Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

2,156 results found
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Neurovascular compression syndromes

Neurovascular compression syndromes are a form of vascular compression disorders where there is usually compression or distortion of a cranial nerve due to a redundant or aberrant vascular structure. Clinical presentation Not all cases of neurovascular contact are clinically symptomatic. Prese...
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Uncal herniation

Uncal herniation is a subtype of transtentorial downward brain herniation, usually related to cerebral mass effect increasing the intracranial pressure. Clinical presentation pupils and globe clinical features 3 initially, an ipsilateral dilated pupil that is unresponsive to light, signifying...
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Dolichoectasia

The term dolichoectasia means dilated and elongated. It is used to characterise arteries that have shown a significant deterioration of their tunica intima (and occasionally the tunica media), weakening the vessel walls and causing the artery to elongate and distend. Epidemiology Dolichoectasi...
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Carotid artery stenosis

Carotid artery stenosis also referred as extracranial carotid artery stenosis, is usually caused by an atherosclerotic process and is one of the major causes of stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) 1.  This article refers to stenosis involving carotid bulb and the proximal segment of inte...
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Foramen caecum

The foramen caecum represents a primitive tract between the anterior cranial fossa and the nasal space. It is located along the anterior cranial fossa, anterior to the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone and posterior to the frontal bone, within the frontoethmoidal suture. It lies at a variable...
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Fabry disease

Fabry disease, also known as Anderson-Fabry disease, is a multisystem disorder resulting from an X-linked inborn error of metabolism. The disease results from genetic mutations which cause decreased or absent expression of hydrolase alpha-galactosidase A, ultimately resulting in abnormal accumul...
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Normal postmortem changes in the central nervous system

Normal central nervous system postmortem changes refers to the expected changes seen in the central nervous system with postmortem imaging. Radiographic features CT loss of grey-white matter differentiation 1,2 intracranial and intravascular gas (due to putrefaction) 1,2 hyperdensity of the...
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Meningeal haemangiopericytoma

Meningeal haemangiopericytomas are rare tumours of the meninges, now considered to be aggressive versions of solitary fibrous tumours of the dura, often presenting as a large and locally aggressive dural mass, frequently extending through the skull vault. They are difficult to distinguish on ima...
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Foramen ovale (skull)

Foramen ovale is an oval shaped opening in the middle cranial fossa located at the posterior base of the greater wing of the sphenoid bone, lateral to the lingula. It transmits the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (CN Vc), accessory meningeal artery, emissary veins between the caverno...
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Hot nose sign

The hot nose sign refers to increased perfusion in the nasal region on nuclear medicine cerebral perfusion studies in the setting of brain death. The absent or reduced flow in the internal carotid arteries is thought to lead to increased flow within the external carotid arteries and subsequent i...
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Trans-sphenoidal basilar skull fracture

Trans-sphenoidal basilar skull fractures are a particularly serious type of basilar skull fracture usually occurring in the setting of severe traumatic brain injury and with potential for serious complications including damaging the internal carotid arteries and optic nerves as well as high inci...
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Pituitary macroadenoma

Pituitary macroadenomas are the most common suprasellar mass in adults, and responsible for the majority of trans-sphenoidal hypophysectomies. They are defined as pituitary adenomas greater than 10 mm in size and are approximately twice as common as pituitary microadenomas.  On imaging, they us...
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Hunter's angle

Hunter's angle (HA) is a term coined from a neurosurgeon, C Hunter Shelden, at Huntington Medical Research Institutes. He placed his comb on the spectrum at approximately a 45° angle and connected several of the peaks. If the angle and peaks roughly corresponded to the 45° angle, the curve was c...
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MR spectroscopy

MR spectroscopy (MRS) allows tissue to be interrogated for the presence and concentration of various metabolites. Grossman and Yousem said "If you need this to help you, go back to page 1; everything except Canavan has low NAA, high choline" 1. This is perhaps a little harsh, however it is fair ...
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2-hydroxyglutarate

2-hydroxyglutarate is a metabolite that accumulates in the brains of patients with IDH-1 mutated (IDH-1 positive) brain tumours, particularly diffuse low-grade gliomas. Although not in widespread clinical use, it is likely that 2-hydroxyglutarate, which resonates at 2.25 ppm, will be able to be ...
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Oligodendroglioma

Oligodendrogliomas are intracranial tumours that account for 5-25% of all gliomas and 5-10% of all primary intracranial neoplasms. On imaging, oligodendrogliomas commonly present as masses involving the cortex or subcortical white matter, with low attenuation on CT, hypointense compared to grey...
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Postcentral gyrus

The postcentral gyrus lies in the parietal lobe, posterior to the central sulcus. It is the site of the primary somatosensory cortex. The somatosensory homunculus is the representation of the distribution of the contralateral body parts on the gyrus. Blood supply The main blood supply is from ...
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Precentral gyrus

The precentral gyrus, also known as the primary motor cortex, is a very important structure involved in executing voluntary motor movements.   Gross anatomy The precentral gyrus is a vertically oriented cerebral convolution situated in the posterior portion of the frontal lobe. It is located i...
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Pilocytic astrocytoma

Pilocytic astrocytomas, also known as juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas, are low-grade, relatively well-defined astrocytomas that tend to occur in young patients. They are considered WHO grade I tumours in the current (2016) WHO classification of CNS tumours and correspondingly have a relatively g...
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Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor encephalitis

Anti N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is an autoimmune encephalitis with antibodies against the NMDA receptors. It is sometimes considered a form of autoimmune limbic encephalitis. It usually affects young patients particularly young females, in about 60% of whom ovarian ter...
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Glioblastoma

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common adult primary intracranial neoplasm (see brain tumours), accounting for 15% of all intracranial neoplasms and approximately 50% of all astrocytomas. GBMs are high grade astrocytomas; they are therefore generally aggressive, largely resistant to therapy, and ...
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14-3-3 protein

14-3-3 proteins are found in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and are currently used to help identify patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD).  Seven distinct 14-3-3 proteins have been found in humans. In diagnosing sCJD, the sensitivity of 14-3-3 protein is 92% and its specifici...
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CSF-venous fistula

CSF-venous fistulas are rare and only recently recognised causes of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. They are a direct communication between the spinal subarachnoid space and epidural veins allowing for the loss of CSF directly into the circulation and can be either iatrogenic or spontaneou...
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Fatal familial insomnia

Fatal familial insomnia is an extremely rare autosomal dominant inherited prion disease 1. Unlike other prion diseases, it does not exhibit spongiform changes. The main pathological findings are gliosis in the inferior olivary nuclei and thalami.
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Non-ketotic hyperglycaemic hemichorea

Non-ketotic hyperglycaemic hemichorea (NHH) is a rare cause of T1 bright basal ganglia and one of the neurological complications of non-ketotic hyperglycaemia, along with non-ketotic hyperosmolar coma and non-ketotic hyperglycaemic seizures.  Epidemiology NHH is most frequently reported in eld...
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Hydatid disease

Hydatid cysts result from infection by the Echinococcus, and can result in cyst formation anywhere in the body.  Pathology There are two main species of the Echinococcus tapeworm 1,2: Echinococcus granulosus commoner pastoral: dog is a main host; most common form sylvatic: wolf is a main h...
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Huntington disease

Huntington disease (HD), also known as Huntington chorea, is one of the trinucleotide repeat disorders with an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by a loss of GABAergic neurons of the basal ganglia, especially atrophy of the caudate nucleus and putamen. Huntington disease is cli...
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Adrenoleukodystrophy

Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is an X-linked inherited metabolic peroxisomal disorder characterised by a lack of oxidation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) that results in severe inflammatory demyelination of the periventricular deep white matter with posterior-predominant pattern and early ...
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Intercaudate distance to inner table width ratio

Intercaudate distance to inner table width ratio (CC/IT) is used in assessing patients with neurodegenerative diseases that affect the caudate nuclei. It is best known for assessing individuals with suspected Huntington disease but is in no way specific for the diagnosis, also seen in other less...
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Frontal horn width to intercaudate distance ratio

Frontal horn width to intercaudate distance ratio (FH/CC) is used in assessing patients with suspected Huntington disease.  On the same axial plane obtained on the ACPC (anterior commissure and posterior commissure) line, the ratio between the distance between the caudate heads (where they are ...
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Intracranial hypotension

Intracranial hypotension, also known as craniospinal hypotension is defined as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure <7 cm H2O in patients with clinical presentation compatible with intracranial hypotension, which are postural headache, nausea, vomiting, neck pain, visual and hearing disturbances, ...
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Mamillopontine distance

Mamillopontine distance is defined as the distance between the inferior aspect of the mammillary bodies to the superior aspect of the pons. In normal subjects, it should be greater than 5.5 mm 1. It is decreased in conditions that either depress the floor of the third ventricle or change the po...
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Glial cells

Glial cells, or neuroglia, are cells that surround the neurones of the central nervous system embedded between them, providing both structural and physiological support 1-3.  Together they account for almost half of the total mass 1 and 90% of all cells of the central nervous system 3. These num...
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Dural venous sinus thrombosis

Dural venous sinus thrombosis is a subset of cerebral venous thrombosis, often coexisting with cortical or deep vein thrombosis, and presenting in similar fashions, depending mainly on which sinus is involved. As such, please refer to the cerebral venous thrombosis article for a general discuss...
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CEC syndrome

CEC syndrome refers to the combination of coeliac disease, epilepsy and bilateral occipital calcifications. This is also known as Gobbi syndrome. Patients with cerebral calcifications and coeliac disease without epilepsy are considered as having an incomplete form of CEC syndrome 1. Epidemiolog...
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Modified Ringertz grading system for diffuse astrocytomas

The modified Ringertz grading system has historically been one of the more frequently used grading systems for diffuse astrocytomas, but has not essentially been replaced by the WHO grading system. Unlike the WHO grading system and St Anne-Mayo grading system (also known as the Dumas-Duport gra...
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Morvan syndrome

Morvan syndrome, also known as Morvan fibrillary chorea, is a rare syndrome thought to be either paraneoplastic or autoimmune in origin. Clinical presentation It is characterised by: neuromyotonia pain hyperhydrosis weight loss severe insomnia hallucinations Pathology Voltage gated pot...
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New-onset refractory status epilepticus

New-onset refractory status epilepticus (or NORSE) is defined as refractory status epilepticus without an obvious cause after initial investigations. It often occurs in previously healthy patients often with no identifiable cause. Subtypes febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) 5 ...
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Hanging and strangulation

Hanging and strangulation are injuries involving constricting pressure applied to the neck. Epidemiology In America hangings are the second most common form of suicide after firearm use. In other parts of the world due to the relative difficulty in accessing firearms, hangings are the most com...
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Hiccups

Hiccups (or hiccoughs), medical term singultus, are an unpleasant phenomenon, experienced by everyone on occasion, and usually self-limiting. However the much rarer intractable chronic form can be extremely debilitating. Epidemiology Hiccups are a symptom that has probably been experienced by ...
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Neurone

Neurones are cells of the central nervous system, located within the grey matter, and responsible for all neurological functions of the brain.  Structure Neurones vary in morphology and size substantially, but all share a number of features 1: a cell body nucleus perikaryon: cytoplasm surro...
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Medulloblastoma (SHH subgroup)

Medulloblastoma - sonic hedgehog (SHH) subgroup tumours are malignant tumours of the central nervous system. They are the second most common medulloblastoma subgroup (after group 4) and are approximately as common as group 3. They are found most commonly in adults and infants, but infrequently i...
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Intracranial arteries (variants)

Intracranial arterial variants, of which there are many, are collectively common. Their clinical significance may be variable but knowledge and recognition of these variants is fundamental, especially if surgical or endovascular treatments (e.g. for acute stroke, aneurysms or other vascular path...
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Claw sign (mass)

The claw sign is useful in determining whether a mass arises from a solid structure or is located adjacent to it and distorts the outline. It refers to the sharp angles on either side of the mass, which the surrounding normal parenchyma forms when the mass has arisen from the parenchyma. As suc...
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Raymond–Roy occlusion classification of intracranial aneurysms

The Raymond–Roy occlusion classification (RROC) is an angiographic classification scheme for grading the occlusion of endovascularly treated intracranial aneurysms 1. It is also known as the Raymond class, Montreal scale or the Raymond Montreal scale. class I: complete obliteration class II: r...
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Basal ganglia calcification

Basal ganglia calcification is common and is seen in approximately 1% of all CT scans of the brain, depending on the demographics of the scanned population. It is seen more frequently in older patients and is considered a normal incidental and idiopathic finding in an elderly patient but should ...
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Cortical vein thrombosis

Cortical vein thrombosis, also known as superficial cerebral vein thrombosis, is a subset of cerebral venous thrombosis involving the superficial cerebral veins besides the dural sinus, often coexisting with deep cerebral vein thrombosis or dural venous sinus thrombosis. It has different clinica...
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Medulloblastoma

Medulloblastomas are the most common malignant brain tumour of childhood. They most commonly present as midline masses in the roof of the 4th ventricle with associated mass effect and hydrocephalus. Treatment typically consists of surgical resection, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, with the...
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Lissencephaly-pachygyria spectrum

The lissencephaly-pachygyria spectrum is useful in describing the spectrum of diseases that cause relative smoothness of the brain surface and includes: agyria: no gyri pachygyria: broad gyri lissencephaly: smooth brain surface It is a basket term for a number of congenital cortical malforma...
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Anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma

Anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas are a more aggressive and less common version of pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA).  In the current (2016) WHO classification of CNS tumours, they are considered WHO grade III lesions (whereas pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas are WHO grade II tumours) 1...
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Blunt cerebrovascular injury

Blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) is an uncommon but serious consequence of blunt trauma to the head and neck. Epidemiology It is often part of multi-trauma with a significant series of blunt trauma CTA reporting an incidence of approximately 1% 3. A large systematic review and meta-analysis...
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Posterior circulation infarction

Posterior circulation infarction (POCI), also referred as posterior circulation stroke, corresponds to any infarction occurring within the vertebrobasilar vascular territory, which includes the brainstem, cerebellum, midbrain, thalami, and areas of temporal and occipital lobes.   Please, refer ...
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Acute basilar artery occlusion

Acute occlusion of the basilar artery may cause brainstem or thalamic ischaemia or infarction. It is a true neuro-interventional emergency and, if not treated early, brainstem infarction results in rapid deterioration in the level of consciousness and ultimately death. Epidemiology Occlusions ...
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Endolymphatic sac tumour

Endolymphatic sac tumours are very rare, locally invasive tumours of endolymphatic sac. Early detection of these tumours is critical, because early surgical intervention may prevent further hearing loss. Endolymphatic sac tumours do not metastasize but are highly locally aggressive.  Epidemiolo...
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Leukaemia (CNS manifestations)

Leukaemia CNS manifestations can be divided into those related to the disease itself and those associated with its treatment. Leukaemias are haematologic malignancies in which occur a proliferation of haematopoietic cells at an undifferentiated or partially differentiated stage of maturation 1. ...
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Multicystic encephalomalacia

Multicystic encephalomalacia (MCE) corresponds to a variant of encephalomalacia commonly seen in neonates in which numerous loculated lacy pseudocysts within the white matter and cortex are present as a result of an extensive brain insult.  It is a common feature observed in the neonatal hypoxi...
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Paraganglioma

Paragangliomas, sometimes called glomus tumours, are rare neuroendocrine tumours arising from paraganglia.  Terminology Paraganglia are clusters of neuroendocrine cells dispersed throughout the body and closely related to the autonomic nervous system, with either parasympathetic or sympathetic...
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Thyroid-associated orbitopathy

Thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) is the most common cause of proptosis in adults and is most frequently associated with Graves disease. On imaging, it is characterised by enlargement of the extraocular muscles' bellies (frequently: inferior rectus > medial rectus  > superior rectus) sparing...
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Intracranial metastatic melanoma

Intracranial metastatic melanoma is the third most common brain metastasis.  For a broad discussion about the primary tumour or brain metastasis in general, please refer to the articles: malignant melanoma cerebral metastases Epidemiology A population-based study of 169,444 cancer patients ...
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Stab wound: overview

Stab wounds are a form of penetrating trauma that may be self-inflicted or inflicted by another person either accidentally or intentionally. They may be caused from a variety of objects and may occur anywhere in the body. Terminology Although commonly caused by a knife as well, slash injuries ...
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AICA-PICA dominance

AICA-PICA dominance refers to the principle that the cerebellar vascular territory supplied by the anterior inferior cerebellar artery and posterior inferior cerebellar artery have a reciprocal arrangement. That is the size of the AICA and the subsequent territory it supplies is inversely propor...
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Intraosseous meningioma

Intraosseous meningioma, also referred to as primary intraosseous meningioma, is a rare subtype of meningioma that accounts for less than 1% of all osseous tumours. They fall under the subgroup of primary extradural meningiomas. Terminology It is important to note that it has been argued by so...
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Superior ophthalmic vein

The superior ophthalmic vein is a prominent vein of the orbit that is seen on CT and may be enlarged or tortuous in various disease entities. Gross anatomy The vein forms at the confluence of several veins within the superior orbit above the medial palpebral ligament: the angular, supratrochle...
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Posterior inferior cerebellar artery

Posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) is one of the three vessels that provide arterial supply to the cerebellum. It is the most variable and tortuous cerebellar artery. Gross anatomy Origin Its origin is highly variable: ~20% arise extracranially, inferior to the foramen magnum 10% a...
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Anterior inferior cerebellar artery

The anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) is one of three vessels that provides arterial blood supply to the cerebellum. It has a variable origin, course and supply, with up to 40% of specimens not having an identifiable standard AICA. The amount of tissue supplied by the AICA is variable (...
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Caroticocavernous fistula

Caroticocavernous fistulas (CCF) represent abnormal communication between the carotid circulation and the cavernous sinus. They can be classified as direct or indirect which are separate conditions with different aetiologies.   Epidemiology Direct CCFs are often secondary to trauma, and as suc...
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Ecchordosis physaliphora

Ecchordosis physaliphora is a congenital benign hamartomatous lesion derived from notochord remnants, usually located in the retroclival prepontine region, but can be found anywhere from the skull base to the sacrum.  Terminology There has been some controversy as to whether intradural chordom...
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Primary CNS lymphoma

Primary CNS lymphomas (PCNSL) are relatively uncommon tumours, accounting for 2.5% of all brain tumours. By definition, there is no co-existing systemic disease at the time of diagnosis, distinguishing it from CNS involvement from systemic lymphoma (secondary CNS lymphoma). On imaging, PCNSL ch...
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Spinal metastases

Spinal metastases is a vague term which can be variably taken to refer to metastatic disease to any of the following: vertebral metastases (94%) may have epidural extension intradural extramedullary metastases (5%) intramedually metastases (1%) Each of these are discussed separately. Below ...
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Pituitary gland

The pituitary gland (or hypophysis cerebri), together with its connections to the hypothalamus, acts as the main endocrine interface between the central nervous system and the rest of the body.  Gross anatomy The pituitary gland sits atop the base of the skull in a concavity within the sphenoi...
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Inferior hypophyseal artery

The inferior hypophyseal artery is a branch from the meningohypophyseal trunk, a branch of the C4 segment of the internal carotid artery. It is usually single on each side and divides into medial and lateral branches contributing to the inferior hypophyseal arterial circle.  The inferior hypoph...
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Meningohypophyseal trunk

The meningohypophyseal trunk, also known as the posterior trunk, is a branch of the C4 segment of the internal carotid artery. In contrast to the inferolateral trunk, it is almost always identified at autopsy and usually visualised on good quality angiography.  It has three branches: inferior ...
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Posterior spinal arteries

The posterior spinal arteries are a pair of arteries that supply the respective ipsilateral grey and white posterior columns of the spinal cord. Gross anatomy The posterior spinal arteries arise from either the posterior inferior cerebellar or vertebral arteries (V3 or V4 segments) and runs t...
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Anterior spinal artery

The anterior spinal artery supplies the anterior portion of the spinal cord and arises from the vertebral artery in the region of the medulla oblongata. The two vertebral arteries (one of which is usually bigger than the other) anastamose in the midline to form a single anterior spinal artery at...
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Perivascular spaces

Perivascular spaces, also known as Virchow-Robin spaces, are pial-lined interstitial fluid-filled spaces in the brain that surround perforating vessels. They do not have a direct connection with the subarachnoid space and in fact, the fluid within them is a slightly different composition as comp...
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Congenital muscular dystrophies (central nervous system manifestations)

Congenital muscular dystrophies (CMD) are a heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive myopathies presenting at birth with hypotonia, delayed motor development, and early onset of progressive muscle weakness, confirmed with a dystrophic pattern on muscle biopsy.  Clinical presentation There is...
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Septic-embolic encephalitis

Septic-embolic encephalitis (SEE), also known as septic-embolic brain abscess, refers to a focal or diffuse brain infection, ischaemic and haemorrhagic damages following an infective thromboembolism from any part of the body. It is usually caused by bacterial infections from endocarditis.  Term...
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Alexander disease

Alexander disease (AD), also known as fibrinoid leukodystrophy, is a rare fatal leukodystrophy, which usually becomes clinically evident in the infantile period, although neonatal, juvenile and even adult variants are recognised. As with many other diseases with variable age of presentation, the...
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Venous distension sign

The venous distension sign is a finding that may be identified on sagittal imaging of the dural venous sinuses which is said to have a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 94% for intracranial hypotension. The sign is positive when there is a convex inferior margin of the midportion of the...
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J-shaped sella

A J-shaped sella is a variant morphology of the sella turcica, whereby the tuberculum sellae is flattened, thus forming the straight edge of the "J". The dorsum sellae remains rounded and forms the loop of the "J". Differential diagnosis Differential diagnosis for a J-shaped sella includes 1,2...
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Preoccipital notch

The preoccipital notch is an indentation approximately 5 cm in front of the occipital pole on the inferolateral boder of the temporal lobe. It is a significant landmark as the occipital lobe lies behind the lateral parietotemporal line, joining the preoccipital notch and the parieto-occipital su...
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Developmental venous anomaly

Developmental venous anomaly (DVA), also known as cerebral venous angioma, is a congenital malformation of veins which drain normal brain. They were thought to be rare before cross-sectional imaging but are now recognised as being the most common cerebral vascular malformation, accounting for ~5...
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Toxoplasmosis vs lymphoma

It is common for radiologists to be asked to distinguish between cerebral toxoplasmosis and primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) in patients with HIV/AIDS. Treatment is clearly different and thus accurate interpretation of CT and MRI is essential. In many instances, the imaging appearance is classic an...
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Measles

Measles is a highly contagious infection caused by the measles virus. Epidemiology The measles vaccine, first introduced in 1963, has significantly reduced the incidences of measles. However, it remains endemic in countries with low vaccination rates 1. Worldwide, it is the leading cause of va...
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Vascular dementia

Vascular dementia, also known as vascular cognitive impairment, is the second most common cause of dementia after the far more common Alzheimer disease. It is primarily seen in patients with atherosclerosis and chronic hypertension and results from the accumulation of multiple white matter lesio...
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Leukoaraiosis

Leukoaraiosis is a radiological term used to describe diffuse white matter changes thought to be related to small vessel disease. Terminology There is no consensus in the literature regarding terminology for leukoaraiosis. The term is often used interchangeably with variations along the lines ...
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CADASIL

CADASIL (cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy ) is an autosomal dominant microvasculopathy characterised by recurrent lacunar and subcortical white matter ischaemic strokes and vascular dementia in young and middle age patients without known ...
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Cerebral amyloidoma

Cerebral amyloidomas are the rarest manifestation of cerebral amyloid deposition, typically appearing as solidly enhancing masses.  Epidemiology Reported numbers are low due to the rarity of this condition, making generalisations about epidemiological features difficult. Generally, cases have ...
Article

Pineal gland

The pineal gland is a small, pine-cone shaped structure considered to be part of the epithalamus. It is unpaired and situated in the midline.  Gross anatomy The pineal gland typically measures around 7 x 6 x 3 mm in size and is situated in a groove between the laterally placed thalamic bodies ...
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Inferior hypophyseal arterial circle

The inferior hypophyseal arterial circle, also known as the inferior capsular arterial rete, is an anastamotic arterial network formed around the base of the pituitary gland by branches from three vessels, themselves branches off the cavernous portion of the carotid artery. They are: inferior h...
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Inferolateral trunk

The inferolateral trunk, along with the meningohypophyseal trunk, is a branch of the C4 segment of the internal carotid artery. It is identified in up to 80% of dissection specimens but is less frequently seen on imaging. It is also referred to as the artery to the inferior cavernous sinus, ari...
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Cerebellum

The cerebellum, meaning "the little brain", sits at the base of the brain in the posterior cranial fossa below the tentorium and behind the brainstem.  Gross anatomy The cerebellum has the following features: three surfaces: anterior (petrosal), superior (tentorial), inferior (suboccipital) ...
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Epithalamus

The epithalamus is a dorsal posterior segment of the diencephalon which includes the habenula, stria medullar is, pineal gland and posterior commissure. Its function is the connection between the limbic system to other parts of the brain.

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