orbit. This orbit may contain either a single globe or two separate globe. Epidemiology The condition is thought to affect approximately 1 in 40,000 to 95,000 births (inclusive of stil...
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Cystic glioblastoma

Cystic glioblastoma is a descriptive term for one form of glioblastoma that contains a large cystic component, rather than being a pathological subtype.  Please refer to the main article on glioblastoma for a broad discussion on this tumor.  Radiographic features The main challenge in discrim...
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Cystic leukoencephalopathy without megalencephaly

Cystic leukoencephalopathy without megalencephaly, is an autosomal-recessive inherited condition that manifests in the early childhood with moderate to severe psychomotor retardation and spasticity. On imaging, it is characterized by bilateral anterior subcortical temporal lobe cysts and extens...
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Cystic meningioma

The term cystic meningioma is applied to both meningiomas with intratumoral degenerative cyst formation as well as those with peritumoral arachnoid cysts or reactive intraparenchymal cysts.  They should not be confused with microcystic meningiomas, a distinct variant, in which the cysts are mic...
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Cystic spinal cord lesions

A cystic spinal lesion can result from a number of disease entities. They include: Primary Chiari malformations Dandy walker malformation diastematomyelia spinal dysraphism certain skeletal dysplasias 2 achondroplasia tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome type I ependymal cysts 4 Acquired ...
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Cyst of the medullary conus

Cyst of the medullary conus is a rare benign ependymal cyst of the conus medullaris which probably relates to abnormal persistence and cystic dilatation of the ventriculus terminalis or "5th ventricle". This entity can be symptomatic and present in adulthood with bladder or bowel sphincter distu...
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Cyst with dot sign (neurocysticercosis)

The cyst with dot sign is seen in neurocysticercosis and represents the parasitic cyst with, usually eccentric, scolex. It can be seen on both MRI and CT at: the vesicular stage (CSF density / intensity cyst - denser / hyperintense scolex) and colloidal vesicular stage (enhancement of wall an...
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Cytomegalovirus encephalitis

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) encephalitis is a CNS infection that almost always develops in the context of profound immunosuppression.  This article focus on adult infection. CMV is also one of the most frequent prenatal infections, which is discussed separately: congenital CMV infection.  Epidemiolo...
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Cytotoxic cerebral edema

Cytotoxic cerebral edema refers to a type of cerebral edema, most commonly seen in cerebral ischemia, in which extracellular water passes into cells, resulting in their swelling.  The term is frequently used in clinical practice to denote the combination of true cytotoxic edema and ionic cerebr...
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Cytotoxic lesions of the corpus callosum (CLOCCs)

Cytotoxic lesions of the corpus callosum (CLOCCs) represent a collection of disparate conditions that can cause signal change in the corpus callosum, usually involving the splenium.  Terminology The term cytotoxic lesions of the corpus callosum (CLOCCs) has been proposed recently 12 as a more ...
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Dandy-Walker continuum

Dandy-Walker continuum, also referred to as Dandy-Walker spectrum or Dandy-Walker complex, corresponds to a group of disorders believed to represent a continuum spectrum of posterior fossa malformations, characterized by inferior vermian hypoplasia and incomplete formation of the fourth ventricl...
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Dandy-Walker malformation

Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM) is the most common posterior fossa malformation, characterized by the triad of: hypoplasia of the vermis and cephalad rotation of the vermian remnant cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle extending posteriorly  enlarged posterior fossa with torcular-lambdoi...
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Dandy-Walker variant

Dandy-Walker variant (DWv) is a less severe posterior fossa anomaly than the classic Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM) and is considered being on the lesser end of the disease spectrum in the Dandy-Walker continuum. Terminology This term was created to include those malformations that do not mee...
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Dawson fingers

Dawson fingers are a radiographic feature of demyelination characterized by periventricular demyelinating plaques distributed along the axis of medullary veins, perpendicular to the body of the lateral ventricles and/or callosal junction. This is thought to reflect perivenular inflammation. They...
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Deafness

Deafness (also known as hearing loss or impairment) is the partial or complete loss of the sense of hearing.  It may be subdivided etiologically into conductive: impairment of the passage of sound waves from the auricle to the inner ear sensorineural: impairment localizes to the inner ear, in...
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Decompression sickness

Decompression sickness (DCS), also known as diver's disease, aerobullosis, the bends or caisson disease, is an uncommon diving-related decompression illness that is an acute neurological emergency typically occurring in deep sea divers.  Clinical Presentation Decompression sickness can be furt...
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Deep brain stimulation

Deep brain stimulation is used in a variety of clinical settings, predominantly in patients with poorly controlled movement disorders. Although effective, its exact mode of function continues to be poorly understood 2.   Careful patient selection and target selection are essential if the proced...
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Deep cerebral veins

The deep cerebral veins drain the deep white matter and grey matter that surround the basal cisterns and ventricular system. The deep veins are responsible for the outflow of approximately the inner 80% of the hemisphere. They provide useful landmarks for skull base and intraventricular surgery ...
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Deep cerebral vein thrombosis

Deep cerebral vein thrombosis is a subset of cerebral venous thrombosis involving the internal cerebral veins, often coexisting with cortical vein thrombosis or dural venous sinus thrombosis, and with different clinical presentations relying on which segment is involved. As such please refer to...
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Default mode network

The default mode network (DMN), is a group of specific brain regions that are functionally-connected. The regions become active in the resting state (not doing any active task), and inactive when someone is engaged in any attention-demanding tasks 1; this phenomenon has been termed task-induced ...
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Dé​jerine-Roussy syndrome

Dé​jerine-Roussy syndrome, or thalamic pain syndrome, is a type of central post-stroke pain syndrome caused by a stroke to the thalamus. This syndrome should not be confused with Déjerine syndrome or Déjerine-Sottas syndrome. Epidemiology Approximately 25% of all patients with sensory strokes...
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Déjerine-Sottas disease

Déjerine-Sottas disease, also known as hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type III or hypertrophic interstitial polyneuritis, is a rare hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN). This syndrome should not be confused with Déjerine syndrome or Déjerine-Roussy syndrome. Clinical present...
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Delayed cerebral ischemia

Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is a frequent complication of subarachnoid hemorrhage. It contributes substantially to the morbidity and mortality following subarachnoid hemorrhage. It is defined as symptomatic vasospasm related to subarachnoid hemorrhage or cerebral infarction demonstrated on i...
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Delirium

Delirium (also known as acute brain failure) is an acute syndrome characterized by impaired intellect, awareness and concentration. Typically, the cognitive impairment fluctuates throughout the day. In contrast to dementia, delirium tends to be reversible. Terminology The number of synonyms fo...
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Delta resistive index

The delta resistive index (delta RI or Δ RI) is a measurement that can be made when performing Doppler ultrasound. In preterm babies who have hydrocephalus secondary to intraventricular hemorrhage, the delta RI can be used to determine whether decompression of the ventricular system with an...
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Delta sign (disambiguation)

The delta sign has been described in several different pathologies: delta sign (brain) empty delta sign (brain) double delta sign (MSK)
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Dementia with Lewy bodies

Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), also known as Lewy body disease, is a neurodegenerative disease (a synucleinopathy to be specific) related to Parkinson disease. It is reported as the second most common form of dementia following Alzheimer disease, accounting for 15-20% of cases at autopsy.  Ep...
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Demyelinating disorders

Demyelinating disorders are a subgroup of white matter disorders characterized by the destruction or damage of normally myelinated structures. These disorders may be inflammatory, infective, ischemic or toxic in origin and include 1-7: autoimmune demyelination multiple sclerosis (MS) Marburg ...
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Demyelination

Demyelination is incorrectly often equated to multiple sclerosis, whereas in reality it is a generic pathological term simply describing, as the word suggests, the loss of normal myelin around axons in the central nervous system. This should be distinguished from dysmyelination where the formati...
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Demyelination protocol (MRI)

MRI protocol for demyelinating diseases is a group of MRI sequences put together to best approach these white matter disorders characterized by the destruction or damage of normally myelinated structures. These disorders may be inflammatory, infective, ischemic or toxic in origin.  Historically...
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Denervation changes in muscles

Denervation changes in muscles or denervation myopathy can be observed in a number of settings and results from partial or complete loss of innervation. There is a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations: temporary or permanent symptomatic or asymptomatic. Pathology Causes include 2: neur...
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Dense vein sign

The dense vein sign refers to hyperattenuating thrombus within a cortical vein or dural venous sinus due to acute venous thrombosis. When located in the superior sagittal sinus, particularly posteriorly, it is sometimes referred to as the delta, triangle or pseudodelta sign. It is really the sa...
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Dentate gyrus

The dentate gyrus is located in the mesial temporal lobe and forms part of the hippocampal formation, along with the hippocampus proper and subiculum.  The dentate gyrus receives fibers from the entorhinal cortex via the perforant path and projects fibers to the CA3 portion of the hippocampus. ...
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Dentate nucleus

The dentate nucleus is the largest and most lateral of the cerebellar nuclei, located medially within each cerebellar hemisphere, just posterolateral to the fourth ventricle 1.  It is part of the triangle of Guillain and Mollaret, connected to the contralateral red nucleus via the superior cere...
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Dentatorubral–pallidoluysian atrophy

Dentatorubral–pallidoluysian atrophy​ (DRPLA) is a clinically heterogenous autosomal dominant CAG repeat expansion disorder that is particularly prevalent within the Japanese population. Epidemiology The majority of case reports are in patients of Japanese origin, where disease prevalence is 1...
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Denticulate ligaments

The denticulate ligaments are bilateral triangular lateral extensions of pia mater that anchor the spinal cord to the dura mater. They are formed by pia mater of the spinal cord coursing in-between the dorsal and ventral nerve roots bilaterally. They function to provide stability to the spinal ...
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Denver criteria for blunt cerebrovascular injury

The Denver criteria are a set of screening criteria used to determine when CT angiography of the neck is indicated to detect blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) in trauma patients.  Screening criteria The Denver criteria were initially developed in 1996 1, modified in 2005 to limit the types o...
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Depth-of-fissure sign

The depth-of-fissure sign, also known as apex-of-fissure sign or bottom-of-fissure sign, is a radiographic sign that helps to recognize cerebellar infarcts in children as well as in adults 1-3. Usage  The 'depth-of-fissure' sign is recognized on cross-sectional imaging studies of the brain, es...
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Desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma and ganglioglioma

Desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma and gangliogliomas are a rare intracranial tumor, which despite their aggressive appearances tend to have a good prognosis and are considered WHO grade I tumors.  Terminology Previously considered separate entities, desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma and desm...
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Developmental venous anomaly

Developmental venous anomaly (DVA), also known as cerebral venous angioma, is a congenital malformation of veins which drain normal brain. They were thought to be rare before cross-sectional imaging but are now recognized as being the most common cerebral vascular malformation, accounting for ~5...
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Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (more commonly known as the DSM) is published by the American Psychiatric Association and is the most widely used guide to psychiatric diseases in clinical practice and research globally. The first edition was published in 1952; the lates...
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Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome

The dialysis disequilibrium syndrome (DDS) is a situation characterized by development of neurological symptoms following the rapid removal of urea during hemodialysis. It develops primarily from an osmotic gradient that develops between the brain and the plasma as a result of rapid haemodialysi...
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Diaphragma sellae

The diaphragma sellae is one of the folds (or reflections) of the dura mater. It covers the sella turcica and forms the roof over the pituitary fossa 1. Gross anatomy The diaphragma sellae consists of two horizontal leaves of dura mater on the sphenoid bone. It extends from the tuberculum sell...
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Diastematomyelia

Diastematomyelia, also known as a split cord malformation, refers to a type of spinal dysraphism (spina bifida occulta) when there is a longitudinal split in the spinal cord.  Terminology Although traditionally it has been distinguished from diplomyelia (in which the cord is duplicated rather ...
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Diencephalon

The diencephalon is connected above and in front with the cerebral hemispheres; behind with the mid-brain. Its upper surface is concealed by the corpus callosum, and is covered by a fold of pia mater, named the tela choroidea of the third ventricle; inferiorly it reaches to the base of the brain...
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Differential diagnoses for temporal lobe tumors

Most tumors of the CNS can potentially occur in the temporal lobe, but entities with a predilection for being diagnosed in this location include: pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) ganglioglioma pilocytic astrocytoma dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNET) multinodular and vacuolatin...
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Diffuse astrocytoma

Diffuse astrocytomas, also referred to as low-grade infiltrative astrocytomas, are designated as WHO II tumors of the brain. The term diffuse infiltrating means there is no identifiable border between the tumor and normal brain tissue, even though the borders may appear well-marginated on imagin...
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Diffuse astrocytoma grading

Diffuse astrocytomas can be graded in according to a number of systems, the most popular being the WHO grading system. In general these grading systems focus on the presence or absence of a number of histological features 3: cellular atypia/anaplasia  mitotic activity microvascular proliferat...
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Diffuse axonal injury

Diffuse axonal injury (DAI), also known as traumatic axonal injury (TAI), is a severe form of traumatic brain injury due to shearing forces. It is a potentially difficult diagnosis to make on imaging alone, especially on CT as the finding can be subtle, however, it has the potential to result in...
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Diffuse axonal injury (grading)

Grading of diffuse axonal injury due to trauma is described according to the anatomic distribution of injury. Contrary to the implication of the word "diffuse," diffuse axonal injury has a topological predilection for focal involvement of certain sites in the brain. These sites, in turn, vary in...
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Diffuse bone marrow infiltration on MRI (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember differentials causing diffuse bone marrow infiltration on MRI. Diffuse bone marrow infiltration is best evaluated on T1 sequences and maybe focal or diffuse. Focal infiltration is seen in metastases and lymphoma. Diffuse pattern is seen more commonly in multiple myeloma, m...
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Diffuse brainstem gliomas

Diffuse brainstem gliomas, also known as diffuse intrinsic brainstem glioma (DIBG), is a term used to describe infiltrating astrocytomas, no longer recognized as a distinct entity in the 2016 update to the WHO classification of CNS tumors. It encompassed a variety of tumors, ranging from WHO gra...
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Diffuse cerebellar atrophy

Diffuse atrophy of the cerebellum refers to a progressive and irreversible reduction in cerebellar volume. It is a relatively common finding and found in a wide variety of clinical scenarios.  Terminology Diffuse cerebellar atrophy can be difficult to distinguish from global cerebellar hypopla...
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Diffuse cutaneous neurofibroma

Diffuse cutaneous neurofibromas are a rare neurofibroma variant, similar to plexiform neurofibromas which may be co-existent. Both neurofibromas and plexiform neurofibromas are discussed separately.  Terminology There are variable uses and some confusion about the distinction between plexiform...
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Diffuse dural calcification

Diffuse dural calcification can occur in a number of settings. These include parathyroid abnormalities hyperparathyroidism secondary hyperparathyroidism 2 tertiary hyperparathyroidism 3 renal failure 6 nephrogenic systemic fibrosis 1 congenital syndromes basal cell nevus syndrome Differ...
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Diffuse glioma

Diffuse glioma is a term used to encompass a variety of tumors of the central nervous system, which histologically appear similar to glial cells, specifically astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas, ranging from WHO grade II to grade IV tumors 1. Importantly, it does not include ...
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Diffuse leptomeningeal glioneuronal tumor

Diffuse leptomeningeal glioneuronal tumor (also previously known as disseminated oligodendroglial-like leptomeningeal tumor of childhood) is a rare and only recently described tumor of the central nervous system included in the WHO classification of CNS tumors in the 2016 update 2,5. Morphologic...
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Diffuse midline glioma H3 K27M–mutant

Diffuse midline glioma H3 K27M–mutant is a specific entity added to the 2016 update of the WHO classification of CNS tumors, that represents the majority of diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas, although identical tumors are also found elsewhere in the midline (e.g. brainstem, spinal cord and thala...
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Diffusion kurtosis imaging

Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) is an advanced neuroimaging modality which is an extension of diffusion tensor imaging by estimating the kurtosis (skewed distribution) of water diffusion based on a probability distribution function. It provides a high order diffusion of water distribution and a...
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Diffusion tensor imaging and fiber tractography

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an MRI technique that uses anisotropic diffusion to estimate the axonal (white matter) organization of the brain. Fiber tractography (FT) is a 3D reconstruction technique to assess neural tracts using data collected by diffusion tensor imaging. Diffusion-weigh...
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Diffusion weighted MRI in acute stroke

Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is a commonly performed MRI sequence for evaluation of acute ischemic stroke, and is sensitive in the detection of small and early infarcts. Conventional MRI sequences (T1WI, T2WI) may not demonstrate an infarct for 6 hours, and small infarcts may be hard to appr...
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Diplomyelia

Diplomyelia is a rare spinal cord malformation in which the cord is duplicated. It should be distinguished from diastematomyelia in which a single cord is split. Having said that it has been proposed that the term be abandoned in favor of split cord malformation, which encompasses both diastemat...
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Disappearing basal ganglia sign

The disappearing basal ganglia sign is one of the early signs of a middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction. It is defined as the loss of delineation of the basal ganglia, due to blurring of their grey-white matter interface and hypoattenuation, consequent to cytotoxic edema at the time of an isc...
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Disproportionately enlarged subarachnoid space hydrocephalus (DESH)

Disproportionately enlarged subarachnoid space hydrocephalus (DESH) is a pattern of communicating hydrocephalus characterized by crowding of the sulci superiorly near the vertex accompanied by enlargement of CSF spaces more inferiorly, particularly in the Sylvian fissures 1. It is a prominent fe...
Article

Distal dural ring

The distal dural ring is an anatomical landmark that separates the extradural from the intradural intracranial internal carotid artery (ICA). It is located at the junction of the cavernous, clinoid and ophthalmic segments of the ICA. Gross anatomy Anatomy of this region is complex and varied a...
Article

Divry van Bogaert syndrome

Divry van Bogaert syndrome is a familial juvenile-onset syndrome characterized by livedo racemosa, juvenile ischemic stroke, juvenile cerebral white matter disease leading to premature dementia, and epilepsy. Clinical presentation juvenile ischemic stroke epilepsy early-onset cognitive impai...
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Dolichoectasia

The term dolichoectasia means dilated and elongated. It is used to characterize arteries that have shown a significant deterioration of their tunica intima (and occasionally the tunica media), weakening the vessel walls and causing the artery to elongate and distend. Epidemiology Dolichoectasi...
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Dopaminergic pathways

Dopaminergic pathways include: mesolimbic  mesocortical  striatonigral  tuberoinfundibular 
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Dorsal brainstem syndrome

Dorsal brainstem syndrome is a rare subset of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy in neonates limited to the isolated involvement of the brainstem with sparing of the supratentorial brain. Due to its subtle imaging features, it is often undiagnosed. Clinical presentation Injuries involving the teg...
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Dorsal columns

The dorsal columns, or posterior columns, are ascending pathways primarily concerned with sensory function. They are responsible for transmitting vibration, conscious proprioception, and fine (discriminative) touch 1,2. The dorsal columns are divided two tracts, which are discussed separately 2...
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Dorsal cord syndrome

Dorsal cord syndrome, also known as posterior spinal cord syndrome, is one of the incomplete cord syndromes resulting from pathology affecting the posterior part of the spinal cord, particularly the dorsal columns and potentially (in larger lesions) the lateral corticospinal tracts 1.  Clinical...
Article

Dorsal cyst of holoprosencephaly

The dorsal cyst of holoprosencephaly is a large cerebrospinal fluid cavity present in holoprosencephaly that occupies the area above the dorsocaudal aspect of the diencephalon. This communicates directly with the prosencephalic, telencephalic, or diencephalic ventricle. This cavity usually abuts...
Article

Dorsal dermal sinus

Dorsal dermal sinus is an epithelium-lined tract from the skin to the spinal cord, cauda equina, or arachnoid as in a form of spinal dysraphism.  Clinical presentation A dorsal dermal sinus manifests as a small dimple or pinpoint ostium, which is often associated with an area of hyperpigmented...
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Dorsal horn

The dorsal horn of the spinal cord is one of the grey longitudinal columns found within the spinal cord. It primarily acts as the termination of primary afferent fibers via the dorsal roots of the spinal nerves. Gross Anatomy On transverse section of the spinal cord the spinal grey matter is d...
Article

Dorsal root ganglion

The dorsal root ganglia are an enlargement of the dorsal root of spinal nerves representing the cell bodies of the primary somatosensory neurons. Gross anatomy Each dorsal root ganglion is oval and proportional in size to its related root. They are usually found just distal to the intervertebr...
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Dorsal thoracic arachnoid web

Dorsal thoracic arachnoid web refers to a thickened band of arachnoid over the dorsal aspect of the cord. It usually causes a focal thoracic cord distortion with consequent neurological dysfunction.  On imaging, it is characterized by a focal dorsal indentation and anterior displacement of the ...

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