Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,984 results found
Article

Lissencephaly type II

Lissencephaly type II is characterised by reduction in normal sulcation, associated with a bumpy or pebbly cortical surface (thus the term cobblestone lissencephaly), absent in lissencephaly type I. Unlike type I lissencephaly which is the result of neuronal undermigration, type II is due to ove...
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Claw sign (mass)

The claw sign is useful in determining whether a mass arises from a solid structure or is located adjacent to it and distorts the outline. It refers to the sharp angles on either side of the mass, which the surrounding normal parenchyma forms when the mass has arisen from the parenchyma. As suc...
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Cingulate sulcus sign

The cingulate sulcus sign has been proposed as being useful as an MRI feature of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). It denotes the posterior part of the cingulate sulcus being narrower than the anterior part. The divider between the anterior and posterior parts of the sulcus being a...
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Chasing the dragon sign (toxic leukoencephalopathy)

Chasing the dragon sign is seen in toxic leukoencephalopathy caused by the inhalation of heroin fumes.  Clinical presentation Three stages are recognised: cerebellar signs and motor restlessness pyramidal and pseudobulbar signs spasms, hypotonic paresis, and ultimately death Only a minorit...
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Sphenoparietal sinus

The sphenoparietal sinus is one of the dural venous sinuses and is located along the posteroinferior ridge of the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone. It drains into the cavernous sinus and receives tributaries from: superficial middle cerebral vein middle meningeal vein (frontal ramus) anterior...
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Foramen ovale (skull)

Foramen ovale is an oval shaped opening in the middle cranial fossa located at the posterior base of the greater wing of the sphenoid bone, lateral to the lingula. It transmits the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (CN Vc), accessory meningeal artery, emissary veins between the caverno...
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Optic canal

The optic canal is a cylindrical canal running obliquely through the lesser wing of sphenoid bone near the base where it joins the body of sphenoid. It transmits the optic nerve and ophthalmic artery. The optic canal opens into the skull base at the optic foramen.
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Non-ketotic hyperglycaemic hemichorea

Non-ketotic hyperglycaemic hemichorea (NHH) is a rare cause of T1 bright basal ganglia and one of the neurological complications of non-ketotic hyperglycaemia, along with non-ketotic hyperosmolar coma and non-ketotic hyperglycaemic seizures.  Epidemiology NHH is most frequently reported in eld...
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Rasmussen encephalitis

Rasmussen encephalitis (RE), also known as chronic focal encephalitis (not to be confused with a Rasmussen aneurysm), is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown origin, usually affecting one brain hemisphere. Epidemiology Most cases (85% cases) occur in children under the age of 10 years 1. ...
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Contrast-induced neurotoxicity

Contrast-induced neurotoxicity, also known as iodinated contrast-induced encephalopathy, is a rare complication of iodinated intravascular contrast resulting in a usually temporary neurological deficit. CT imaging findings can be dramatic, demonstrating contrast staining and oedema, but spontane...
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Retinoblastoma (staging)

Retinoblastoma staging can be via a number of systems with various end-points and multiple systems are often used concurrently. Staging Reese Ellsworth classification The Reese Ellsworth classification is assessed with fundoscopy and aims at predicting the chance of preserving the eye with ex...
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Butterfly sign (choroid plexus)

The butterfly sign refers to the normal appearance of the choroid plexuses on axial imaging of the fetal brain, commonly observed on the antenatal ultrasound. Its absence may suggest holoprosencephaly 1. In the CNS, the term should not be confused with a butterfly glioma, which is a glioblastom...
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Medical devices in the abdomen and pelvis

Medical devices in the abdomen and pelvis are important to be recognised, just like medical devices of the chest. Often we ignore these devices, considering them to be incidental and non-pathological, however it is essential to be aware of potential complications. Gastrointestinal tubes stomac...
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Caput medusae sign (developmental venous anomaly)

The caput medusae sign, refers to developmental venous anomalies of the brain, where a number of veins drain centrally towards a single drain vein. The appearance is reminiscent of Medusa, a gorgon of Greek mythology, who was encountered and defeated by Perseus. The sign is seen on both CT and ...
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Internal auditory canal diverticulum

Internal auditory canal (IAC) diverticulum are small focal outpouching arising from the anterolateral wall of the IAC. Epidemiology In one study, they were identified in 5% of petrous temporal bone CT-scan 1. In the same study, it was coexisting with otosclerosis in 1% of cases 1. Clinical f...
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Subarachnoid haemorrhage (summary)

Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is bleeding into the subarachnoid space. This is usually found centrally (around the circle of Willis) but can occur in other parts of the brain. Reference article This is a summary article; read more in our article on subarachnoid haemorrhage. Summary epidemio...
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Extradural haemorrhage (summary)

Extradural haemorrhages (EDH) represent collections of blood in the extradural (epidural) space. The haemorrhage sits between the skull superficially and the dura which overlies the brain parenchyma. Reference article This is a summary article; read more in our article on extradural haemorrhag...
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Stroke (summary)

Stroke is a clinical diagnosis where an acute neurological deficit follows a cerebrovascular insult. There are two main groups of stroke: ischaemic (>80%) or haemorrhagic (<20%) 1. Reference article This is a summary article; read more in our article on stroke. Summary epidemiology common ...
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Brudzinski sign (meningism)

Brudzinski sign occurs in meningitis (of any aetiology) where passive flexion of one leg causes flexion in the opposite leg. Passive flexion of the neck brings about flexion of the legs as well. Historical context First described by Jósef Brudziñski (1874-1917), paediatrician from Warsaw, Pola...
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Callosal angle

The callosal angle has been proposed as a useful marker of patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH), helpful in distinguishing these patients from those with ex-vacuo ventriculomegaly (see hydrocephalus versus atrophy).  Method Ideally the angle should be measured on a cor...
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Spinal arachnoid mater

The spinal arachnoid mater is a thin, delicate and avascular connective tissue membrane which forms the middle layer of the meninges and covers the spinal cord1. Gross Anatomy The spinal arachnoid mater becomes continuous with the cerebral arachnoid mater as it traverses the foramen magnum and...
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Butterfly glioma

Butterfly gliomas are a high grade astrocytoma, usually a glioblastoma (WHO grade IV), which crosses the midline via the corpus callosum. Other white matter commissures are also occasionally involved. The term butterfly refers to the symmetric wing-like extensions across the midline.  Most freq...
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High-velocity penetrating brain injury

High-velocity penetrating brain injuries, in practical terms most often due to cranial gunshot injuries, are a form of penetrating traumatic brain injuries, which are much less common than blunt traumatic brain injuries and distinguished from low-velocity penetrating brain injuries (such as stab...
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Low-velocity penetrating brain injury

Low-velocity penetrating brain injuries are relatively uncommon, far less frequently encountered than blunt traumatic brain injuries, and depending on the country more or less common than high-velocity penetrating brain injuries from gunshot wounds.  Epidemiology The demographics of affected i...
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Superior anastomotic vein

The superior anastomotic vein of Trolard connects the superior sagittal sinus and the superficial middle cerebral vein (of Sylvius). Its size is dictated by the relative size of the superficial middle cerebral vein and the anastomotic vein of Labbé. The vein of Trolard is smaller than both of t...
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Superficial veins of the brain

Superficial veins of the brain predominantly drain the cerebral cortex, and include: superior cerebral veins (or superficial cerebral veins) inferior cerebral veins superficial middle cerebral veins superior anastomotic vein (of Trolard) inferior anastomotic vein (of Labbe) Some also inclu...
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Denticulate ligaments

The denticulate ligaments are bilateral triangular extensions of pia mater that anchor the spinal cord to the dura mater. They are formed by pia mater of the spinal cord coursing in-between the dorsal and ventral nerve roots bilaterally. They function to provide stability to the spinal cord wit...
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Spinal cord blood supply

The spinal cord blood supply is formed by many different vessels with an extensive collateral supply and drainage. Arterial supply The spinal cord is supplied by three longitudinal arteries: single anterior spinal artery: supplies the anterior two-thirds of the spinal cord paired posterior s...
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Incomplete hippocampal inversion

Incomplete hippocampal inversion unsurprisingly describes the situation where the normal inversion of the hippocampus fails to happen during development. Terminology Incomplete hippocampal inversion is the most correct description of this finding. Hippocampal malrotation is a term used by some...
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Mesial temporal sclerosis

Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS), also commonly referred to as hippocampal sclerosis, is the most common association with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) 2-3,5. It is seen in up to 65% of autopsy studies, although significantly less on imaging. Clinical presentation Most patients prese...
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Bright rim sign in dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumours

The bright rim sign has been described in dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumours (DNETs) and is seen, as the name so aptly describes, as a rim of high signal around the DNET on FLAIR sequences.
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US carotids (summary)

US carotids is a standard test performed in the assessment of cranial arterial blood supply. Reference article This is a summary article; we do not have a more in-depth reference article. Summary indications (acute) assessment of carotid stenosis TIA/stroke important pathology carotid st...
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Lenticulostriate arteries

The lenticulostriate arteries are a collection of small perforating arteries arising from the anterior part of the circle of Willis and supplying the basal ganglia.  They are divided into: medial lenticulostriate arteries lateral lenticulostriate arteries  There is, however, some confusion a...
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Anterior perforated substance

The anterior perforated substance, or substantia perforata anterior, is an area in the basal forebrain that plays an important role with regards to the blood supply of deep grey matter structures of the brain. Gross anatomy Located within the basal forebrain, the anterior perforated substance...
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Boomerang sign (splenium)

The boomerang sign refers to a boomerang-shaped splenial lesion (splenium of corpus callosum) which is seen as a hyperintense lesion on T2-WI, FLAIR and DWI 1. This sign can be seen in: transient lesion of the splenium ischaemia posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) diffuse ax...
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Orbit

The orbit is a feature of the face and contains the globe and it's supporting structures, as well as many nerves and vessels. Gross anatomy In the adult, the orbit has a volume of approximately 30 mL, of which the globe occupies 6.5 mL. It has a roof, floor, medial and lateral wall. The orbit ...
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Cavernous sinus

The cavernous sinuses are paired dural venous sinuses.  Gross anatomy The cavernous sinus (CS) is located on either side of the pituitary fossa and body of the sphenoid bone between the endosteal and meningeal layers of the dura. The normal lateral wall should be either straight or concave.  ...
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Trigeminal nerve

The trigeminal nerve is the fifth cranial nerve and its primary role is relaying sensory information from the face and head, although it does provide motor control to the muscles of mastication. It is both large and complicated and has multiple brainstem nuclei (sensory and motor) as well as man...
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Foramen lacerum

The foramen lacerum is a triangular opening located in the middle cranial fossa anterior to the petrous apex, which forms its posterior border. Its anterior border is formed by the body of the sphenoid bone at the junction of greater wing and pterygoid process and medial border is formed by the ...
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Inferior orbital fissure

The inferior orbital fissure (IOF) lies in the floor of the orbit inferior to the superior orbital fissure and it is bounded superiorly by the greater wing of sphenoid, inferiorly by maxilla and orbital process of palatine bone and laterally by the zygomatic bone. It opens into posterolateral as...
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Transalar herniation

Transalar (transsphenoidal) herniation describes herniation of brain matter in and around the middle cranial fossa across the greater sphenoid wing and can be ascending or descending. Compression of structures against the sphenoid bone results in symptoms. Pathology Transalar herniation is not...
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Middle meningeal artery

The middle meningeal artery branches off the first part of the maxillary artery. It passes vertically through the roots of the auriculotemporal nerve and enters the middle cranial fossa via the foramen spinosum. Here it gives off two branches - superior tympanic branch and ganglionic branch - be...
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WHO classification of CNS tumours

The WHO classification of CNS tumours is the most widely accepted system for classifying CNS tumours and was based on the histological characteristics of the tumour. Although the most recent version of the 'blue book' is the 4th edition from 2007, an update has been released in 2016 3, which sho...
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Spindle cell oncocytomas of the pituitary gland

Spindle cell oncocytomas (SCO) of the pituitary gland, also referred as adenohypophysis spindle cell oncocytomas, are rare, relatively benign (WHO grade I), and nonfunctional tumours commonly showing clinical and radiologic presentations mostly indistinguishable from the much more common non-sec...
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Superior orbital fissure

The superior orbital fissure is the communication between the cavernous sinus and the apex of the orbit. It is straddled by the tendinous ring which is the common origin of the four rectus muscles (extraocular muscles). Gross anatomy Boundaries medial: body of sphenoid superior: lesser wing ...
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Foramen spinosum

The foramen spinosum is located in the posteromedial part of greater wing of sphenoid bone posterolateral to foramen ovale which connects the middle cranial fossa with the infratemporal fossa. It transmits the middle meningeal artery, middle meningeal vein, and (usually) the nervus spinosus. Va...
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Foramen rotundum

The foramen rotundum is located in the middle cranial fossa, inferomedial to the superior orbital fissure at the base of greater wing of the sphenoid bone. Its medial border is formed by lateral wall of sphenoid sinus. It runs downwards and laterally in an oblique path and joins the middle crani...
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Bare orbit sign (sphenoid wing)

The bare orbit sign, is described as a characteristic appearance of the orbit, seen when the innominate line is absent. The innominate line is a projection of the greater wing of the sphenoid, and its absence or destruction is responsible for this appearance. It is the classical frontal radiogr...
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Sphenopetrosal suture

The sphenopetrosal suture is the cranial suture connecting the greater wing of sphenoid with the petrous part of temporal bone in the middle cranial fossa. This fissure forms part of the posterior wall of the foramen lacerum.
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Interseptal distance

The interseptal distance (ISD) is a measurement used to assess septal area atrophy as a marker for neurodegenerative conditions in patients with memory problems 1. It is proposed that atrophy of the septal nuclei can commonly be seen in conditions associated with hippocampal atrophy, particular...
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Hypertrophic olivary degeneration

Hypertrophic olivary degeneration (HOD) is a rare condition characterised by unique pattern of trans-synaptic degeneration. It is caused by a lesion in the triangle of Guillain and Mollaret, resulting in hypertrophy of the inferior olivary nucleus. The three corners of the triangle are: red nuc...
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Hemimegalencephaly

Hemimegalencephaly is a rare congenital disorder of cortical formation with hamartomatous overgrowth all or a part of a cerebral hemisphere. This results from either increased proliferation or decreased apoptosis (or both) of developing neurons 2. Epidemiology Hemimegalencephaly is a cryptogen...
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Superior cerebellar artery

The superior cerebellar artery (SCA) arises from the distal basilar artery, just below the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) and typically supplies: whole superior surface of the cerebellar hemispheres down to the great horizontal fissure superior vermis dentate nucleus most of the cerebellar ...
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Pontine arteries

The pontine branches are the small arterial branches of the basilar artery that supply the pons and structures adjacent to the pons. There are usually 3-5 paired arterial branches which are located in the mid-basilar region between the anterior inferior cerebellar artery and the superior cerebe...
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Anterior inferior cerebellar artery

The anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) is one of three vessels that provides arterial blood supply to the cerebellum. It has a variable origin, course and supply, with up to 40% of specimens not having an identifiable standard AICA. The amount of tissue supplied by the AICA is variable (...
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Basilar artery

The basilar artery is part of the posterior cerebral circulation. It artery arises from the confluence of the left and right vertebral arteries at the base of the pons as they rise towards the base of the brain. Summary origin: vertebral artery confluence course: ventral to pons in the pontin...
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Posterior inferior cerebellar artery

Posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) is one of the three vessels that provide arterial supply to the cerebellum. It is the most variable and tortuous cerebellar artery. Gross anatomy Origin Its origin is highly variable: ~20% arise extracranially, inferior to the foramen magnum 10% a...
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Posterior communicating artery

The posterior communicating artery (PCOM or P Comm) makes up the posterior linkage in the circle of Willis. Gross anatomy Course The PCOM originates from the posterior aspect of the C7 (communicating) segment of the internal carotid artery and extends posteriormedially to anastomose with the ...
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Middle cerebral artery

The middle cerebral artery (MCA) is one of the three major paired arteries that supply blood to the brain. The MCA arises from the internal carotid artery (ICA) as the larger of the two main terminal branches (the other being the anterior cerebral artery), coursing laterally into the lateral sul...
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Anterior communicating artery

The anterior communicating artery (ACOM) arises from the anterior cerebral artery and acts as an anastomosis between the left and right anterior cerebral circulation. Approximately 4 mm in length, it demarcates the junction between the A1 and A2 segments of the anterior cerebral artery. Branche...
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Posterior cerebral artery

The posterior cerebral arteries (PCA) are the terminal branches of the basilar artery and supply the occipital lobes and posteromedial temporal lobes. Summary origin: terminal branches of the basilar artery course: from basilar towards occiput main branches posterior communicating artery m...
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Anterior cerebral artery

The anterior cerebral artery along with the middle cerebral artery forms at the termination of the internal carotid artery. It is the smaller of the two, and arches anteromedially to pass anterior to the genu of the corpus callosum, dividing as it does so into its two major branches; pericallosa...
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Traumatic brain injury

Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are common and come with a large cost to both society and the individual. Imaging, particularly CT, plays a key role in accurate diagnosis, classification and follow-up.  They can be broadly divided into closed and penetrating head injuries 4: closed head injury ...
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Bat wing 4th ventricle

Bat wing 4th ventricle sign refers to the morphology of the fourth ventricle in the Joubert anomaly and related syndromes. The absence of a vermis with apposed cerebellar hemispheres give the fourth ventricle an appearance reminiscent of a bat with its wings outstretched. It is best demonstrate...
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Optic tract

The optic tracts are the posterior continuation of the optic nerves after the medial (temporal field) fibers decussate at the optic chiasma. Gross anatomy The optic tracts course posterolaterally through the ambient cistern from the chiasma to the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus. Mo...
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Optic chiasm

The optic chiasm or chiasma is the midline structure where the nasal (medial) fibres of the optic nerves decussate to continue posteriorly as the optic tracts. It lies in the chiasmatic cistern and along with the pituitary stalk, is completely encircled by the circle of Willis. Gross anatomy R...
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Midline shift (summary)

Midline shift is a finding described on transverse (axial) slices from CT and MRI studies. It describes the situation where the midline of the intracranial anatomy is no longer in the midline and is the result of pushing or pulling forces within either side of the intracranial compartment. Refe...
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Thyroid-associated orbitopathy

Thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) is the most common cause of proptosis in adults and is most frequently associated with Graves disease. On imaging, it is characterised by enlargement of the extraocular muscles' bellies (frequently: inferior rectus > medial rectus  > superior rectus) sparing...
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Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (adults and children)

Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy in adults and older children (i.e. not neonates), also known as global hypoxic-ischaemic injury, is seen in many settings and often has devastating neurological sequelae. For a discussion of neonatal hypoxia, refer to neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. ...
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Olfactory system

The olfactory system transmits smell from detection of odorants at the olfactory epithelium in the nasal cavity to the primary olfactory cortex.  It is phylogenetically the most ancient sensory tract and terminates on primitive cortical areas. Gross anatomy Primary olfactory neurons are bipola...
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Globe

The globes or simply, the eyes are paired spherical sensory organs, located anteriorly on the face within the orbits, which house the visual apparatus. Gross anatomy Location The globe is suspended by the bulbar sheath in the anterior third of the bony orbit.  Size Each globe is an approxim...
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Diffuse axonal injury

Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a severe form of traumatic brain injury due to shearing forces. It is a potentially difficult diagnosis to make on imaging alone, especially on CT as the finding can be subtle, however, it has the potential to result in severe neurological impairment.  The diagnos...
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Visual system

The visual system transmits visual information from the retina within the eyes to the primary visual cortex of the occipital lobe as well as the pretectal nuclei and superior colliculi of the midbrain. Gross anatomy Below the visual pathway is described from distal to proximal in a single hemi...
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Intracranial metastatic melanoma

Intracranial metastatic melanoma is the third most common brain metastasis.  For a broad discussion about the primary tumour or brain metastasis in general, please refer to the articles: malignant melanoma cerebral metastases Epidemiology A population-based study of 169,444 cancer patients ...
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Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), as the name would suggest, is featured by a monophasic acute inflammation and demyelination of white matter typically following a recent (1-2 weeks prior) viral infection or vaccination 4,6. Grey matter, especially that of the basal ganglia, is also o...
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Intradural spinal mass lesions (an approach)

Intradural spinal mass lesions are relatively uncommon, compared to intracranial or extradural masses, and can be challenging to diagnose. Additionally, the need for a pre-operative/non-operative diagnosis is in many ways greater as biopsy of lesions within the cord has the potential of devastat...
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Spinal haemangioblastoma

Spinal haemangioblastomas are the third most common intramedullary spinal neoplasm, representing 2-6% of all intramedullary tumours 1,4,7. This article specifically relates to spinal hemangioblastomas. For a discussion on intracranial hemangioblastomas and a general discussion of the pathology ...
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Primitive arteries in the brain (mnemonic)

The primitive arteries in the brain can be remembered by the following mnemonic: HOT MOPA Mnemonic H: hypoglossal O: otic T: trigeminal M: meningohypophyseal P: posterior inferior cerebellar (PICA) A: anterior choroidal The meningohypophyseal trunk and anterior choroidal and posterior ...
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Brachial plexus root subdivisions (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for brachial plexus root subdivisions include: Red Tits Don't Come Back Robbie T Drinks Cold Beer Rugby Teams Drink Cold Beers  or Rad Techs Drink Cold Beer Read That Damn Cadaver Book Really Tired, Don't Care Now (nerve instead of branch) Where the first letter of each word rep...
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Pituitary region mass (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic for remembering the differentials for pituitary region masses is: SATCHMO 1-2 MOuSTACHE Mnemonic SATCHMO S: sarcoid, sellar tumour (pituitary adenoma) A: aneurysm T: teratoma or tuberculosis (and other granulomatous diseases)  C: craniopharyngioma, cleft cyst (Rathke), ...
Article

Normal pressure hydrocephalus (mnenomic)

The symptoms of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) can be recalled with this mnemonic: wet, wacky, wobbly Mnemonic wet: urinary incontinence wacky: dementia (memory disturbance) wobbly: gait disturbance
Article

Facial nerve segments (mnemonic)

Helpful mnemonics for remembering the segments of the facial nerve include: I Love Going To Makeover Parties 1 I Love Grinning, Then Making Pouts both grinning and pouting are performed by muscles which are innervated by the facial nerve I Must Learn To Make (facial) Expressions Mnemonics ...
Article

Extraocular muscle involvement in thyroid associated orbitopathy (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the order in which extraocular muscles are involved in thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) is: I'M SLOw Mnemonic I: inferior rectus M: medial rectus S: superior rectus L: lateral rectus O: obliques There is some debate about this however. Some claim superior rectu...
Article

Cortically-based brain tumours (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to recall cortically-based brain tumours is: PDOG Mnemonic P: pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma D: dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour (DNET); desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma and ganglioglioma O: oligodendroglioma G: ganglioglioma
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Corpus callosum parts (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to help remember the parts of the corpus callosum, from anterior to posterior, is: Remember Genu Before Splenium Remember G Before S (as G comes before S alphabetically) Mnemonics R: rostrum G: genu B: body (trunk) S: splenium
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Corpus callosum hyperintensity (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the causes of corpus callosum hyperintensity is: I MADE A PHD Mnemonic I: infections (e.g. tuberculosis, varicella, rotavirus, HSV)  M: Marchiafava-Bignami syndrome A: AIDS encephalopathy D: diffuse axonal injury and diffuse vascular injury E: epilepsy  A: a...
Article

Cerebral ring enhancing lesions (mnemonic)

Convenient mnemonics for the causes of cerebral ring enhancing lesions are: MAGIC DR or DR MAGIC DR MAGIC L MAGICAL DR Mnemonics MAGIC DR or DR MAGIC M: metastasis A: abscess G: glioblastoma I: infarct (subacute phase) C: contusion D: demyelinating disease R: radiation necrosis or re...
Article

Cerebellopontine angle mass (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for the common cerebellopontine angle masses include: AMEN or MEAN SAME Mnemonics AMEN/MEAN A: acoustic schwannoma  (~80%) M: meningioma  (~10%) E: ependymoma  (~5%) N: neuroepithelial cyst (arachnoid/epidermoid)  (~5%) SAME S: schwannoma  acoustic schwannoma much more commo...
Article

Cavernous sinus contents (mnemonic)

The structures inside and beside the cavernous sinus and their relative positions can be recalled with the following mnemonic: O TOM CAT Consider a coronal view of the cavernous sinus. 'O TOM' are the first letters of components of the lateral wall of cavernous sinus considered vertically, fr...
Article

Acute bacterial meningitis complications (mnemonic)

The complications of acute bacterial meningitis can be remembered using the mnemonic: HACTIVE Mnemonic H: hydrocephalus A: abscess C: cerebritis / cranial nerve lesion T: thrombosis I: infarct V: ventriculitis/vasculopathy E: extra-axial collection: empyema and hygroma Related articles...
Article

Spinal muscular atrophy

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a type of congenital neuromuscular disease affecting anterior horn cells of the brainstem and spinal cord. Epidemiology This disorder affects 1 in 6000-10000 infants 1. Clinical presentation The condition typically affects infants and young children, presenti...
Article

Subdivisions of the cerebellar vermis (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the nine lobules of the cerebellar vermis is: Like Cats Catching Dogs For The Party Up North Mnemonic L: lingula C: central lobule C: culmen D: declive F: folium T: tuber P: pyramid U: uvula N: nodulus
Article

Tethered cord

Tethered spinal cord syndrome, also known as an occult spinal dysraphism sequence, is a neurological disorder caused by tissue attachments that limit the movement of the spinal cord within the spinal column. Clinical presentation The condition is closely linked to spina bifida, and as such pre...

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