Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

2,020 results found
Article

Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo

Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, also known as BPPV, is one of the most common causes of vertigo. It occurs secondary to change in posture and typically is associated with nystagmus. The aetiology is thought to be due to changes of position of the otoliths in the inner ear. Epidemiology C...
Article

Tegmentovermian angle

The tegmentovermian angle is an important measurable parameter in the assessment of posterior fossa abnormalities in the fetus. The angle is constructed on midsagittal images of the fetal brain, ideally on MRI. The angle is formed by the intersection of the following two lines 1: line 1: along...
Article

Mechanical thrombectomy for acute ischaemic stroke

Mechanical thrombectomy for acute ischaemic stroke is the endovascular retrieval of clots obstructing large intracranial vessel in acute ischaemic stroke patients. History In 2015, multiple randomized controlled trials showed improved clinical outcome in patients with acute stroke due to large...
Article

Vermian maturity assessment (approach)

Radiological evaluation of the posterior fossa is an essential part of the routine fetal assessment, including vermian maturity assessment. Radiographic features Ultrasonography is a readily available diagnostic tool in the assessment of the fetal posterior fossa but is sometimes limited due t...
Article

Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE), also known as Dawson disease, is a rare chronic, progressive and fatal encephalitis that affects primarily children and young adults, caused by a persistent infection of immune resistant measles virus. Epidemiology  1 in 100,000 people infected with ...
Article

Vermian lobulation

Evaluation of vermian lobulation is essential in assessment of the vermian maturity. MRI is a useful tool in assessment of the fetal posterior fossa. Normal Vermian lobulation by weeks 1: By 21 weeks - Prepyramidal fissure can be seen between the tuber and pyramis. 21 to 22 weeks - Preculmina...
Article

Modified Rankin scale

The modified Rankin scale or is a commonly used to quantify functional outcome in individuals who suffer a neurological event. The scale was initially described by Rankin in 1957 to assess the outcome of cerebrovascular accidents 1. It has subsequently been modified 2,3 and has been used in a wi...
Article

Hypoglycaemic encephalopathy

Hypoglycaemic encephalopathy is a brain injury that results from prolonged or severe hypoglycaemia.  On imaging, it can manifest on MRI as bilateral areas of increased signal on both T2 and FLAIR affecting the posterior limb of the internal capsule, cerebral cortex (in particular parieto-occipi...
Article

Kissing carotids

The term kissing carotids refers to tortuous and elongated vessels which touch in the midline. They can be be found in:  retropharynx 2 intra-sphenoid 1 within the pituitary fossa within sphenoid sinuses within sphenoid bones The significance of kissing carotids is two-fold: may mimic int...
Article

Multiple intracranial calcifications

Intracranial calcifications are common in certain locations and often are of no clinical concern. The two most commonly encountered types of calcification include:  normal age-related intracranial calcifications intracranial arterial atherosclerosis Concerning calcifications are much less co...
Article

Urbach-Wiethe disease

Urbach-Wiethe disease, also known as lipoid proteinosis or hyalinosis cutis et mucosae, is a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis that primarily affects the skin, upper respiratory tract, and central nervous system (CNS). Epidemiology Urbach-Wiethe disease is a very rare condition, with few...
Article

Ischaemic stroke

Ischaemic stroke results from a sudden cessation of adequate amounts of blood reaching parts of the brain. Ischaemic strokes can be divided according to territory affected or mechanism. Epidemiology Stroke is the second most common cause of morbidity worldwide (after myocardial infarction) and...
Article

Rotational vertebral artery occlusion syndrome

Rotational vertebral artery occlusion syndrome, also known as Bow Hunter's syndrome, is a rare form of vertebrobasilar insufficiency secondary to dynamic compression of the usually-dominant vertebral artery.  It has many predisposing aetiologies, but is most often due to large osteophytes, atla...
Article

Transition zone

The transition zone of a nerve describes a roughly 2 mm length region where the myelin sheath changes from central to peripheral type.  This zone is susceptible to mechanical irritation and is implicated in neurovascular compression syndromes such as trigeminal neuralgia (CN V), hemifacial spasm...
Article

Choroidal fissure cyst

A choroidal fissure cyst refers to a benign intracranial cyst occurring at the level of choroidal fissure. They frequently represent either an arachnoid cyst, neuroglial cyst or a neuroepithelial cyst 2. They are therefore a location based diagnosis rather than a distinct pathological entity. C...
Article

Paradoxical brain herniation

Paradoxical brain herniation, also known as sinking skin flap syndrome (SSFS), is a rare and potentially fatal entity complicating decompressive craniectomy.  Pathology Atmospheric pressure exceeding intracranial pressure at the craniectomy results in displacement of the brain across various i...
Article

Intracranial neuroentric cyst

Neurenteric cysts are developmental CNS lesions arising from endoderm.  Pathology They result from incomplete resorption of the neurenteric canal, a temporary connection between yolk sac and amnion during early embryogenesis. Intracranial neuroentric cysts are extra axial and in 80% of cases a...
Article

Diffuse axonal injury

Diffuse axonal injury (DAI), also known as traumatic axonal injury (TAI), is a severe form of traumatic brain injury due to shearing forces. It is a potentially difficult diagnosis to make on imaging alone, especially on CT as the finding can be subtle, however, it has the potential to result in...
Article

Copper beaten skull

Copper beaten skull, also known as beaten brass skull, refers to the prominence of convolutional markings (gyral impressions on the inner table of the skull) seen throughout the skull vault. Clinical presentation The appearance of copper beaten skull is associated with raised intracranial pres...
Article

Nervus intermedius neuralgia

Nervus intermedius neuralgia, or geniculate neuralgia, corresponds to a clinical manifestation of sudden paroxysms of excruciating otalgia which usually lasts a few seconds to a few minutes, involving the nervus intermedius (intermediate nerve of Wrisberg). Epidemiology Nervus intermedius neur...
Article

Glossopharyngeal neuralgia

Glossopharyngeal neuralgia is due to irritation of the glossopharyngeal nerve and presents with repeated episodes of severe pain in the tongue, throat, ear, and tonsils, which can last from a few seconds to a few minutes. It is far less common than trigeminal neuralgia. Epidemiology Glossophar...
Article

Multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumours

Multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumour (MVNT) is a newly recognized cytoarchitectural pattern in the recently revised 2016 edition of the WHO classification of CNS tumours. Radiologically, MVNTs appear as small 'bubbly' indolent subcortical tumours that sometimes present with seizures. Th...
Article

Transverse myelitis

Acute transverse myelitis (ATM) is an inflammatory condition affecting both halves of the spinal cord and associated with rapidly progressive motor, sensory, and autonomic dysfunction. It is mostly imaged with MRI, which generally shows a long segment (3-4 segments or more) of T2 increased sign...
Article

Acute spinal cord ischaemia syndrome

Acute spinal cord ischaemia syndrome (ASCIS) is uncommon, but usually presents with profound neurological signs and symptoms, and the prognosis is poor.  Epidemiology Acute spinal cord ischaemia syndrome represents only 5-8% of acute myelopathies 4,5 and <1% of all strokes 7. The demographic o...
Article

McDonald diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis

McDonald diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis are MRI criteria used in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) were introduced in 2001, revised in 2005, 2010 and more recently in 2016 1. As before the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis requires establishing disease disseminated in both spac...
Article

Duane syndrome

Duane syndrome, also known as Duane retraction syndrome, is a rare congenital disease characterised by non-progressive strabismus. It is caused by a variable degree of abnormal development of one or both 6th cranial nerves (CN VI). Epidemiology It presents during childhood and it accounts for ...
Article

Combined conduit score of sinovenous stenosis

The combined conduit score (CCS) is a grading scheme for the assessment of the degree of transverse-sigmoid sinus stenosis in the setting of idiopathic intracranial hypertension. The score was initially developed for ATECO MR venography 1. Parameters Assessment is performed using maximum inten...
Article

Intracranial mass effect (summary)

Intracranial mass effect describes what happens around a tumour in the brain. It is important to make the distinction between an abnormality that causes mass effect and compresses adjacent structures, and one that does not. Most tumours will cause mass effect on surrounding structures and in tur...
Article

Wildervanck syndrome

Wildervanck syndrome, also known as cervico-ocular-acoustic dysplasia, consists of the triad of: Klippel-Feil syndrome congenital ossicular anomalies: usually diffuse ossicular ankylosis and sensorineural deafness. Duane syndrome: an ocular motility disturbance due to fibrosis of the extraocu...
Article

Extra-axial collection (summary)

Extra-axial collections are collections of fluid within the skull, but outside the brain parenchyma. They may be comprised of CSF, blood or pus and may exist in the extradural, subdural or subarachnoid space.  Reference article This is a summary article; we do not have a more in-depth referenc...
Article

Cerebral oedema (summary)

Cerebral oedema describes the collection of additional fluid within the white matter of the brain. It is the brain's response to an insult and may take one of two broad forms: vasogenic (white matter) and cytotoxic oedema. Reference article This is a summary article; read more in our article o...
Article

Brain mass lesion (summary)

Brain mass lesions are a broad collection of pathological processes that result in changes on brain imaging (usually CT or MRI). They are a very disparate group of conditions ranging from infection (abscess) to brain tumours (benign and slow-growing, metastatic or primary high-grade brain tumour...
Article

Hydrocephalus (summary)

Hydrocephalus describes the situation where the intracranial ventricular system is enlarged because of increased pressure. It may be caused by obstruction of CSF flow. If this is the case, the location of obstruction can be determined by the pattern of hydrocephalus. In some cases, hydrocephalus...
Article

Midline shift (summary)

Midline shift is a finding described on transverse (axial) slices from CT and MRI studies. It describes the situation where the midline of the intracranial anatomy is no longer in the midline and is the result of pushing or pulling forces within either side of the intracranial compartment. Refe...
Article

Stroke (summary)

Stroke is a clinical diagnosis where an acute neurological deficit follows a cerebrovascular insult. There are two main groups of stroke: ischaemic (>80%) or haemorrhagic (<20%) 1. Reference article This is a summary article; read more in our article on stroke. Summary anatomy cerebral vas...
Article

Subarachnoid haemorrhage (summary)

Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is bleeding into the subarachnoid space. This is usually found centrally (around the circle of Willis) but can occur in other parts of the brain. Reference article This is a summary article; read more in our article on subarachnoid haemorrhage. Summary anatomy ...
Article

Subdural haemorrhage (summary)

Subdural haemorrhage (SDH) is a collection of blood between the dura and the arachnoid layers of the meninges. They are common and can occur in any age range, usually related to a history of head trauma. Prognosis tends to depend on the extent of the bleed and associated mass effect. Reference ...
Article

Multiple sclerosis (summary)

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating condition affecting the central nervous system. Diagnosis requires good history, clinical examination, appropriate imaging, and laboratory tests (cerebrospinal fluid for IgG index and oligoclonal bands). It is typified by "plaques" of disease w...
Article

Cerebral abscess (summary)

Cerebral abscesses represent focal areas of infection within brain parenchyma, usually containing pus and having a thick capsule. They typically have enhancing walls and can mimic a number of other significant pathologies. Reference article This is a summary article; read more in our article o...
Article

Intracranial tumours (summary)

Intracranial tumours comprise a heterogeneous group of tumours. In adult patients, the majority represent metastatic disease with a smaller proportion being primary brain tumours. Metastasis to the brain occurs from lung, breast, melanoma, renal cell and colorectal cancers. Reference article T...
Article

Spinal cord compression (summary)

Spinal cord compression is a surgical emergency and if unrecognised or untreated, can result in irreversible neurological damage and disability. If the spinal roots below the conus medullaris are involved, it is termed cauda equina syndrome. Reference article This is a summary article; read mo...
Article

Skull fractures (summary)

Skull fractures usually occur following significant head injury and may herald underlying neurological pathology. Reference article This is a summary article; we do not have a more in-depth reference article. Summary anatomy cranial vault base of the skull epidemiology accurate incidence...
Article

Optic chiasm

The optic chiasm or chiasma is the midline structure where the nasal (medial) fibres of the optic nerves decussate to continue posteriorly as the optic tracts. It lies in the chiasmatic cistern and along with the pituitary stalk, is completely encircled by the circle of Willis. Gross anatomy R...
Article

Primary uveal malignant melanoma

Malignant uveal melanomas, also referred as choroidal melanomas, are the most common primary tumour of the adult eye 3.  Epidemiology Malignant melanoma of the uvea is the most common primary intraocular malignancy and is predominantly seen in Caucasians 5. The incidence of these tumours incre...
Article

Connatal cyst

Connatal cysts, also known as coarctation of the lateral ventricles or frontal horn cysts, are cystic areas adjacent to the superolateral margins of the body and frontal horns of the lateral ventricles and are believed to represent a normal variant. Epidemiology The incidence is 0.7% in low bi...
Article

Dorsal root ganglion

The dorsal root ganglia are an enlargement of the dorsal root of spinal nerves representing the cell bodies of the primary somatosensory neurons. Gross anatomy Each dorsal root ganglion is oval and proportional in size to its related root. They are usually found just distal to the intervertebr...
Article

Inferolateral trunk

The inferolateral trunk, along with the meningohypophyseal trunk, is a branch of the C4 segment of the internal carotid artery. It is identified in up to 80% of dissection specimens but is less frequently seen on imaging. It is also referred to as the artery to the inferior cavernous sinus, ari...
Article

Recreational drug use (radiological manifestations)

Radiological manifestations of recreational drug use are not infrequently seen as the use of recreational drugs is widespread. Epidemiology Interestingly, recent reports have suggested a decreasing incidence of reported drug use in the general population over the past decade, but it remains th...
Article

Central nervous system vasculitides

Central nervous system (CNS) vasculitides represent a heterogeneous group of inflammatory diseases affecting the walls of blood vessels in the brain, spinal cord, and the meninges. Please refer to the article on vasculitis for a general discussion of that entity.  The aim of this article will ...
Article

Hippocampal sulcus remnant cyst

Hippocampal sulcus remnant cysts are remnants of incomplete involution of the embryonic hippocampal fissure and are an incidental finding.   Epidemiology They are seen in ~25% (range 10-40%) of the adult population 1,3. Radiographic features MRI They consist of small (1-2 mm) cystic lesions...
Article

Phenylketonuria

Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inborn error of metabolism resulting from abnormal metabolism of phenylalanine. If untreated, patients can develop central nervous system impairment.  Epidemiology PKU is inherited as an autosomal recessive disorder with an incidence of 1 in 10,000. It is more commo...
Article

Ping pong skull fracture

Ping pong skull fracture or pond skull fracture refers to a depressed skull fracture of the infant skull caused by inner buckling of the calvarium. It is seen in newborns because of the soft and resilient nature of their bones (like greenstick fractures of long bones) and the fracture line is no...
Article

Transverse sinus

The transverse sinus is one of the dural venous sinuses and drains the superior sagittal sinus, the occipital sinus and the straight sinus, and empties into the sigmoid sinus which in turn reaches the jugular bulb. The two transverse sinuses arise at the confluence of the three aforementioned s...
Article

Cerebral radiation necrosis

Cerebral radiation necrosis refers to necrotic degradation of brain tissue following intracranial or regional radiation either delivered for the treatment of intracranial pathology (e.g. astrocytoma, cerebral arteriovenous malformation) or as a result of irradiation of head and neck tumours (e.g...
Article

White epidermoid cyst

White epidermoids are a rare type of epidermoid cyst that do not follow the usual near-CSF density and signal intensity on CT and MR respectively. To make matters worse the literature uses the term inconsistently, although generally the 'white' refers to the T1 weighted imaging appearance.  Rad...
Article

Nervus intermedius

The nervus intermedius, also known as intermediate nerve of Wrisberg, is a part of the facial nerve (CN VII) which contains somatic sensory, special sensory, and visceral motor (secretomotor) fibres 1. Gross anatomy Nuclei superior salivary nucleus parasympathetic supply to the lacrimal and ...
Article

Geniculate ganglion

The geniculate ganglion contains fibres for taste and somatic sensation and is located in the petrous temporal bone.  Gross anatomy It is located at the first genu of the facial nerve at the anterior most part of the Fallopian canal at the junction between the labyrinthine and tympanic segment...
Article

Kernicterus

Kernicterus, also known as chronic bilirubin encephalopathy, describes the chronic, toxic, permanent sequelae of high levels of unconjugated bilirubin on the central nervous system of infants. It is part of the spectrum of bilirubin-induced neurologic dysfunction, which also includes acute bilir...
Article

Brachial plexus root subdivisions (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for brachial plexus root subdivisions include: Red Tits Don't Come Back Robbie T Drinks Cold Beer Rugby Teams Drink Cold Beers  or Rad Techs Drink Cold Beer Reach To Drink Cold Beer Read That Damn Cadaver Book Really Tired, Don't Care Now (nerve instead of branch) Where the fir...
Article

Brain death

Brain death refers to the irreversible end of all brain activity and is usually assessed clinically. As this diagnosis is consider equivalent with cardiac death in many jurisdictions4, and it allows organ donation for transplantation or withdrawal of life support, most countries have specific re...
Article

Pneumocephalus

Pneumocephalus refers to the presence of intracranial gas, and in the vast majority of cases the gas is air. Rarely a gas forming infection can result in pneumocephalus 4. The term encompasses air in any of the intracranial compartments, and is most commonly encountered following trauma or surge...
Article

Interscalar septum

The interscalar septum is a thin bony plate that separates each turn of the cochlea 1. It radiates from the modiolus laterally to the spiral ligament 2. Vessels (venules, arterioles and capillaries) run within the septum through bony canals 2. Related pathology Partial absence of the intersca...
Article

Idiopathic intracranial hypertension

Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), also historically known as pseudotumour cerebri, is a syndrome with signs and symptoms of increased intracranial pressure but where a causative mass or hydrocephalus is not identified. Terminology The older term benign intracranial hypertension is ge...
Article

Raymond–Roy occlusion classification of intracranial aneurysms

The Raymond–Roy occlusion classification (RROC) is an angiographic classification scheme for grading the occlusion of endovascularly treated intracranial aneurysms 1. It is also known as the Raymond class, Montreal scale, modified Montreal scale or the Raymond Montreal scale. class I: complete ...
Article

Watershed cerebral infarction

Watershed cerebral infarctions, also known as border zone infarcts, occur at the border between cerebral vascular territories where the tissue is furthest from arterial supply and thus most vulnerable to reductions in perfusion.  Epidemiology Watershed cerebral infarction account for 5-10% of ...
Article

Chiari I malformation

Chiari I malformation is the most common variant of the Chiari malformations, and it is characterised by a caudal descent of the cerebellar tonsil (and brainstem in its subtype, Chiari 1.5) through the foramen magnum. Symptoms are proportional to the degree of descent. MRI is the imaging modalit...
Article

Superior anastomotic vein

The superior anastomotic vein (or vein of Trolard) connects the superior sagittal sinus and the superficial middle cerebral vein (of Sylvius). Its size is dictated by the relative size of the superficial middle cerebral vein and the anastomotic vein of Labbé. The vein of Trolard is smaller than...
Article

Superficial middle cerebral vein

The superficial middle cerebral vein (SMCV) (also known as the Sylvian vein) is one of the superficial cerebral veins. It usually passes along the Sylvian fissure posteroanteriorly, it collects numerous small tubutaries which drain the opercular areas around the lateral sulcus. It curves anterio...
Article

Carotid cave

The carotid cave is a potential dural space formed by the redundant distal dural ring on the medial aspect of clinoid segment of internal carotid artery (ICA). It has been reported to be present in ~80% of cadaveric specimens 3. The ICA's clinoid segment is bounded by proximal and distal dural ...
Article

Vein of Labbé

The vein of Labbé, also known as inferior anastomotic vein, is part of the superficial venous system of the brain.  The vein of Labbé is the largest channel that crosses the temporal lobe between the Sylvian fissure and the transverse sinus and connects the superficial middle cerebral vein to t...
Article

Harlequin eye deformity

The harlequin eye deformity may be seen in unilateral (plagiocephaly) or bilateral (brachycephaly) coronal suture synostosis, and refers to the elevation of the superolateral corner of the orbit. The term harlequin eye derives from the appearance of the eyes on a harlequin mask with their exagg...
Article

Haemosiderin cap sign

The haemosiderin cap sign refers to an MR imaging feature in some spinal tumours where a cap of T2 hypointense haemosiderin is above and/or below the tumour due to previous haemorrhage.  It is most often associated with spinal cord ependymomas, being seen in 20-33% of these cases 1. The sign, h...
Article

Haematocrit effect

The haematocrit effect with fluid-fluid levels is the result by layering of heavier cellular elements of blood located dependent to liquid supernatant, and may be seen on CT or MRI. It is most frequently seen in the setting of anticoagulation therapy or coagulopathy. See also signal flare phen...
Article

Posterior fossa tumours

Posterior fossa tumour has a very different differential in an adult as opposed to a child. Adult cerebellar metastases (most common) especially lung cancer and breast cancer also melanoma, thyroid malignancies, and renal cell cancer haemangioblastoma: most common primary brain tumour astr...
Article

Intracranial hypotension

Intracranial hypotension, also known as craniospinal hypotension is defined as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure <7 cm H2O in patients with clinical presentation compatible with intracranial hypotension, which are postural headache, nausea, vomiting, neck pain, visual and hearing disturbances, ...
Article

Medulloblastoma

Medulloblastomas are the most common malignant brain tumour of childhood. They most commonly present as midline masses in the roof of the 4th ventricle with associated mass effect and hydrocephalus. Treatment typically consists of surgical resection, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, with the...
Article

Base of skull fracture

Basilar fractures of the skull, also known as base of skull fractures, are a common form of skull fracture, particularly in the setting of severe traumatic head injury, and involve the base of the skull. They may occur in isolation or often in continuity with skull vault fractures or facial frac...
Article

Transsphenoidal basilar skull fracture

Transsphenoidal basilar skull fractures are a particularly serious type of basilar skull fracture usually occurring in the setting of severe traumatic brain injury and with potential for serious complications including damaging the internal carotid arteries and optic nerves as well as high incid...
Article

Developmental venous anomaly

Developmental venous anomaly (DVA), also known as cerebral venous angioma, is a congenital malformation of veins which drain normal brain. They were thought to be rare before cross-sectional imaging but are now recognised as being the most common cerebral vascular malformation, accounting for ~5...
Article

Arachnoiditis

Arachnoiditis is a broad term encompassing inflammation of the meninges and subarachnoid space. Terminology Arachnoiditis affecting the cauda equina may be referred to as spinal/lumbar adhesive arachnoiditis.  Clinical presentation Lumbar spine arachnoiditis can result in leg pain, sensory c...
Article

Subiculum

The subiculum (plural: subicula) is located in the mesial temporal lobe and is a subdivision of the hippocampal formation, along with Ammon’s horn, the entorhinal cortex and the hippocampus proper. It is the predominant output source of the hippocampal formation. Structure The subiculum occup...
Article

Herpes simplex encephalitis

Herpes simplex (HSV) encephalitis is the most common cause of fatal sporadic fulminant necrotizing viral encephalitis and has characteristic imaging findings.  Two subtypes are recognised which differ in demographics, virus and pattern of involvement. They are 1: neonatal herpes encephalitis ...
Article

Dysmyelinating disorders

Dysmyelinating disorders are a subset of white matter disorders characterised by abnormal myelination 1. They are also known by the term leukodystrophy and are composed of a group of inherited conditions that are characterised by a defective structure and function of the myelin sheath 2. They a...
Article

Hydatid disease

Hydatid cysts result from infection by the Echinococcus, and can result in cyst formation anywhere in the body.  Pathology There are two main species of the Echinococcus tapeworm 1,2: Echinococcus granulosus commoner pastoral: dog is a main host; most common form sylvatic: wolf is a main ...
Article

Ophthalmic artery

The ophthalmic artery (OA) is a branch off the C6 segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA). Gross anatomy Origin OA arises medial to the anterior clinoid process as the ICA exits the cavernous sinus. It originates from the antero- or supero-medial surface of the ICA. Course OA passes in...
Article

Hippocampus

The hippocampus is an important component of the human brain, situated in the temporal lobe. It plays a role in information processing and the reproductive cycle and is involved in Alzheimer disease. Gross anatomy Location The hippocampus lies in the hippocampal sulcus immediately below the f...
Article

Leptomeningeal metastases

Leptomeningeal metastases, also know as carcinomatous meningitis, refers to the spread of malignant cells through the CSF space. These cells can be originated both in primary CNS tumours (e.g. drop-metastases), as well as from distant tumours that have metastasised (haematogenous spread). This ...
Article

Terson syndrome

Terson syndrome refers to vitreous haemorrhage associated with subarachnoid haemorrhage, however some authors include retinal haemorrhage as well. The syndrome is a poor prognostic marker in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage. Epidemiology Terson syndrome has been reported to occur in 13-5...
Article

Pontine haemorrhage

Pontine haemorrhage, a form of intracranial haemorrhage, is most commonly due to long standing poorly controlled chronic hypertension. It carries a very poor prognosis. Epidemiology Primary pontine haemorrhage accounts for ~7.5% (range 5-10%) of haemorrhagic strokes and has an incidence of ~3 ...
Article

Locked in syndrome

Locked in syndrome (LIS) is a condition that can occur as a result of a stroke involving the brainstem; the stroke damages the ventral brainstem, corresponding to the pyramidal bundles. Clinical presentation The infarct is pontine; the midbrain is preserved. The oculomotor nerve III is intact ...
Article

Cortical tubers

Cortical tubers or subcortical tubers (with involvement of the underlying white matter) are a common finding in tuberous sclerosis, present in 95-100% of cases 1. These benign hamartomatous lesions can be epileptogenic foci, and are important to diagnose on imaging (typically MRI) as they can a...
Article

Myelencephalon

The myelencephalon is a secondary vesicle of the neural tube derived from the rhombencephalon. The myelencephalon goes on to become the medulla oblongata, and its CSF-filled cavity, the central canal. However it should be noted that the myelencephalon also contributes to the formation of th...
Article

Medulla oblongata

The medulla oblongata (or simply medulla) is the most caudal part of the brainstem and sits between the pons superiorly and spinal cord inferiorly. It is the transition from the spinal cord to the brain. The medulla contains the vital autonomic cardiovascular and respiratory centers controlling...

Updating… Please wait.
Loadinganimation

Alert accept

Error Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

Alert accept Thank you for updating your details.