Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

2,245 results found
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Non-accidental injuries

Non-accidental injuries (NAI) represent both ethical and legal challenges to treating physicians. Radiologists are often the first to suspect NAI when confronted with particular injury patterns, and a knowledge of these is essential if the opportunity to save a child from future neglect is not ...
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SADDAN syndrome

SADDAN syndrome is an acronym for severe achondroplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans. It is an extremely rare condition, and as the name states, comprises a combination of skeletal, brain and cutaneous anomalies. Pathology Genetics The syndrome results from a mutation in ...
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Li-Fraumeni syndrome

Li-Fraumeni syndrome is a hereditary cancer syndrome due to mutations in the tumour suppressor gene TP53. Approximately half of affected individuals are thought to develop invasive cancer by 30 years of age 1. Associated malignancies sarcomas osteosarcoma rhabdomyosarcoma CNS tumours gliom...
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Filar cyst

A filar cyst is an incidental finding on neonatal lumbar sonography located in the filum terminale of the spinal cord. It is considered a normal variant and is often confused for a ventriculus terminalis, a smooth dilated cavity of the central canal, located within the conus medullaris. The inc...
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Transverse myelitis

Acute transverse myelitis (ATM) is an inflammatory condition affecting both halves of the spinal cord and associated with rapidly progressive motor, sensory, and autonomic dysfunction. It is mostly imaged with MRI, which generally shows a long segment (3-4 segments or more) of T2 increased sign...
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Hydatid disease

Hydatid cysts result from infection by the Echinococcus, and can result in cyst formation anywhere in the body.  Pathology There are two main species of the Echinococcus tapeworm 1,2: Echinococcus granulosus commoner pastoral: dog is a main host; most common form sylvatic: wolf is a main h...
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Cerebral venous infarction

Cerebral venous infarction is an uncommon form of stroke, and is most commonly secondary to cerebral venous thrombosis and frequently manifests with haemorrhage. It should be considered in infarcts (with or without haemorrhage) which do not correspond to a typical arterial territory 1. Epidemio...
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Caput succedaneum

Caput succedaneum is a manifestation of birth trauma, and it consists of a subcutaneous serosanguineous fluid collection external to the Galeal aponeurosis in the newborn's scalp. The fluid collection is extra-periosteal. It may be imaged with ultrasound, CT, or MRI. Caput succedaneum results f...
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Iophendylate

Iophendylate / iodophenylundecylic acid, tradename Pantopaque (USA) or Myodil (elsewhere), is an oil-based contrast medium that used to be used for myelography. Its generic name is iodophenylundecylic acid and it was first used in 1944 and was officially discontinued in 1988 6. The iodine moiet...
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Non-ketotic hyperglycaemic hemichorea

Non-ketotic hyperglycaemic hemichorea (NHH) is a rare cause of T1 bright basal ganglia and one of the neurological complications of non-ketotic hyperglycaemia, along with non-ketotic hyperosmolar coma and non-ketotic hyperglycaemic seizures.  Epidemiology Non-ketotic hyperglycaemic hemichorea ...
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Bithalamic lesions

Bilateral thalamic lesions are usually seen in combination with basal ganglia, white matter and sometimes cortical lesions. Symmetrical bilateral involvement of the thalami has a broad differential diagnosis: vascular deep cerebral vein thrombosis and dural venous sinus thrombosis: internal c...
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Dawson fingers

Dawson fingers are a radiographic feature of demyelination characterised by periventricular demyelinating plaques distributed along the axis of medullary veins, perpendicular to the body of the lateral ventricles and/or callosal junction. This is thought to reflect perivenular inflammation. They...
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Behçet disease

Behçet disease is a multisystemic and chronic inflammatory vasculitis of unknown aetiology. Epidemiology The mean age at which Behçet disease occurs is 20-30 years. The disease is most prevalent in the Mediterranean region, Middle East and East Asia. The highest incidence has been reported in ...
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Leptomeningeal metastases

Leptomeningeal metastases, also know as carcinomatous meningitis, refers to the spread of malignant cells through the CSF space. These cells can be originated both in primary CNS tumours (e.g. drop-metastases), as well as from distant tumours that have metastasised via haematogenous spread. Thi...
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Polio-like paralysis

Polio-like paralysis refers to a paralytic state which is similar in clinical appearance to polio, but from which poliovirus is not isolated. Like polio, the main presenting symptom is acute flaccid paralysis. Pathology There are many causes, some of which are infective, e.g. coxsackie A9 and ...
Article

Colloid cyst of the third ventricle

Colloid cysts of the third ventricle are benign epithelial lined cysts with characteristic imaging features. Although usually asymptomatic, they can rarely present with acute and profound hydrocephalus. Classically these cysts are identified as a well-delineated hyperattenuated masses on nonenh...
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Distal dural ring

The distal dural ring is an anatomical landmark that separates the extradural from the intradural intracranial internal carotid artery (ICA). It is located at the junction of the cavernous, clinoid and ophthalmic segments of the ICA. Gross anatomy Anatomy of this region is complex and varied a...
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Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis encompasses an enormously wide disease spectrum affecting multiple organs and body systems predominantly caused by the organism Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A small proportion can also be caused Mycobacterium bovis.  Epidemiology Although tubeculsosis continues to be very common in...
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Medical devices in the abdomen and pelvis

Medical devices in the abdomen and pelvis are important to be recognised, just like medical devices of the chest. Often we ignore these devices, considering them to be incidental and non-pathological, however it is essential to be aware of potential complications. Gastrointestinal tubes stomac...
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Neuroblastoma

Neuroblastomas are tumours of neuroblastic origin. Although they may occur anywhere along the sympathetic chain, the vast majority arise from the adrenal gland. They represent the most common extracranial solid childhood malignancy and are the third commonest childhood tumour after leukaemia an...
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Acute cerebellitis

Acute cerebellitis, also known as acute cerebellar ataxia, is a rare inflammatory process characterised by a sudden onset of cerebellar dysfunction usually affecting children. It is related as a consequence of a primary or secondary infection, or much less commonly as a result of a post-vaccinat...
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Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula

Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (SDAVF) are the most common type of spinal vascular malformation, accounting for ~70% of all such lesions. This article specifically relates to spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas. For a discussion of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas refer to the mai...
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Lhermitte-Duclos disease

Lhermitte-Duclos disease, also known as dysplastic cerebellar gangliocytoma, is a rare tumour of the cerebellum. It is probably hamartomatous, although the exact pathogenesis remains unknown 2,6. Even though it may not be neoplastic, it is considered a WHO grade I tumour in the current WHO class...
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Fetal intracranial cystic lesions

Fetal intracranial cystic lesions can arise from a number of pathologies, including: Non-tumourous fetal arachnoid cyst  fetal choroid plexus cyst fetal connatal cyst fetal porencephalic cyst fetal interhemispheric cyst fetal subependymal cyst dorsal cyst of holoprosencephaly Blake pouc...
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Xenon-133

Xenon-133 is a radiopharmaceutical principally used when a performing VQ scan. Inhalation of this gas can also be used to assess cerebral blood flow. photon energy: 81 KeV physical half-life: 5.27 days biological half-life: 30 seconds normal distribution: lungs <15% of inhaled gas is absorb...
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Ioflupane (I-123)

Ioflupane (I-123) is a radiopharmaceutical for the diagnosis of Parkinson disease and its differential diagnoses. Characteristics iodine-123 is a cyclotron product physical half-life is 13.22 hours predominant energy of its gamma spectrum is 159 keV Ioflupane is the international non-propri...
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Pool sign (intracranial; metastatic adenocarcinoma)

The pool sign is a recently described brain MRI appearance where an intracranial mass exhibits a T2 hyperintense rim adjacent to a solid mass surrounded by peritumoral oedema. This appearance has been recently suggested to be a feature characteristic of metastatic adenocarcinoma (with various pr...
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Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN1), also known as Wermer syndrome, is an autosomal dominant genetic disease that results in proliferative lesions in multiple endocrine organs, particularly the pituitary gland, islet cells of the pancreas and parathyroid glands.  There are other multiple...
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Antiphospholipid syndrome

Antiphospholipid syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disorder. It is usually defined as the clinical complex of vascular occlusion and ischaemic events occurring in patients who have circulating antiphospholipid antibodies. Clinical presentation Antiphospholipid syndrome is characterised by veno...
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Cavum vergae

The cavum vergae (CV), along with the cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) is a persistence of the embryological fluid-filled space between the leaflets of the septum pellucidum and is a common anatomical variant. The CV is sometimes referred to as the 6th ventricle 3.  Gross anatomy The CV is the po...
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Dural metastases

Dural or pachymeningeal metastases are a relatively common cause of dural masses, although they are less common than brain metastases and meningiomas. They can occur both within the spine and intracranially - this article is focussed on intracranial dural masses.  Clinical presentation Patient...
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Sneddon syndrome

Sneddon syndrome is a type of systemic non-inflammatory vasculopathy characterised by livedo reticularis and progressive and occlusive cerebrovascular thrombosis involving the medium-sized arteries.  Clinical presentation livedo reticularis as a skin manifestation  progressive cerebral stroke...
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Intramedullary spinal metastasis

Intramedullary spinal metastases are rare, occurring in ~1% of autopsied cancer patients, and are less common than leptomeningeal metastases. Intramedullary lesions may result from: growth along the Virchow-Robin spaces haematogenous dissemination direct extension from leptomeninges Epidemi...
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Down syndrome

Down syndrome (or trisomy 21) is the most common trisomy and also the commonest chromosomal disorder. It is a major cause of intellectual disability, and also has numerous multi-system manifestations. Epidemiology According to the world health organisation (WHO), the approximate worldwide inci...
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Chondrosarcoma

Chondrosarcomas are malignant cartilaginous tumours that account for ~25% of all primary malignant bone tumours. They are most commonly found in older patients within the long bones and can arise de novo or secondary from an existing benign cartilaginous neoplasm. On imaging, these tumours have ...
Article

Bill bar

Bill bar is a bony anatomical landmark that divides the superior compartment of the internal acoustic meatus into an anterior and posterior compartment. Anterior to Bill's bar, in the anterior superior quadrant, are the facial nerve (CN VII) and nervus intermedius, and posterior to it, in the po...
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Falciform crest

The falciform crest (or crista falciformis) is a horizontal ridge that divides the internal acoustic meatus (IAM) into superior and inferior portions. Superior The facial nerve (VII) and superior vestibular nerve (SVN) travel in the superior portion of the IAM with the facial nerve anterior to...
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Acoustic schwannoma

Acoustic schwannomas (also known as vestibular schwannomas) are relatively common tumours that arise from the vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII) and represent ~80% of cerebellopontine angle masses. Bilateral acoustic schwannomas are strongly suggestive of neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). These tu...
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Vestibulocochlear nerve

The vestibulocochlear nerve is the eighth cranial nerve and has two roles: innervation to the cochlea for hearing innervation to the vestibule for acceleration and balance senses Gross anatomy It emerges between the pons and the medulla, lateral to the facial nerve and nervus intermedius, pa...
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Epidural empyema

Epidural empyema refers to a collection within the epidural space either within the cranium or the spinal cord. Epidemiology Epidural empyemas are rare overall but together with subdural empyema account for around 20-33% of all intracranial infections. They can present in any age group and hav...
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Petro-occipital synchondrosis

The petro-occipital synchondrosis, also known as the petroclival synchondrosis, is a primary cartilaginous joint between the basilar part of the occipital bone and the petrous temporal bone. 'Fissure' and 'junction' are other terms used to describe this structure, however, synchondrosis is techn...
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Foramen singulare

The foramen singulare, also known as the singular foramen, is a small opening at the posteroinferior aspect of the fundus of the internal auditory canal (IAC) 2,3. It carries the singular or posterior ampullary nerve, a branch of the inferior vestibular nerve which carries afferent information f...
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Intraventricular metastases

Intraventricular metastases are a very rare finding. A few intracranial tumours and some extracranial tumours metastasize to the ventricles. The most common site of intraventricular metastasis is the trigone of the lateral ventricles due to high vascularity of the choroid plexuses. The next most...
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Hypomyelinating disorders

Hypomyelinating disorders are a heterogeneous subset of white matter disorders characterised by abnormally low amounts of myelination. In distinction to other myelin disorders, hypomyelination is a permanent deficiency in myelin deposition rather than myelin destruction (i.e. demyelination) or ...
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Complications of cranial radiotherapy

Complications of cranial radiation therapy are fairly common, particularly in long-term survivors, and especially in paediatric patients. Cranial radiotherapy is used for a variety of brain tumours, either in isolation or in combination with concurrent chemotherapy. Complications from irradiati...
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Gliosarcoma

Gliosarcomas are a variant of glioblastoma (along with epithelioid glioblastoma and giant cell glioblastoma) recognised in the current (2016) WHO classification of CNS tumours 9. They are highly malignant (WHO grade IV) primary intra-axial neoplasms with both glial and mesenchymal elements. Ter...
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Dorsal cord syndrome

Dorsal cord syndrome, also known as posterior spinal cord syndrome, is one of the incomplete cord syndromes resulting from pathology affecting the posterior part of the spinal cord, particularly the dorsal columns and potentially (in larger lesions) the lateral corticospinal tracts 1.  Clinical...
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Brown-Séquard syndrome

Brown-Séquard syndrome, also known as hemicord syndrome, is the result of damage to, or impairment of, the left or right side of the spinal cord. It is characterised by a characteristic pattern of motor and sensory deficits that are determined by the decussation pattern of various white matter t...
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Ventral cord syndrome

Ventral cord syndrome (also known as anterior cord syndrome) is one of the incomplete cord syndromes and affects the anterior parts of the cord resulting in a pattern of neurological dysfunction dominated by motor paralysis and loss of pain, temperature and autonomic function. Anterior spinal ar...
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Sarcoidosis

Sarcoidosis is a non-caseating granulomatous multi-system disease with a wide range of clinical and radiographic manifestations.  Individual systemic manifestations are discussed in respective articles:  pulmonary and mediastinal manifestations cardiac manifestations  musculoskeletal manifes...
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Choroidal fissure cyst

A choroidal fissure cyst refers to a benign intracranial cyst occurring at the level of the choroidal fissure. They frequently represent either an arachnoid cyst, neuroglial cyst or a neuroepithelial cyst 2. They are therefore a location-based diagnosis rather than a distinct pathological entity...
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Pineal gland metastasis

Pineal gland metastasis is a rare site of metastatic disease. They usually occur concomitantly with leptomeningeal metastases. This article will discuss metastatic lesions affecting only the pineal gland. For other intracranial metastatic locations, please refer to the main article on intracran...
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Myelination pattern on MRI

Myelination of the brain during infancy progresses in an orderly and predictable fashion which can be assessed with MRI.  At term (40 weeks corrected gestation) only certain structures are myelinated: dorsal brainstem ventrolateral thalamus lentiform nuclei central corticospinal tracts pos...
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Epilepsy

Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder that has a varied presentation and requires two or more unprovoked seizures at least 24 hours apart for diagnosis. MRI is the modality of choice for epilepsy, most often investigating for an underlying cause, especially in adults.  Epidemiology Epilep...
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Astroblastoma

Astroblastomas are rare glial tumours usually found in the cerebral hemispheres of young adults and children.  Epidemiology They occur at all ages range from early childhood to 6th decade but are most commonly seen in children, adolescents, and young adults with a mean age between 10-30 years ...
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Empty delta sign

The empty delta sign is a CT sign of dural venous sinus thrombosis of the superior sagittal sinus, where contrast outlines a triangular filling defect, which represents thrombus. It is only described with CECT-scan or MRI, not with NECT nor non-contrast MRI. An equivalent appearance can be note...
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Pneumorrhachis

Pneumorrhachis refers to a rare phenomenon characterised by the presence of gas within the spinal canal (either intra- or extradural). Clinical presentation Patients can often be asymptomatic 3. Pathology Aetiology Pneumorrhachis can result from a number of causes: trauma (traumatic pneumo...
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Open ring sign

The open ring sign is a relatively specific sign for demyelination, most commonly multiple sclerosis (MS), and is helpful in distinguishing between the causes of ring-enhancing lesions.  Radiographic features The enhancing component is thought to represent advancing front of demyelination and ...
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Tuberous sclerosis (diagnostic criteria)

The tuberous sclerosis diagnostic criteria have been developed to aid the diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis and have most recently been updated in 2012 by the International Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Consensus Group (at time of writing - 2018) 1.  Criteria Genetic criteria The identification of...
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Central cord syndrome

Central cord syndrome is the most common type of incomplete spinal cord syndrome, usually the result of trauma, accounting for ~10% of all spinal cord injuries. As the name implies, this syndrome is the result of a damage to the central portion spinal cord and in the setting of trauma most commo...
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Cerebellum

The cerebellum, meaning "the little brain", sits at the base of the brain in the posterior cranial fossa below the tentorium and behind the brainstem.  Gross anatomy The cerebellum has the following features: three surfaces: anterior (petrosal), superior (tentorial), inferior (suboccipital) ...
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Battle sign (base of skull fracture)

Battle sign is an eponymous term given to mastoid ecchymosis (bruising of the scalp overlying the mastoid process) and is strongly suggestive of a base of skull fracture, most commonly a petrous temporal bone fracture.  History and etymology Mr William Henry Battle (1855-1936) was an English s...
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Benign notochordal cell tumour

Benign notochordal cell tumours (BNCT) are vertebral lesions that are usually asymptomatic and discovered incidentally on imaging of the head or spine. As this is a poorly-recognised entity, it can often be confused with aggressive vertebral lesions, such as a chordoma, when it is seen on imagin...
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Transition zone

The transition zone of a nerve describes a region of a few millimetres where the myelin sheath changes from central to peripheral type. This zone is susceptible to mechanical irritation and is implicated in neurovascular compression syndromes such as trigeminal neuralgia (CN V), hemifacial spasm...
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Basal ganglia calcification

Basal ganglia calcification is common and is seen in approximately 1% of all CT scans of the brain, depending on the demographics of the scanned population. It is seen more frequently in older patients and is considered a normal incidental and idiopathic finding in an elderly patient but should ...
Article

Cerebellopontine angle mass

Cerebellopontine angle (CPA) masses frequently occur, many of which are relatively specific for the region.  Pathology Cerebellopontine angle masses can be divided into four groups, based on imaging characteristics:  enhancing mass mass with high T1 signal on MRI mass with CSF intensity/den...
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Chiari II malformation

Chiari II malformation, also known as Arnold-Chiari malformation, is a relatively common congenital malformation of the spine and posterior fossa characterised by myelomeningocoele (lumbosacral spina bifida aperta) and a small posterior fossa with a descent of the brainstem and cerebellar tonsil...
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Pineal cyst

Pineal cysts are common, usually asymptomatic, and typically found incidentally. Their importance is mainly in the fact that they cannot be distinguished from cystic tumours, especially when large or when atypical features are present. As such, many patients undergo prolonged follow-up for these...
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Myelomeningocele

Myelomeningocele, also known as spina bifida cystica, is a complex congenital spinal anomaly that results in spinal cord malformation (myelodysplasia).  Epidemiology It is one of the commonest congenital CNS anomalies and thought to occur in approximately 1:500 of live births 5. There may be a...
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Facial palsy

Facial palsy refers to the neurological syndrome of facial paralysis. It can result from a broad range of physiological insults to the facial nerve or its central nervous system origins. The most common causes of this is Bell palsy.  Terminology While facial palsy refers to the clinical presen...
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Raccoon eyes sign (base of skull fracture)

Raccoon eyes sign (or panda eyes in the UK and Ireland) is due to periorbital ecchymosis and is specific for base of skull fracture of the anterior cranial fossa. However it is not pathognomonic for trauma, and there are several rare causes described, including metastatic neuroblastoma, Kaposi ...
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CHALICE rule

The Children’s Head injury ALgorithm for prediction of Clinically Important Events (CHALICE) clinical decision rule was developed to predict clinically important brain injuries in children with head trauma. This rule identifies high-risk criteria and divides them into history, examination and me...
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Intraocular lens implant

Intraocular lens implants (IOLs) are used to replace the extracted lens as part of the standard surgical treatment for cataracts. The presence of a lens implant is known as pseudoaphakia. Structure Knowledge of the structure of an intraocular lens implant is required to ensure accurate identif...
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Pituitary region masses

A simple and popular mnemonic to remember the common suprasellar/parasellar/intrasellar masses is SATCHMO. The more comprehensive list includes: tumours pituitary adenoma (commonest in the adult population) pituitary macroadenoma pituitary microadenoma pituitary carcinoma pituitary lymphom...
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Cerebral ring enhancing lesions

The differential for peripheral or ring enhancing cerebral lesions includes: cerebral abscess tuberculoma neurocysticercosis metastasis glioblastoma subacute infarct/haemorrhage/contusion demyelination (incomplete ring) tumefactive demyelinating lesion (incomplete ring) radiation necros...
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Posterior fossa tumours

Posterior fossa tumour has a very different differential in an adult as opposed to a child. Adult cerebellar metastases (most common) especially lung cancer and breast cancer also melanoma, thyroid malignancies, and renal cell cancer haemangioblastoma: most common primary brain tumour astr...
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Crystalline lens

The crystalline lens (or simply, the lens) is in the ocular globe between the posterior chamber and the vitreous body. It is transparent and biconvex in morphology, and aids the focusing of light onto the retina.  Gross anatomy Location The lens lies in the globe at the posterior aspect of th...
Article

Optic neuropathy

Optic neuropathy is a broad term, and can result from a variety of causes including: genetic Leber hereditary optic neuropathy compression / trauma optic nerve sheath meningioma progressive diaphyseal dysplasia shear injury infiltration / neoplasm lymphoma paraneoplastic collapsin resp...
Article

Anti-MOG associated encephalomyelitis

Anti-MOG associated encephalomyelitis represents a group of inflammatory demyelinating disorders united by the presence of IgG antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) that overlap with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and...
Article

Optic neuritis

Optic neuritis denotes inflammation of the optic nerve and is one of the more common causes of optic neuropathy. It can be thought of as broadly divided into infectious and non-infectious causes, although the latter is far more frequent. On imaging, optic neuritis is most easily identified as a ...
Article

Chronic relapsing inflammatory optic neuropathy

Chronic relapsing inflammatory optic neuropathy (CRION) describes a rare, recurrent, corticosteroid-responsive optic neuropathy that should be considered as an important differential diagnosis in patients with multiple episodes of suspected optic neuritis. Epidemiology The exact incidence of C...
Article

Pituitary gland

The pituitary gland (or hypophysis cerebri), together with its connections to the hypothalamus, acts as the main endocrine interface between the central nervous system and the rest of the body.  Gross anatomy The pituitary gland sits atop the base of the skull in a concavity within the sphenoi...
Article

Pituitary MRI (an approach)

A systematic approach to the pituitary region is crucial as small lesions can have a profound impact on the patient, and can be subtle even on high quality dedicated MRI imaging. Successful assessment of the pituitary region relies not only on a clear understanding of the local anatomy but also ...
Article

Normal bone marrow signal of the clivus

Bone marrow signal of the clivus changes predictably with age and is well assessed with midline T1 non-fat-saturated, non-contrast images. As is seen in the rest of the body the proportion of yellow (fatty) marrow increases with age. Knowledge of these changes allows diagnosis of the abnormal cl...
Article

Pituitary fossa

The pituitary (hypophyseal) fossa or sella turcica is a midline, dural lined structure in the sphenoid bone, which houses the pituitary gland. Gross anatomy The anterior, inferior and posterior walls are bony, while the lateral walls and roof are formed by dural slings between the anterior and...
Article

Tubulinopathy

Tubulinopathy refers to a wide spectrum of cortical malformations that result from defects in genes encoding the tubulin protein that regulates neuronal migration during brain development. Clinical presentation Some series report a high prevalence of seizures during infancy which may the initi...
Article

Cerebrospinal fluid

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is the clear liquid that surrounds and bathes the brain and spinal cord. CSF is produced by the epithelium of the choroid plexus within the ventricular system and flows in the direction from the lateral ventricles to the third ventricle, then fourth ventricle and then ...
Article

Oscillopsia

Oscillopsia (also known as Dandy syndrome or jumbling of the panorama) is the inability to maintain horizon while walking, and for many is an extremely unpleasant sensation. Since our heads bob up and down while walking, the otolithic system controls eye movement to maintain a constant horizon ...
Article

Autophony

Autophony (or tympanophony) is the experience of finding that one's own voice sounds much louder than normal or is unpleasantly garbled.  Autophony has been described in several clinical entities including superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome and patulous Eustachian tube dysfunction....
Article

Cataract

Cataracts are an opacification or thickening of the lens within the globe and are the leading cause of blindness in the world 2.  Clinical presentation Visual deterioration occurs with increasing degrees of severity, and left untreated may present as complete blindness. The diagnosis is made c...
Article

Alport syndrome

Alport syndrome is an X-linked dominant disease characterised by progressive sensorineural hearing loss, renal disease and, at times, ocular lesions. Clinical presentation haematuria sensorineural hearing loss: typically high frequency 2 ocular abnormalities  anterior lenticonus: most commo...
Article

Sphenoidal fontanelles

The sphenoidal or anterolateral fontanelles (or fontanels) are paired bilateral soft membranous gaps at the junction of the coronal, sphenofrontal, sphenoparietal, sphenosquamosal, and squamosal sutures. Each mastoid fontanelle persists until approximately six months after birth, after which it ...
Article

Posterior fontanelle

The posterior fontanelle or occipital fontanelle (or fontanel) is the triangular soft membranous gap at the junction of the lambdoid and sagittal sutures. It persists until approximately 3 months after birth, after which it is known as the lambda. It can be used as an additional sonographic wind...

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